List of newspapers in Morocco

Newspapers in Morocco are primarily published in Arabic and French, and to a lesser extent in Berber, English, and Spanish. Africa Liberal, a Spanish daily, was the first paper published in the country which was launched in 1820.[1] Al Maghrib was the first Arabic newspaper of the country, and was established in 1886.[1]

In 1999, the number of French language newspapers distributed in the country was 130,000 while it was 62,000 in 1981.[2] As of 2013, 71% of the papers were published in Arabic and 27% in French.[3]

History

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Front page of El Eco de Tetuan of May 2, 1921.

The first newspaper to appear in Morocco was Pedro Antonio de Alarcón's El Eco de Tetuan, which published one edition in March 1860.[4] Later in 1860, two Spanish soldiers fighting in the Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60) launched El Noticiero (periodical), which published 89 editions before ceasing in 1861.[4] The period after the 1880 Madrid Conference saw the rise of al-Moghreb al-Aksa, printed in Spanish by G.T. Abrines, and the Times of Morocco, printed in English by Edward Meakin then later by his son James;[5][6] these two papers would later join and become the Tangier Gazette.[7][8]

Al Maghrib was the first Arabic newspaper of the country, and was established in 1886.[9] In 1908 the Sultan launches "Lissan Al Maghrib" the first state owned official media in Arabic.

El Eco Mauritano (1885–1930) was a political, literary, and general interest periodical founded by Isaac Toledano and Isaac Laredo of Tangier and Agustín Lugaro of Gibraltar.[10]

Following the bombardment and invasion of Casablanca in 1907, a French daily called La Vigie Marocaine was founded at the behest of General Albert d'Amade in 1908.[11][12] With a conservative, colonial editorial line that rejected any notion of Moroccan sovereignty and supported the idea of making Morocco an extension of French Algeria,[11] it became one of the most important French publications in the period of the French Protectorate.[13][11]

Another major publication of the early colonial period was L'Echo du Maroc, which was published in 4 editions: one for Rabat, one for Casablanca, one for the south, and one for the north.[11] In 1919, Pierre Mas began Presse Mas, his media empire in Morocco, with his purchase of L'Echo du Maroc.[11]

Due to the French colonial authorities' censorship of newspapers in Arabic, Muhammad Hassan al-Wazzani founded L'Action du Peuple, a Moroccan nationalist newspaper published in French.[11]

Press in Arabic

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Al Maghrib was the first Arabic newspaper of the country, and was established in 1886.[9] It was a local media, based in Tetouan.

The first national newspaper to be published in Arabic by Moroccans was an-Nafahat az-Zakiya fi l-Akhbar il-Maghrebiya (النفحات الزكية في الأخبار المغربية The Pleasant Notes in the News of Morocco) in 1889.[14]

 
Logo of es-Saada (السعادة), an arabophone Moroccan newspaper supported by the French government.[15]

es-Saada (السعادة Happiness) was arabophone newspaper promoting the French position on events in Morocco published at the French Legation in Tangier,[11] first appearing in 1904.[7] With French encouragement, supporters of Abdelaziz founded as-Sabaah (الصباح) in Tangier in 1904; its editor was an Algerian named Idriss Khubzawi and it published 52 issues.[16][17] Idhar al-Haqq (إظهار الحق), edited by a nationalist figure named Abu Bakr Ben Abd al-Wahab, was also founded in Tangier in 1904.[18][19] After the 1906 Algeciras Conference, the Sufi leader Muhammad Bin Abd al-Kabiir al-Kataani started publishing a periodical entitled at-Taa'oon (الطاعون The Plague) in response to the colonial press and European colonialism in general.[7]

In 1908, Sultan Abd al-Hafid founded Lisan al-Maghrib (لسان المغرب), an arabophone newspaper funded by the Moroccan government;[7] it was run by two Lebanese brothers, Faraj-Allah and Artur Namor,[20] and it famously printed the 1908 draft constitution, as well as open letters to Abdelaziz and then Abd al-Hafid.[21]

In 1909, the Spanish started publishing an arabophone newspaper called Telegraph ar-Rif (تلغراف الريف),[22] then a newspaper called al-Haqq (الحق) in 1911 to push their position.[22] The newspaper at-Taraqqi (الترقي) also presented a colonial perspective and was published in Tangier in 1913.[22][23] They were followed by al-Islah (الإصلاح), a quasi-official Spanish newspaper published in 1916.[23] These publications were similar to es-Saada in their objective.[23]

