List of nonreligious Nobel laureates

This list of nonreligious Nobel laureates comprises laureates of the Nobel Prize who have self-identified as atheist, agnostic, freethinker, or otherwise nonreligious at some point in their lives.[2]

Distribution of atheists, agnostics, and freethinkers in Nobel Prizes between 1901-2000.[1]

Many of these laureates earlier identified with a religion. In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 10.5% of all laureates, and 35% of those in literature, fall in this category.[1] According to the same estimate, between 1901 and 2000, atheists, agnostics, and freethinkers won 8.9% of the prizes in medicine, 7.1% in chemistry, 5.2% in economics, 4.7% in physics, and 3.6% in peace.[1] Alfred Nobel himself was an atheist later in life.[3]

Shalev's book lists many Jewish atheists, agnostics, and freethinkers as religiously Jewish. For example, Milton Friedman, Roald Hoffmann, Richard Feynman, Niels Bohr, Élie Metchnikoff, and Rita Levi-Montalcini are listed as religiously Jewish; however, while they were ethnically and perhaps culturally Jewish, they did not believe in a God and self-identified as atheists.[1]


Year Laureate Reference
2000 Zhores Alferov [4]
1977 Philip Warren Anderson [2][5]
1956, 1972 John Bardeen [2]
1967 Hans Bethe [2][6]
1948 Patrick Blackett [7]
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen [8]
1922 Niels Bohr [2][9][10][11]
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman [12][13][14]
1929 Louis de Broglie [2]
1935 James Chadwick [15]
1903 Marie Curie [2]
1903 Pierre Curie [2]
1933 Paul Dirac [2]
1921 Albert Einstein [2][16] [note 1]
1938 Enrico Fermi [2]
1965 Richard Feynman [2][20]
1980 Val Logsdon Fitch [21]
1925 James Franck [22]
1969 Murray Gell-Mann [23]
2002 Riccardo Giacconi [24]
1973 Ivar Giaver [25][26]
2003 Vitaly Ginzburg [27]
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow [28]
2005 Roy J. Glauber [29]
2004 David J. Gross [30]
2012 Serge Haroche [31]
2013 Peter Higgs [32]
2002 Masatoshi Koshiba [33]
2016 J. Michael Kosterlitz [34]
2000 Herbert Kroemer [35]
1962 Lev Landau [2][36]
1988 Leon M. Lederman [37][38]
2019 Michel Mayor [39]
1907 Albert A. Michelson [40]
2010 Konstantin Novoselov [41]
2019 Jim Peebles [42]
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin [43]
2019 Didier Queloz [44]
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi [2]
2011 Brian Schmidt [45]
1933 Erwin Schrödinger [2][46][47]
1956 William Shockley [2]
1988 Jack Steinberger [48]
1958 Igor Tamm [49][50]
2017 Kip Thorne [51]
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals [2]
1999 Martinus J. G. Veltman [52]
1979 Steven Weinberg [2][53]
1963 Eugene Wigner [2]


Year Laureate Reference
1903 Svante Arrhenius [54]
1997 Paul D. Boyer [55]
1975 John Cornforth [56]
1911 Marie Curie [2]
1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie [57]
1935 Irène Joliot-Curie [58]
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman [59]
1981 Roald Hoffmann [60]
1996 Harold W. Kroto [61]
1987 Jean-Marie Lehn [62]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell [63]
1994 George Andrew Olah [64]
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald [65]
1954 Linus Pauling [66]
1962 Max Perutz [67][68]
1958 Frederick Sanger [69]
2011 Dan Shechtman [70]
2018 George Smith [71]
1993 Michael Smith [72]
1934 Harold Urey [73]

Physiology or MedicineEdit

Year Laureate Reference
1970 Julius Axelrod [74]
1914 Robert Bárány [75]
1958 George Beadle [76]
1989 J. Michael Bishop [77]
2002 Sydney Brenner [78]
1962 Francis Crick [79][80][81][82][83]
1974 Christian de Duve [84]
1945 Howard Florey [85]
1906 Camillo Golgi [86]
1929 Frederick Gowland Hopkins [87]
1963 Andrew Huxley [88]
1965 François Jacob [89]
2003 Paul Lauterbur [90]
1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran [91][92]
1986 Rita Levi-Montalcini [93]
1960 Sir Peter Medawar [94]
1908 Élie Metchnikoff [95]
1965 Jacques Monod [96]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller [97]
2001 Paul Nurse [98]
1904 Ivan Pavlov [99]
1993 Richard J. Roberts [100]
2017 Michael Rosbash [101]
2002 John Sulston [102][103]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi [104]
1973 Nikolaas Tinbergen [105]
1967 George Wald [106]
1962 James Watson [107]


