List of non-water floods

Most non-water floods (excluding mudflows, oil spills, or volcanic lahars) involve storage facilities suddenly releasing liquids, or industrial retaining reservoirs releasing toxic waste. Storage facility incidents usually cover a small area but can be catastrophic in cities. For example, a molasses tank failure in 1919 led to the Great Molasses Flood that killed 21 people in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.[1]

Industrial retaining reservoirs are often used to store toxic waste, and when they fail they can flood a large area, causing physical and environmental damage. The 2010 failure of a reservoir at the Ajka alumina plant in Hungary flooded a small town and killed several, while the cleanup from the 2008 Kingston Fossil Plant spill in Tennessee, U.S. took several years and killed at least 40 workers involved.


List of non-water floods
Name Date Composition of flood Location
London Beer Flood October 1814 Beer London, England
Dublin whiskey fire June 1875 Whiskey Dublin, Ireland
Great Molasses Flood January 1919 Molasses Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Rockwood & Company shipping department fire May 1919 Molten chocolate and butter New York City, U.S.
Church Rock uranium mill spill July 1979 Uranium tailings Church Rock, New Mexico, U.S.
Wisconsin butter flood May 1991 Butter, cheese, and processed meat Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.
Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill December 2008 Coal byproducts mixed with water Kingston, Tennessee, U.S.
Ajka alumina plant accident October 2010 Bauxite residue mixed with water (caustic sludge, red in color) Ajka, Hungary
Mariana dam disaster November 2015 Tailings mixed with water Mariana, Brazil
Pepsi fruit juice flood April 2017 Various juices Lebedyan, Russia
Levira Distiller wine flood September 2023 Red wine São Lourenço do Bairro, Portugal


  1. ^ "The Great Molasses Flood of 1919: A Deadly Disaster in Boston". The Collector. 26 April 2023. Retrieved 18 June 2024.