The first arabophone newspaper in Casablanca was published in 1912: al-Akhbar al-Maghrebiya (الأخبار المغربية), financed by Badar ad-Diin al-Badrawi;[23][22] in Marrakesh, al-Janoob al-Maghrebi (الجنوب المغربي) in 1927.[23]

Among the first colonial policies promulgated by the French authorities under the French protectorate was a policy designed to censor the Moroccan press;[11] Moroccan newspapers, whether Jewish or Muslim, had to receive advanced authorization from the French authorities, while European publications were not required to do this.[11] The French authorities forbade Moroccan nationalists from publishing in areas under French control, especially in Arabic.[11][24]

Akhbar al-Maghreb (أخبار المغرب) was published in Darija in 1915.[23]

an-Nidthaam (النظام) was published by an Egyptian in 1924 in Tangier.[23]

Akhbar Teleghraphiya (أخبار تلغرافية), covering national and international news as well as the affairs of al-Majlis al-Baladi and meant to "disinform"[25] its Moroccan audience, was published in Fes and edited by Tahar Mahawi Zidan.[25]

al-Ittihaad al-Ghanami (الاتحاد الغنمي), syndicated throughout the Maghreb, was first published in Tunis 1929[23]

al-Ittihaad (الاتحاد)[26] was published in 1927 and covered all the regions of the north under Spanish control.[23]

 
al-Wiḥdat al-Maghrebiya was one of a number of Moroccan newspapers tied to political parties.[27][11]

In the north appeared Mohammed Daoud's journal as-Salaam (السلام),[28] the newspaper al-Hayaat (الحياة), followed by an explosion of periodicals including al-Wihdat al-Maghrebiya (الوحدة المغربية) published by Muḥammad al-Makkī an-Nāṣirī,[11] al-Hurriya (الحرية) published by Abdelkhalek Torres,[11] ar-Rif (الريف), and others.[23] Al-Atlas (الأطلس)[29] was the mouthpiece of the Moroccan Action Committee (كتلة العمل الوطني) and expressed the views of the Moroccan Nationalist Movement.[11]

The journal Majallat al-Maghreb (مجلة المغرب) was directed by Mohamed Ben Saleh Maysa an Algerian resident of Morocco working in Rabat.[23][30][31][32]

 
Masthead of Said Hajji's Al-Maghrib.[11]

In 1937, Said Hajji of Salé founded Al-Maghrib (المغرب Morocco), a newspaper critical of French colonialism that was often censored.[11]

The newspaper Al-Alam, speaking for the Istiqlal Party, was founded in 1946.[33]

Muhammad Hassan al-Wazzani's ar-Ra'i al-'Aam (الرأي العام)—the mouthpiece of Democratic Independence Party, which had recently splintered from the Istiqlal Party—published its first issue on April 12, 1947.[34]

The National Union of Popular Forces founded Al Muharrir, which published its first edition December 1964.[35] It was edited by Omar Benjelloun until his assassination in 1975.[35]

Jewish press

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Salomon Benaïoun's el Horria / La Liberté in its Judeo-Arabic version, written with the Hebrew alphabet.

In 1883, Abraham Lévy-Cohen founded the first francophone newspaper in Morocco, Le Réveil du Maroc,[36] to spread French language and culture among the Moroccan Jews.[7] A man named Salomon Benaïoun started Kol Israel (1891), Mébasser Tov (1894-1895), and Moghrabi (1904), though these periodicals were short-lived.[37] Benaïoun also founded el Horria / La Liberté (1915-1922), which covered Jewish interests in Morocco in two different editions: one in Judeo-Arabic and one in French.[37][38] Adelante (1929-1932) was an independent hispanophone bimonthly periodical.[37]

In Casablanca, the Hadida brothers edited Or Ha’Maarav, or La Lumiere du Maroc (1922–1924), a Zionist[37] newspaper written in Judeo-Arabic with Hebrew script, which ran from 1922 until the French authorities shut it down in 1924.[39][37] It was followed by L'Avenir Illustré (1926–1940) a nationalist, pro-Zionist francophone newspaper, edited by Jonathan Thurz[40][37] as well as l'Union Marocaine (1932-1940), a francophone newspaper in line with emancipatory views of the AIU, edited by Élie Nattaf.[41][37] L'Avenir Illustré and L'Union Marocaine were both shut down by the Vichy regime.[37]

List of newspapers

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Below is a list of newspapers published in Morocco:

Title Type Publisher Founded Website Lang Editor Affiliation Circ.
The Moroccan Times     TMT 2003 https://themoroccantimes.com/ En/
Hespress     Hespress 2003 https://en.hespress.com/ En/Ar/
Maroc Agence Presse     Map 31/5/1959 https://www.map.ma/en/ En/Ar/Sp/Taz
Morocco World News     MWN 2011 www.moroccoworldnews.com En/Ar/Fr Samir Bennis and Adnane Bennis Independent NA
24ALA24     2015 www.24ala24.info Ar Independent NA
Morocco Business News     2008 www.moroccobusinessnews.com En Independent NA
MBC Times     2013 www.mbctimes.com En Independent NA
USFP Oujda     2021 usfpoujda.ma En Independent NA
Morocco Newsline     New Commerce Group 2007 www.morocconewsline.com En Independent NA
La Dépêche marocaine     1905 NA Fr None NA
Al Alam     1946 alalam.ma Ar Istiqlal
Attajdid     attajdid.ma Ar Attawhid Wal Islah 5.120
Al Ittihad Al Ichtiraki     1983 Ar Socialist Union of Popular Forces 15.425
Liberation     1964 libe.ma Fr Socialist Union of Popular Forces 15.425
Al Bayane     1971 albayane.ma Fr Party of Progress and Socialism 2.567
Bayane Al Yaoume     bayanealyaoume.ma Ar Party of Progress and Socialism
L'Economiste     1991 leconomiste.com Fr Independent 15.690
La Nouvelle Tribune     lanouvelletribune.com Fr Party of Progress and Socialism 7.863
La Vie Eco     lavieeco.com Fr Independent 14.279
Le Matin     Maroc Soir Group 1972 lematin.ma Fr Royalist 60.000[42]
Assabah     2000 assabah.press.ma Ar Independent 125.000
Al Bidaoui     Ar Independent 12.445
Al Mounaataf     almounaataf.ma Ar National Rally of Independents
Al Ahdath Al Maghribia     1998 ahdath.info Ar 48.250
Assahifa Al Maghribia Weekly Ar 22.534
Aujourd'hui Le Maroc     2001 aujourdhui.ma Fr 20.000
Al Ayam Weekly alayam.ma Ar 29.678
L'Opinion     1965 lopinion.ma Fr Socialist Union of Popular Forces 29.678
La Gazette Du Maroc     lagazettedumaroc.com Fr 5.787
Finances News Hebdo     financesnews.press.ma Fr
Tawiza   Br
La Mañana     Maroc Soir Group Sp Royalist
Al Mountakhab     almountakhab.com Ar Independent
Annoukhba     annoukhba.info Ar Independent
Al Haraka     harakamp.org.ma Ar Popular Movement
Assahra Al Maghribiya     Maroc Soir Group 1989 almaghribia.ma Ar Royalist
L'Independent     Fr
Tanja7   www.tanja7.com Ar Independent
Les Nouvelles Du Nord     www.lesnouvellesdunord.com Fr Independent
Le Journal de Tanger     lejournaldetanger.com Fr Independent 7.000
Morocco Board News   MoroccoBoard News Service moroccoboard.com En Independent
Almassae     2006 almassaa.com Ar Independent 170.000
Assahifa     Ar Independent
Assabahia (disfunct, 2009)     Maroc Soir Group Ar Independent 35.000
Marocpress     2004 marocpress.ma Ar Independent NA
Khbirate     2013 khbirate.com Ar Independent NA

[43]

KooraMag     2004 kooramag.com Ar Independent NA
Oujda Portail     2013 oujdaportail.net Ar Independent NA
alamriyadi alamriyadigroupe 1997 www.alamriyadi.com AE independent NA

Legend

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Defunct daily newspapers

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These newspapers are no longer published:

Title Type Publisher Founded Website Lang Editor Affiliation Circ.
Morocco Mirror     2012 www.moroccomirror.com En Independent NA