Year Laureate Reference
1976 Milton Friedman [108]
1994 John Harsanyi [109]
1974 Friedrich Hayek [110]
1994 John Forbes Nash, Jr. [111]
1994 Reinhard Selten [112]
1998 Amartya Sen
1978 Herbert A. Simon [113]


Year Laureate Reference
1933 Norman Angell [114]
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson [115]:151
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev [116]
1962 Linus Pauling [66]
1975 Andrei Sakharov [117][118][119]
1986 Elie Wiesel [120]


Year Laureate Reference
1969 Samuel Beckett [121]
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson [122]
1957 Albert Camus [123]
1997 Dario Fo [124]
1932 John Galsworthy [125]
1991 Nadine Gordimer [126]
1971 Pablo Neruda [127]
1936 Eugene O'Neill [115]:125[128]
2005 Harold Pinter [129]
1950 Bertrand Russell [130]
1998 José Saramago [131]
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre [132]
1925 George Bernard Shaw [115]:125
1986 Wole Soyinka [133][134]
1962 John Steinbeck [135][136]
1996 Wisława Szymborska [137]
2018 Olga Tokarczuk [138]
2000 Gao Xingjian [139]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Einstein used many labels to describe his religious views, including "agnostic",[17]:216 "religious nonbeliever",[17]:218 and a believer in "Spinoza's God."[17]:204 He was an active participant in various humanist and Ethical Culture groups, including the First Humanist Society of New York and the Rationalist Association (UK).[18] He disliked labels like "atheist" and "pantheist".[19]. See also Religious and philosophical views of Albert Einstein.


