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This is a list of current monarchies. As of 2019, there are some 45+ sovereign states in the world with a monarch as Head of state.

Contents

Types of monarchyEdit

These are roughly the categories which modern monarchies fall into:

  • Other European constitutional monarchies.
  • European mixed monarchies. Liechtenstein and Monaco are constitutional monarchies in which the Prince retains many powers of an absolute monarch. For example, the 2003 Constitution referendum gives the Prince of Liechtenstein the power to veto any law that the Landtag (parliament) proposes and vice versa. The Prince can hire or dismiss any elective member or government employee from his or her post. However, unlike an absolute monarch, the people can call for a referendum to end the Prince's reign. The Prince of Monaco has simpler powers: he cannot hire or dismiss any elective member or government employee from his or her post, but he can select the minister of state, government council and judges.
  • Muslim monarchies. These Muslim monarchs of the Kingdom of Bahrain; the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace; the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan; the State of Kuwait; the Kingdom of Morocco; the Sultanate of Oman; the State of Qatar; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; and the United Arab Emirates generally retain far more powers than their European or Commonwealth counterparts. The same goes for Malaysia, where Islam is the official religion.[1] Absolute monarchs remain in the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace; the Sultanate of Oman; the State of Qatar; and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, while the Kingdom of Bahrain, the State of Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates are classified as mixed, meaning there are representative bodies of some kind, but the monarch retains most of his powers. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Malaysia, and the Kingdom of Morocco are constitutional monarchies, but their monarchs still retain more substantial powers than in European equivalents.
  • East and Southeast Asian constitutional monarchies. The Kingdom of Bhutan; the Kingdom of Cambodia; Empire of Japan; and the Kingdom of Thailand have constitutional monarchies where the monarch has a limited or ceremonial role. Japan and Thailand changed from traditional absolute monarchies into constitutional ones during the twentieth century, while the Kingdom of Bhutan changed in 2008. The Kingdom of Cambodia had its own monarchy after independence from the French Colonial Empire, which was deposed after the Khmer Rouge came into power. The monarchy was subsequently restored in the peace agreement of 1993.
  • Other monarchies. Five monarchies do not fit into one of the above groups by virtue of geography or class of monarchy: the Kingdom of Tonga in Polynesia; Kingdom of Eswatini (Swaziland) and the Kingdom of Lesotho in Africa; and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Vatican City State in Europe. Of these, the Kingdom of Lesotho and the Kingdom of Tonga are constitutional monarchies, while the Kingdom of Eswatini and the Vatican City State are absolute monarchies. The Kingdom of Eswatini is increasingly being considered a diarchy. The King, or Ngwenyama, rules alongside his mother, the Ndlovukati, as dual heads of state originally designed to be checks on political power. The Ngwenyama, however, is considered the administrative head of state, while the Ndlovukati is considered the spiritual and national head of state, a position which has become largely symbolic in recent years. The Pope is the absolute monarch of the Vatican by virtue of his position as head of the Roman Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome; he is an elected rather than hereditary ruler. The Pope need not be a citizen of the territory prior to his election by the cardinals. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not officially a monarchy, but as of 2013 its constitution requires a member of the Kim family to rule the country, and so some consider it to be a de facto absolute monarchy.

Lines of successionEdit

Some of the extant sovereign monarchies have lines of succession that go back to the medieval period or antiquity:

Current monarchiesEdit

Monarchy Official local name Title of Head of State Title of Head of Government Type of Monarchy Succession
Current
constitution
  Principality of Andorra [3] In Catalan; Principat d'Andorra Co-Princes Prime Minister Constitutional Ex officio 1993
  Antigua and Barbuda[4] In English; Antigua and Barbuda Queen Hereditary 1981
  Commonwealth of Australia[5] In English; Commonwealth of Australia Queen Hereditary 1901
  Commonwealth of the Bahamas[6] In English; Commonwealth of the Bahamas Queen Hereditary 1973
  Barbados[7] In English; Barbados Queen Hereditary 1966
  Kingdom of Bahrain[8] In Arabic; Mamlakat al- Baḥrayn King Mixed Hereditary 2002
  Kingdom of Belgium[9] In Dutch; Koninkrijk België

In French; Royaume de Belgique In German; Königreich Belgien

King Constitutional Hereditary 1 1831
  Belize[10] In English; Belize Queen 1981
  Kingdom of Bhutan[11] In Dzongkha; Druk Gyal Khap King 2007
  Kingdom of Cambodia In Khmer; Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa King Hereditary and elective 1993
  Brunei Darussalam[12] In Malay; Negara Brunei Darussalam Absolute Hereditary 1959
  Canada In English and French; Canada Queen Prime Minister Constitutional 1867
  Kingdom of Denmark[13] In Danish; Kongeriget Danmark 1849
  Kingdom of Eswatini[14] In Swazi; Umbuso weSwatini
In English; Kingdom of Eswatini
King Absolute Hereditary and elective 1968
  Grenada[15] In English; Grenada Queen Constitutional Hereditary 1974
  Jamaica[16] In English; Jamaica 1962
  Japan[17] In Japanese; 日本国 (Nippon-koku/Nihon-koku) Emperor 1947
  State of Kuwait[18] In Arabic; Dawlat al-Kuwait Emir Hereditary and elective 1962
  Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan[19] In Arabic; al-Mamlakah al-Urdunīyah al-Hāshimīyah King 1952
  Kingdom of Lesotho[20] In Sotho; Muso oa Lesotho

In English; Kingdom of Lesotho

1993
  Principality of Liechtenstein[21] In German; Fürstentum Liechtenstein Sovereign Prince Hereditary 1862
  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[22] In French; Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

