List of new religious movements

A new religious movement (NRM) is a religious, ethical, or spiritual group or community with practices of relatively modern[clarification needed] origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self, and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.[1]: 29 [2][3]

A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[4] Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands worldwide. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.[5]: 17  Academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add new groups.[1]: vii–xv 

List edit

List of new religious movements
Name Founder Founded Type References
3HO Harbhajan Singh Khalsa
1969
Sikh [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 131 
Adidam, previously Free Daist Communion, Dawn Horse Fellowship, etc. Adi Da
1972
Neo-Hindu-inspired [Clarke 2006]: 2–3  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 6–7  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 146, 6–7  [Lewis 1998]: 25–28 
Adonai-Shomo Frederick T. Howland
1861
Adventist
Communal
[Melton 2003]: 707  [Lewis 1998]: 28 
Adonism Franz Sättler
1925
Modern Pagan [6]: 4 
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation Terry Cole-Whittaker
1985
Religious Science [Lewis 1998]: 28–29 
Aetherius Society George King
1954
UFO-Christian [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 3  [Lewis 1998]: 29–31 [7]: 25–26 
The African Church Jacob Kehinde Coker
1901
Anglican [Chryssides 2001]: 26 [8]
African initiated churches Multiple
1800s
Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous [Chryssides 2001]: 26–27 
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple Walter Eugene King
1973
Afro-American
Voodoo
[Melton 2003]: 934  [Lewis 1998]: 31 
Agasha Temple of Wisdom Richard Zenor
1943
Spiritualism [Melton 2003]: 764  [Lewis 1998]: 32 
Agni Yoga (Roerichism) Helena Roerich, Nicholas Roerich
1920
Neo-Theosophical [Melton 2003]: 876  [Lewis 1998]: 32  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 16–17  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 6 
Ahmadiyya Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
1889
Messianic Islam [Lewis 1998]: 32–33  [Chryssides 2001]: 27–28  [Melton 2003]: 985  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 6 
Aiyy Faith, previously Kut-Siur: 62  Lazar Afanasyev alias Téris
1990
Modern Pagan
Neo-Tengrist
[9]: 62 [9]: 57 
Aladura Josiah Ositelu
1930
Pentecostal [Melton 2003][Chryssides 2001]: 28–29, 517  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 7 
Alamo Christian Foundation, a.k.a. Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo
1969
Fundamentalist
Communal
[Lewis 1998]: 33–34  [Chryssides 2001]: 29  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 13  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 7 
Altruria Edward Biron Payne
1894
Christian
Communal
[Melton 2003]: 707  [Lewis 1998]: 34–35 
American Buddhist Movement
1980
Western Buddhism [Melton 2003]: 1116  [Lewis 1998]: 35–36 
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc. Robert Ernest Dickhoff
1945
Tibetan Buddhism [Melton 2003]: 1102  [Lewis 1998]: 36 
American World Patriarchs Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski
1972
Eastern Orthodox [Melton 2003]: 309  [Lewis 1998]: 37–38 
Amica Temple of Radiance Ivah Berg Whitten
1932
Neo-Theosophical [Melton 2003]: 876  [Lewis 1998]: 38 
Ananda Ashrama Paramananda
1923
Neo-Hindu
Neo-Vedanta
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 29–30 
Ananda Marga Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
1955
Neo-Hindu
Tantric
[Melton 2003]: 1001  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 30–31  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 11  [Lewis 1998]: 41  [Chryssides 2001]: 30–31 [10]: 370 
Ananda movement, incl. Ananda World Brotherhood Colonies and Ananda Church of Self-Realization Kriyananda
1968
Neo-Hindu
Self-Realization Fellowship
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 33–34 
Anandamayee Sangha, officially, Shree Shree Anandamayee Sangha Anandamayi Ma
1920s
Neo-Hindu [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 32 
Ancient British Church in North America Jonathan V. Zotique
1976
Homosexually oriented Christian [Melton 2003]: 1142  [Lewis 1998]: 43 
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis H. Spencer Lewis
1915
Rosicrucianism [Lewis 1998]: 42–43  [Chryssides 2001]: 31  [Melton 2003]: 841  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 11 
Ancient Teachings of the Masters (ATOM) Darwin Gross
1983
Sant Mat
Eckankar
[Melton 2003]: 1054  [Clarke 2006]: 32–33, 508  [Lewis 1998]: 43 
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America Howard B. Rand
1928
British Israelism [Melton 2003]: 651  [Lewis 1998]: 43–44  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 13 
Ansaaru Allah Community As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi
1960s, late