  1. ^ a b c d Shalev, Baruch Aba (2003). "Religion of Nobel prize winners". 100 years of Nobel prizes. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. 57–61. ISBN 9788126902781.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Kimball, John (2015). Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties. CRC Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-4665-7636-0.
  3. ^ Evlanoff, Michael; Fluor, Marjorie (1969). Alfred Nobel: The Loneliest Millionaire. W. Ritchie Press. p. 88.
  4. ^ "Zhores I. Alferov". Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  5. ^ Anderson, Philip W. (2011). More and different notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon. Singapore: World Scientific. p. 177. ISBN 9789814350143. We atheists can . . . argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse.
  6. ^ Brian, Dennis (2008). The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries. Basic Books. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-465-01139-1.
  7. ^ Nye, Mary Jo (2008). "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston (ed.). Complete dictionary of scientific biography. 19. Detroit, Mich.: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-684-31559-1. The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist.
  8. ^ Dean, Chris. "Nicolaas Bloembergen - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10. "When asked about being religious, Bloembergen said No."
  9. ^ Simmons, John (2000). "Niels Bohr and the atom 1885–1962". The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present. New York, N.Y.: Kensington Pub. Corp. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8065-2139-8. His mother was warm and intelligent, and his father, as Bohr himself later recalled, recognized "that something was expected of me." The family was not at all devout, and Bohr became an atheist...
  10. ^ Peterson, Richard (2010). "The Copenhagen spirit of science and birth of the nuclear atom". In Stewart, Melville Y. (ed.). Science and religion in dialogue. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 416. ISBN 978-1-4443-1736-7. ... after a youth of confirming faith Bohr himself was a non-believer.
  11. ^ Favrholdt, David (1994). "Niels Bohr and realism". In Faye, Jan; Folse, Henry J. (eds.). Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 88. ISBN 9789401581066. Planck was religious and had a firm belief in God; Bohr was not, but his objection to Planck's view had no anti-religious motive.
  12. ^ "Percy Williams Bridgman". Retrieved 24 April 2012. He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member.
  13. ^ Maila L. Walter (1990). Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961). Stanford University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-8047-1796-0. Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion.
  14. ^ Ray Monk (2013). Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center. Random House LLC. ISBN 978-0-385-50413-3. In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist.
  15. ^ Brown, Andrew (1997). The neutron and the bomb : a biography of Sir James Chadwick (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-19-853992-6. He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end...
  16. ^ Dukas, Helen; Hoffmann, Banesh, eds. (1989). Albert Einstein, the human side : new glimpses from his archives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-691-02368-7. It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.
  17. ^ a b c Calaprice, Alice, ed. (2000). The expanded quotable Einstein (New ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07021-6.
  18. ^ Dowbiggin, Ian (2003). A merciful end the Euthanasia movement in modern America. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780198035152.
  19. ^ Frankenberry, Nancy K. (2008). The faith of scientists in their own words. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-691-13487-1.
  20. ^ Feynman, Richard P. (2011). Leighton, Ralph (ed.). "What Do You Care What Other People Think?": Further Adventures of a Curious Character. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-393-07981-4. The elders began getting nervous, because I was an avowed atheist by that time
  21. ^ "Val Fitch". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  22. ^ Nachmansohn, David (1979). German-Jewish pioneers in science, 1900–1933. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-387-90402-3. As he said, science was his God and nature his religion. He did not insist that his daughters attend religious instruction classes (Religionsunterricht) in school. But he was very proud of his Jewish heritage..
  23. ^ Wouk, Herman (2010). The language God talks on science and religion (1st ed.). New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-316-09675-1.
  24. ^ Dean, Chris. "Riccardo Giacconi - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: When asked about being religious, Giacconi said "No". Giacconi also said that he doesn't believe in an afterlife, apart from just a rearrangement of molecules and atoms of your body. He also expressed his idea that irrational thinking is very dangerous and wished that scientists should inject more rationality in the world.
  25. ^ Dean, Chris. "Ivar Giaever - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: Interviewer: "Are you religious?" Giaver: "Absolutely not. [...] I'm not religious and I don't like religion. I think religion is to blame for a lot of the ills in this world."
  26. ^ Giaever, Ivar (2016). "I am the smartest man I know" : a Nobel laureate's difficult journey. Singapore. ISBN 978-981-310-917-9. OCLC 949987688.