In German; Großherzogtum Luxemburg

In Luxembourgish; Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

Grand Duke 1868
  Malaysia[23] In Malay; Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Elective 1957
  Principality of Monaco[24] In French; Principauté de Monaco

In Monégasque; Principatu de Múnegu

Sovereign Prince Minister of State Hereditary 1911
  Kingdom of Morocco[25] In Arabic; al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya

In Berber; Tageldit n Lmaɣrib

King Prime Minister Constitutional 1631
  Kingdom of the Netherlands[26] In Dutch; Koninkrijk der Nederlanden 1815
  New Zealand [27] In English; New Zealand

In Maori; Aotearoa

Queen 1907
  Kingdom of Norway[28] In Bokmål; Kongeriket Norge

In Nynorsk; Kongeriket Noreg

King 1814
  Sultanate of Oman[29] In Arabic; Salṭanat ‘Umān Absolute 1996
  Independent State of Papua New Guinea[30] In English; Independent State of Papua New Guinea

In Tok Pisin; Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini

In Hiri Motu Papua Niu Gini

Queen Prime Minister Constitutional 1975
  Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis[31] In English; Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis 1983
  Saint Lucia[32] In English; Saint Lucia 1979
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[33] In English; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979
  Solomon Islands In English; Solomon Islands 1978
  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[34] In Arabic; Al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyah as-Sa'ūdiyah Absolute Hereditary and elective 19922
  Kingdom of Spain In Spanish; Reino de España King Prime Minister Constitutional Hereditary 1978
  Kingdom of Sweden[35] In Swedish; Konungariket Sverige 1974
  State of Qatar[36] In Arabic; Dawlat Qaṭar Emir Mixed 2004
  Kingdom of Thailand[37] In Thai; Ratcha Anachak Thai King Constitutional 2017
  Kingdom of Tonga[38] In Tonga; Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga
In English; Kingdom of Tonga
1970
  Tuvalu[39] In English; Tuvalu Queen 1978
  United Arab Emirates[40] In Arabic; Dawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah President Absolute Hereditary and elective 1971
  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[41] In English: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
In Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
In Scots Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn agus Èirinn a Tuath
Queen Constitutional Hereditary 1701
   Vatican City State[42] In Latin; Status Civitatis Vaticanae
In Italian; Stato della Città del Vaticano
Pope President of the Pontifical Commission Absolute Elective 1920

See alsoEdit

FootnoteEdit

^1 Belgium is the only existing popular monarchy – a system in which the monarch's title is linked to the people rather than a state. The title of Belgian kings is not King of Belgium, but instead King of the Belgians. Another unique feature of the Belgian system is that the new monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath.

^2 Basic Law of Saudi Arabia[43][44][45]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://tns.thenews.com.pk/malaysia-islamic-state/#.WRebi4ERWaM
  2. ^ D.M. (2 June 2017). "Why is the Japanese monarchy under threat?". The Economist. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  3. ^ "Europe :: Andorra". CIA The World Factbook.
  4. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda". CIA The World Factbook.
  5. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Australia". CIA The World Factbook.
  6. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: The Bahamas". CIA The World Factbook.
  7. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Barbados". CIA The World Factbook.
  8. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Bahrain". CIA The World Factbook.
  9. ^ "Europe :: Belgium". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 2016-07-10.
  10. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Belize". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13.
  11. ^ "Asia ::Bhutan". CIA The World Factbook.
  12. ^ "Asia ::Brunei Darussalam". CIA The World Factbook.
  13. ^ "Europe::Denmark". CIA The World Factbook.
  14. ^ "Africa:: Eswatini". CIA The World Factbook.
  15. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Grenada". CIA The World Factbook.
  16. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Jamaica". CIA The World Factbook.
  17. ^ "Asia :: Japan". CIA The World Factbook.
  18. ^ "Asia :: Kuwait". CIA The World Factbook.
  19. ^ "Asia :: Jordan". CIA The World Factbook.
  20. ^ "Africa :: Lesotho". CIA The World Factbook.
  21. ^ "Europe:: Liechtenstein". CIA The World Factbook.
  22. ^ "Europe:: Luxembourg". CIA The World Factbook.
  23. ^ "Asia:: Malaysia". CIA The World Factbook.
  24. ^ "Europe:: Monaco". CIA The World Factbook.
  25. ^ "Africa:: Morocco". CIA The World Factbook.
  26. ^ "Europe:: Netherlands". CIA The World Factbook.
  27. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: New Zealand". CIA The World Factbook.
  28. ^ "Europe :: Norway". CIA The World Factbook.
  29. ^ "Asia:: Oman". CIA The World Factbook.
  30. ^ "Asia :: Papua New Guinea". CIA The World Factbook.
  31. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Kitts and Nevis". CIA The World Factbook.
  32. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Lucia". CIA The World Factbook.
  33. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". CIA The World Factbook.
  34. ^ "Asia :: Saudi Arabia". CIA The World Factbook.
  35. ^ "Europe:: Sweden". CIA The World Factbook.
  36. ^ "Asia:: Qatar". CIA The World Factbook.
  37. ^ "Europe:: Thailand". CIA The World Factbook.
  38. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tonga". CIA The World Factbook.
  39. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tuvalu". CIA The World Factbook.
  40. ^ "Asia:: United Arab Emirates". CIA The World Factbook.
  41. ^ "Europe:: United Kingdom". CIA The World Factbook.
  42. ^ "Europe :: Holy See". CIA The World Factbook.
  43. ^ Saudi Arabia - ConstitutionArchived 2007-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Empty Reforms: Saudi Arabia's New Basic Laws May 1992
  45. ^ http://saudinf.com/main/c541.htm The Basic Law - Saudi Arabia Information