Black Islam [Melton 2003]: 986–987, 986–987  [Lewis 1998]: 44 
Ant Hill Kids, a.k.a. Holy Moses Mountain Family Roch Thériault
1977
Seventh-day Adventist [11][12]
Anthroposophy (Anthroposophical Society) Rudolf Steiner
1912
Western esotericism [Chryssides 2001]: 33–34  [Lewis 1998]: 44–47  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 20 [13]: 41 
Antiochian Catholic Church in America Gordon Mar Peter
1980s
Independent Catholic
Monophysite
[Melton 2003]: 241  [Lewis 1998]: 47 
Antoinism Louis-Joseph Antoine
1910
Christian Healing [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]
Apostles of Infinite Love, a.k.a. The Order of Magnificat of the Mother of God Michel Collin,
Jean-Gaston Tremblay
1961
Catholic [14]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean) Samuel Heinrich Froehlich
1906
European Free-Church [Melton 2003]: 548  [Lewis 1998]: 47–48 
Apostolic Christian Church of America Samuel Heinrich Froehlich
1830
European Free-Church [Melton 2003]: 548  [Lewis 1998]: 47–48 
Apostolic Church Daniel Powell Williams
1916
Pentecostal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 23  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 15 
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal) Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow
1969
Apostolic Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 464  [Lewis 1998]: 48 
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God William Thomas Phillips
1920
Apostolic Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 465  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 16 
Arcane School Alice and Foster Bailey
1937
Neo-Theosophical [Melton 2003]: 857  [Chryssides 2001]: 38 
Arica School Oscar Ichazo
1968
Sufism [Melton 2003]: 971  [Chryssides 2001]: 38–39  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 17 
Art of Living Foundation, a.k.a. Association for Inner Growth and 'Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth' Ravi Shankar
1981/1982
Neo-Hindu [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 45–46  [Melton 2003]: 1004 
Arya Samaj Dayananda Saraswati
1875
Neo-Hindu [Melton 2003]: 1004  [Chryssides 2001]: 40–41  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 45–46  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 18 
Aryan Nations, a.k.a. Church of Jesus Christ–Christian Wesley Swift
1940s, late
British Israelism [Melton 2003]: 654  [Chryssides 2001]: 91 
Ásatrú Folk Assembly Stephen McNallen
1970s
Modern Pagan
Polytheistic reconstructionism
Heathenry
[15]
Assemblies of God merger
1914
Pentecostal [16]: 106  [Chryssides 2001]: 41–42  [Clarke 2006]: 48 [16]: 106 
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ merger
1952
Apostolic Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 466  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 18 
Assembly of Christian Soldiers Jessie L. Thrift
1971
Christian Identity
Ku Klux Klan
[Melton 2003]: 1131  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 21 
Assembly of Man Franklin Merrell-Wolff
1928
Eastern and Western esotericism [17]
Association for Research and Enlightenment Edgar Cayce
1931
Occult [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 31  [Chryssides 2001]: 42–43  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 21 
Association of Vineyard Churches, a.k.a. Vineyard Movement John Wimber
1982
Neo-charismatic
Trinitarian Pentecostal
[Melton 2003]: 446  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 316 
Aumism Gilbert Bourdin
1969
Syncretistic Esoteric-Hinduism [18]: 217 [18]: 222, 218 [18]: 215 
Aum Shinrikyo, a.k.a. Aleph Shoko Asahara
1987
Japanese
Japanese Buddhism
[Melton 2003]: 1073 [19] [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 23  [Chryssides 2001]: 44–45 [20]
Ausar Auset Society R.A. Straughn
1970s, mid
Rosicrucianism [Melton 2003]: 842  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 24 
Azali or Azali Babi Subh-i-Azal
1863
Babism [21]: 246 
Bábism Báb (Ali Muhammad Shirazi)
1844
Shia Islam-Millenarian [22] [Lewis 1998]: 58 [22][23]: 180 
Baháʼí Faith Bahá'u'lláh (Mírzá Ḥusayn-'Alí Nuri)
1863
Babism-Millenarian [Chryssides 2001]: 48–49  [Clarke 2006]: 58–56  [Melton 2003]: 992 [24] [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 25–26  [Miller 1995]: 243–248 
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship Bawa Muhaiyaddeen
1971
Sufism [Melton 2003]: 972  [Chryssides 2001]: 50–51 
Bethel Ministerial Association Albert Franklin Varnell
1934
Apostolic Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 466  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 32 
Bible Presbyterian Church Carl McIntire
1938
Reformed Presbyterian [Melton 2003]: 370  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 33 
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ schism
1957
Apostolic Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 466  [Lewis 1998]: 77  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 34 