  27. ^ Vitaly Ginzburg (2003). "Vitaly L. Ginzburg – Autobiography"., The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved March 24, 2012. I am an atheist, that is, I think nothing exists except and beyond nature. Within the limits of my, undoubtedly insufficient knowledge of the history of philosophy, I do not see in fact any difference between atheism and the pantheism of Spinoza.
  28. ^ Victor M. Amela (June 20, 2017). "Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Prize in physics for the electroweak theory" (PDF). La Contra - La Vanguardia. Retrieved 8 October 2018. I am a practising atheist.
  29. ^ Watson, Gill. "Roy J. Glauber - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: Glauber says that he has no feelings towards the intelligent designer approach to science [...] He says that what has been discovered (physical world) is enormously interesting but it tells us nothing about intelligent design and certainly nothing at all about life.
  30. ^ "Athens Macedonian News Agency: News in English, 15-10-01". Retrieved 2020-05-10.: "He also said that he is atheist and humanist..."
  31. ^ Jáuregui, Pablo (2014-03-15). "Si miras el mundo desde la perspectiva científica, no necesitas la religión". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-05-10. Interviewer: Do you think that science and religion can be compatible, or do you consider, like the Darwinist Richard Dawkins, that the scientific vision cannot be reconciled with faith? Haroche: [...] In my case, I am not religious nor do I believe in God, but I have colleagues who are and are capable of maintaining a coexistence between their faith and their scientific work, without this interfering with the quality of their research. But to me this never ceases to amaze me, because I think that if you look at the world from a scientific perspective, you don't need religion.
  32. ^ Sample, Ian (17 November 2007). "The god of small things". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013. The name has stuck, but makes Higgs wince and raises the hackles of other theorists. "I wish he hadn't done it," he says. "I have to explain to people it was a joke. I'm an atheist, but I have an uneasy feeling that playing around with names like that could be unnecessarily offensive to people who are religious."
  33. ^ Dean, Chris. "Masatoshi Koshiba - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: Interviewer: Are you religious?" Koshiba: "/(You Mean) God?... I don't know... You know... science deals only (with?) those things which you can confirm by observation or by experiment...God doesn't come into that (category). So God...the problem of God, is not a problem in science."
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016". Retrieved 2020-05-10. I was a nominal church going Christian until I left home for Cambridge University on a scholarship when, to my great relief, I could drop all religion and become my natural atheist self.
  35. ^ Dean, Chris. "Herbert Kroemer - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: Interviewer: "You have no belief in a afterlife?" Kroemer: "That's correct." Interviewer: "...You don't see the evidence of a designer?" Kroemer: "No, I don't." Interviewer: "Could you say more about it?" Kroemer: "I think it's just wishful thinking."
  36. ^ Schaefer, Henry F. (2008). Science and Christianity : conflict or coherence?. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9742975-0-7. I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century.
  37. ^ Dan Falk (2005). "What About God?". Universe on a T-Shirt: The Quest for the Theory of Everything. Arcade Publishing. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-55970-733-6. "Physics isn't a religion. If it were, we'd have a much easier time raising money." - Leon Lederman
  38. ^ Babu Gogineni (July 10, 2012). "It's the Atheist Particle, actually". Postnoon News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012. Leon Lederman is himself an atheist and he regrets the term (God particle), and Peter Higgs who is an atheist too, has expressed his displeasure, but the damage has been done!
  39. ^ Domínguez, Nuño (2019-10-09). "Michel Mayor: "There is no place for God in the Universe" | Science". El País. Retrieved 2020-05-10. The religious vision says that God decided that there should only be life here on Earth and created it. Scientific facts say that life is a natural process. I think the only answer is to research and find the answer, but for me there is no place for God in the universe.
  40. ^ Barrow, John D. (2000). The book of nothing : vacuums, voids, and the latest ideas about the origins of the universe (1st Vintage Books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-375-72609-5.
  41. ^ Eremoenko, Alexey (9 October 2014). "Q&A: Russian Nobel Laureate on Fun, God and the 'Ideal Physicist'". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  42. ^ "Jim Peebles - Session II". 5 April 2002. Retrieved 2020-05-10. Smeenk: I wanted to ask you another I guess more personal question. I don't know if you hold any religious views, but if you do, how do those interact with your research work? Peebles: I don't. Actually, I guess the term I like to use is a convinced agnostic. I get offended by people who try to give me religious arguments. Why should I pay attention to these arguments? But I also get a little offended by people who tell me, "Of course, religion is bunk." How do you know? It's just an entirely different field of operation and actually I do like the words and music of some religions, so I have sat with pleasure through services - aside from the sermon. So no, I don't have any religious feelings at all.