See also

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References

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  1. ^ a b El Mustapha Lahlali (6 June 2011). Contemporary Arab Broadcast Media. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7486-8864-7. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  2. ^ Moha Ennaji (20 January 2005). Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-0-387-23979-8. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  3. ^ Hamza Tayebi (July 2013). "Print Journalism in Morocco: From the Pre-colonial Period to the Present Day". Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 4 (6). Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  4. ^ a b Yabiladi.com. "Histoire : Quand l'Espagne introduisit le journalisme au Maroc à travers "El Eco de Tetuan"". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  5. ^ "El Rincón de Sidi Ifni - Cien años de prensa española en Marruecos". www.sidi-ifni.com. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  6. ^ Tayebi, Hamza. "Print Journalism in Morocco: From the Pre-colonial Period to the Present Day" (PDF). Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 4 (6). doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n6p497.
  7. ^ a b c d e Miller, Susan Gilson (2013). A History of Modern Morocco. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 84–85. doi:10.1017/cbo9781139045834. ISBN 978-1-139-04583-4.
  8. ^ "Tangier gazette". Library of Congress.
  9. ^ a b El Mustapha Lahlali (6 June 2011). Contemporary Arab Broadcast Media. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7486-8864-7. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  10. ^ "The Press from the Tangier International: the myth of the Strait". Atalayar. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "تاريخ الصحافة العربية - المغرب". الجزيرة الوثائقية (in Arabic). 11 May 2016.
  12. ^ "Mort de Pierre Mas magnat de la presse française sous le protectorat". Le Monde.fr (in French). 10 December 1970. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  13. ^ "La Vigie marocaine" (in French). Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  14. ^ "مجلات مغربية توقفت عن الصدور". مغرس. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  15. ^ "صفحات من تاريخ الصحافة المغربية". مغرس. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  16. ^ "دعوة الحق - الصحافة المغربية في الموسوعة العربية الميسرة". www.habous.gov.ma. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  17. ^ "السلطانُ المغربي المخلوع". Taroudant News | تارودانت نيوز (in Arabic). Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  18. ^ "دعوة الحق - الثقافة العربية المعاصرة في شمال المملكة المغربية -3-". www.habous.gov.ma. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  19. ^ أرسلان, شكيب. مدونة أحداث العالم العربي ووقائعه 1800 - 1950 (in Arabic). ktab INC.
  20. ^ "مائة عام على مشروع دستور 1908." مغرس. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  21. ^ Yabiladi.com. "En 1908, un projet de constitution évoquait les libertés individuelles au Maroc". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  22. ^ a b c d عامر, د فتحي حسين (1914). تاريخ الصحافة العربية (in Arabic). Al Arabi Publishing and Distributing.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "دعوة الحق - مدخل لدراسة الصحافة المغربية بعد سنة 1332 هـ 1912 م". www.habous.gov.ma. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  24. ^ "La Révolution prolétarienne : revue mensuelle syndicaliste communiste". Gallica. 5 December 1930. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  25. ^ a b "حرب الريف والعالم ـ 11 ـ : موقف الرأي العام المحلي في المغرب". Hespress (in Arabic). 6 June 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  26. ^ http://bnm.bnrm.ma:86/ListeVol.aspx?IDC=73
  27. ^ "صفحات من تاريخ الصحافة المغربية". مغرس. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  28. ^ http://bnm.bnrm.ma:86/ListeVol.aspx?IDC=100
  29. ^ http://bnm.bnrm.ma:86/ListeVol.aspx?IDC=38
  30. ^ أبراش, د إبراهيم (29 July 2019). "عيد العرش في المغرب: تاريخه ورمزيته | د. إبراهيم أبراش". MEO (in Arabic). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  31. ^ Yabiladi.com. "Histoire : Lorsqu'un écrivain algérien proposa l'idée de commémorer la Fête du trône". www.yabiladi.com (in French). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  32. ^ http://bnm.bnrm.ma:86/ListeVol.aspx?IDC=25
  33. ^ "لمحات من تاريخ الصحافة المغربية (3)". blogs.aljazeera.net (in Arabic). Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  34. ^ http://bnm.bnrm.ma:86/ListeVol.aspx?IDC=31
  35. ^ a b "31 سنة عن منع جريدة المحرر : مسار جريدة "المحرر" التي أمر الملك الراحل الحسن الثاني بمنعها بصفة نهائية". مغرس. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  36. ^ "Le Réveil du Maroc". web.nli.org.il. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h Bensoussan, David (May 2012). Il tait Une Fois Le Maroc: Tmoignages Du Pass Judo-marocain. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4759-2608-8.
  38. ^ "El Horria". web.nli.org.il. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  39. ^ "La Lumiere du Maroc (Or Ha'Maarav)". web.nli.org.il. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  40. ^ "L'Avenir Illustré". web.nli.org.il (in French). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  41. ^ Laskier, Michael M. (1 February 2012). Alliance Israelite Universelle and the Jewish Communities of Morocco, 1862-1962, The. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-1016-6.
  42. ^ "Mbintelligence – Maroc Business Intelligence - » le Matin". Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  43. ^ "Moroccan Newspapers". Moroccan Online Newspapers.

Bibliography

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