  43. ^ Bernard Valeur, Jean-Claude Brochon (2001). New Trends in Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical and Life Sciences. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-540-67779-6. Jean and Francis Perrin held similar political and philosophical ideas. Both were socialists and atheists.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  44. ^ Bodkin, Henry (2019-10-08). "Cambridge University planet hunter says mankind could find alien life in 30 years as he wins Nobel prize". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2020-05-10. He (Bodkin) added that, although not a believer himself, “Science inherited a lot from religions”.
  45. ^ "Very different paths to God". 2009-12-22. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: "I have been described by one of my colleagues as a "militant agnostic" with my tagline, "I don't know, and neither do you!". I take this hard-line, fence-sitting position because it is the only position consistent with both my scientific ethos and my conscience."
  46. ^ Moore, Walter (1994). A life of Erwin Schrödinger. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-521-46934-0. Schopenhauer often called himself an atheist, as did Schrodinger, and if Buddhism and Vedanta can be truly described as atheistic religions, both the philosopher and his scientific disciple were indeed atheists. They both rejected the idea of a "personal God" …
  47. ^ Diem-Lane, Andrea (2008). Spooky Physics: Einstein vs. Bohr. MSAC Philosophy Group. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-56543-080-8. In terms of religion, Schrodinger fits in the atheist camp. He even lost a marriage proposal to his love, Felicie Krauss, not only due to his social status but his lack of religious affiliation. He was known as a freethinker who did not believe in god.
  48. ^ Hargittai, I.; Hargittai, M. (2006). Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists. Imperial College Press. p. 749. ISBN 978-1-86094-885-5. Jack Steinberger: I'm now a bit anti-Jewish since my last visit to the synagogue, but my atheism does not necessarily reject religion.
  49. ^ Ginzburg, V. L. (2005). About Science, Myself and Others. CRC Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-7503-0992-9. Nowadays, when we are facing manifestations of religious and. more often, pseudoreligious feelings, it is appropriate to mention that Igor Evgenevich was a convinced and unreserved atheist.
  50. ^ Feinberg, E. L. & Leonidov, A. V. (2011). Physicists: Epoch and Personalities (2 ed.). World Scientific. p. 86. ISBN 9789812834164.
  51. ^ Carroll, Rory (2013-06-21). "Kip Thorne: physicist studying time travel tapped for Hollywood film". the Guardian. Retrieved 2020-05-12. Thorne grew up in an academic, Mormon family in Utah but is now an atheist. "There are large numbers of my finest colleagues who are quite devout and believe in God, ranging from an abstract humanist God to a very concrete Catholic or Mormon God. There is no fundamental incompatibility between science and religion. I happen to not believe in God.
  52. ^ Dean, Chris. "Martinus J.F. Veltman - Science Video Interview". Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 2020-05-10.: Interviewer: "What is your view about God and religion?" Veltman: "We are living in a totally ridiculous world. We have all kinds of things from horoscopes to Zen Buddhism to faith healers to religions to what have you. [...] "So for science it's very essential that we take a position that through the scientific method that keeps us away of all the irrationalities that seem to dominate human activities. And I think we should stay there. And the fact that I'm busy in science has little or nothing to do with religion. In fact I protect myself, I don't want to have to do with religion. Because once I start with that I don't know where it will end. But probably I will be burned or shot or something in the end. I don't want anything to do with it. I talk about things I can observe and other things I can predict and for the rest you can have it."
  53. ^ Azpurua, Ana Elena (March 24, 2008). "In Search of the God Particle". Newsweek. p. 3. Retrieved March 25, 2008. I don't believe in God, but I don't make a religion out of not believing in God. I don't organize my life around that.
  54. ^ Stein, Gordon, ed. (1985). The Encyclopedia of unbelief. 1 (Nachdr. ed.). Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-87975-307-8. Svante Arrhenius (I859-I927), recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry (I903), was a declared atheist...
  55. ^ Boyer, Paul D. (March 2004), "A Path to Atheism", Freethought Today, Freedom From Religion Foundation, 21 (2), archived from the original on June 3, 2011, retrieved March 16, 2010.
  56. ^ Kroto, Harold (2015). "Sir John Cornforth ('Kappa'): Some Personal Recollections". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 68 (4): 697–698. doi:10.1071/CH14601.
  57. ^ Perrin, Francis (2008). "Joliot, Frédéric". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 151. Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life.
  58. ^ Perrin, Francis (2008). "Joliot-Curie, Irène". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 157. Retrieved 16 October 2015. It was to her grandfather, a convinced freethinker, that Irène owed her atheism, later politically expressed as anticlericalism.
  59. ^ "Herbert Hauptman". The Telegraph. 27 Oct 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2015. Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race."
  60. ^ Cardellini, Liberato (October 2007). "Looking for Connections: An Interview with Roald Hoffmann" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Education. 84 (10): 1631–1635. Bibcode:2007JChEd..84.1631C. doi:10.1021/ed084p1631. Retrieved 15 October 2015. atheist who is moved by religion.
  61. ^ Harold W. Kroto (1996). "Harold Kroto – Autobiography"., The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved March 24, 2012. I am a devout atheist – nothing else makes any sense to me and I must admit to being bewildered by those, who in the face of what appears so obvious, still believe in a mystical creator.
  62. ^ Masood, Ehsan (22 July 2006). "Islam's reformers". Prospect. Retrieved 15 October 2015. It is a scene I won’t forget in a hurry: Jean-Marie Lehn, French winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry, defending his atheism at a packed public conference at the new Alexandria Library in Egypt
  63. ^ "Peter Mitchell – Biographical". The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  64. ^ "Today, I consider myself, in Thomas Huxley's terms, an agnostic. I don’t know whether there is a God or creator, or whatever we may call a higher intelligence or being. I don’t know whether there is an ultimate reason for our being or whether there is anything beyond material phenomena. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify (disprove) them. For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist. This is a conclusion reached by many scientists." George Olah, A Life of Magic Chemistry
  65. ^ Kocka, edited by Jürgen (2010). Work in a Modern Society the German Experience in European-American Perspective. New York: Berghahn Books, Inc. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-84545-797-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  66. ^ a b Pauling, Linus; Ikeda, Daisaku; Gage, Richard L. (1992). In quest of peace and the century of life : a dialogue between Linus Pauling and Daisaku Keda. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-86720-278-6.
  67. ^ "Max Perutz Interview 2". The Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  68. ^ "Perutz rubbishes Popper and Kuhn". TSL EDUCATION LTD. 28 November 1994. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Dr Perutz, said: "It is one thing for scientists to oppose creationism which is demonstrably false but quite another to make pronouncements which offend people's religious faith -- that is a form of tactlessness which merely brings science into disrepute. My view of religion and ethics is simple: even if we do not believe in God, we should try to live as though we did."
  69. ^ Hargittai, István; Hargittai, Magdolna (2002). Candid science II: conversations with famous biomedical scientists (Verschiedene Aufl. ed.). London: Imperial College Press. pp. 73–83. ISBN 1-86094-288-1.
  70. ^ Jha, Alok (2013). "Dan Shechtman: 'Linus Pauling said I was talking nonsense'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-05-13. Interviewer: Do you believe in a god? Shechtman: No.
  71. ^ Smith, George. "Author Archive: George Smith". Mondoweiss. United States. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  72. ^ Smith, Michael (1993). "Michael Smith – Biographical". Retrieved 15 October 2015. My only prizes from the Sunday School were "for attendance", so I presume my atheism, which developed when I left home to attend university, although latent, was discernible.
  73. ^ Wysong, Randy L. (1976). The creation-evolution controversy (7th print ed.). Midlanding, Michigan: Inquiry Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-918112-02-6.
  74. ^ Craver, Carl F. (2008). "Axelrod, Julius". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 122.: "Although he became an atheist early in life and resented the strict upbringing of his parents’ religion, he identified with Jewish culture and joined several international fights against anti-Semitism."
  75. ^ Robert W. Baloh (2002). "Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction". Neurology. 58 (7): 1094–1099. doi:10.1212/WNL.58.7.1094. PMID 11940699. Retrieved 14 May 2012. Although anti-Semitism was again on the rise in Austria, it is unlikely that anti-Semitism was a factor in the hostility toward Bárány because he was an agnostic who did not believe in Zionism.
  76. ^ George Beadle, An Uncommon Farmer: The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. CSHL Press. 2003. p. 273. ISBN 9780879696887. Beadle's views on this occasion were somewhat more tempered than David's characterization of him as a "vehement atheist," and from his earliest days "intolerant of religion and other forms of superstition.
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  126. ^ Bazin, Nancy Topping, ed. (1990). Conversationwith Nadine Gordimer. London: University Press of Mississippi. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-87805-445-9. I’m an atheist. I wouldn’t even call myself an agnostic. I am an atheist. But I think I have a basically religious temperament, perhaps even a profoundly religious one.
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  137. ^ {{cite web |url= |title= Ateizm. Definicja, symbole. Ateiści w Polsce |author= Onet.Religia |year= 2020 |location=, [[] |access-date= July 26, 2020 |quote= … Według badań Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego z 2015 roku, w Polsce żyje 2,6 proc. Zadeklarowanych ateistów. Wśród nich są Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Piotr Najsztub, Wojciech Smarzowski, Kuba Wojewódzki, Jerzy Urban, Janusz Palikot, Jan Hartman, Maria Peszek, Robert Biedroń, Magdalena Środa, Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, Kazimierz Kutz czy Roman Polański. Ateistami byli również Kora Jackowska, Zbigniew Religa, Jacek Kuroń, Jerzy Kawalerowicz, Tadeusz Różewicz, Stanisław Lem, Wisława Szymborska, Witold Gombrowicz i Marek Edelman.}}
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