Biosophy Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler, F. W. J. Schelling
1806
[25][26]
Blackburn Cult, a.k.a. Divine Order of the Royal Arms of the Great Eleven May Otis Blackburn
1922
Modern Pagan
New Thought
[27]: 1 [27]: 35 
Brahma Kumaris Dada Lekhraj
1936/1937
Neo-Hindu [Chryssides 2001]: 56–57 [28] [Melton 2003]: 1006  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 89–91  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 37 
Brahmo Samaj, a.k.a. Adi Dharm Ram Mohan Roy
1828
Neo-Hindu
Unitarian Universal
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 92–93 [29]: 1:1028–30, 93 [30]
Brahmoism (Brahmo Dharma) Debendranath Tagore
1848/1850
Neo-Hindu
Unitarian Universal
[30]: 43–57 
Branch Davidians Benjamin Roden
1930
Seventh-day Adventist
Shepherd's Rod
[Melton 2003]: 617  [Chryssides 2001]: 59  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 38 
Branhamism William M. Branham
1951
Pentecostal [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 37–40 
Breatharians a.k.a. Inedia Wiley Brooks
1970s
Hindu-influenced [Chryssides 2001]: 60–61 [31]: 30 
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), a.k.a. The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters Jimmie T. Roberts
1970, circa
Unclassified Christian Churches [Melton 2003]: 1131–1132 
British Israelism, a.k.a. Anglo-Israelism
1870s
[Chryssides 2001]: 61–62  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 39–40 
Bruderhof, a.k.a. the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers Eberhard Arnold
1920, circa
Communal [Melton 2003]: 709  [Chryssides 2001]: 63–64 [32]: 709 
Brunstad Christian Church Johan Oscar Smith
1905
Evangelical
Non-denominational Christian
[33] [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 269–270 [33]
Builders of the Adytum Paul Foster Case
1922
Ritual magic [Melton 2003]: 891  [Chryssides 2001]: 67–68  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 41–42 
Burkhanism or Ak Jang Chet Chelpan; Chugul Sarok Chandyk
1904
Altaian Millenarian-Indigenist
Tengrist
[34]
Cao Dai, a.k.a. Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do Ngô Văn Chiêu, Lê Văn Trung
1919
Syncretistic
Vietnamese Millenarian
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 61  [Chryssides 2001]: 69–70  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 44 
Cargo cults
1885
Syncretistic
Millenarian-Indigenist
[Chryssides 2001]: 70  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 62  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 45 
Carlebach movement Shlomo Carlebach
1960s, late
Neo-Hasidic Rabbinic Judaism [29]: 7:4868–74 
Celestial Church of Christ Samuel Oshoffa
1947
Indigenist
Pentecostal
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 64  [Chryssides 2001]: 73 
The Centers Network 1981 [Chryssides 2001]: 73–74 
Chabad, a.k.a. Chabad-Lubavitch Shneur Zalman of Liadi
1775
Hasidic Rabbinic Judaism [Chryssides 2001]: 70  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 206,368 
Charismatic Movement, a.k.a. neo-Pentecostalism
1950s/1960s
Charismatic Christian [Clarke 2006]: 106–108 [35] [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 70  [Chryssides 2001]: 78 
Chen Tao, a.k.a. God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation Hon-Ming Chen
1955
UFO religion [Chryssides 2001]: 78–79 [36]
Cheondoism, a.k.a. Chendogyo Choe Je-u
1905
[Chryssides 2001]: 80–81 
Cherubim and Seraphim, a.k.a. Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim Moses Orimolade Tunolase
1925, circa
African Pentecostal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 65  [Chryssides 2001]: 79 
Children of Thunder Glenn Taylor Helzer
2000
Latter-day Saint Movement [37]
Christ Apostolic Church Joseph Ayo Babalola
1941
Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 479  [Chryssides 2001]: 82–83 
Christadelphians, a.k.a. Thomasites John Thomas
1844
Baptist family
Restorationism
[Chryssides 2001]: 81–82 [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 48  [Melton 2003]: 107  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 50 
The Christian Community, a.k.a. the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer
1922
Anthroposophy [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 70  [Chryssides 2001]: 83 
Christian Identity, a.k.a. the Identity Movement
1870s
1940s
British Israelism [Melton 2003]: 652 [38]: 48  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 138  [Chryssides 2001]: 84  [Clarke 2006]: 291–92 [39]: 387 
Christian Reformed Church in North America Gijsbert Haan
1857
Reformed Presbyterian [Melton 2003]: 365  [Chryssides 2001]: 86 
Christian Science Mary Baker Eddy
1876
Christian
Faith healing
New Thought
[Chryssides 2001]: 86–87.  [Melton 2003]: 741 [40]
Christian World Liberation Front, a.k.a. the Spiritual Counterfeits Project Jack Sparks,
Fred Dyson,
Pat Matrisciana
1969
Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 76  [Chryssides 2001]: 87–88 
Church of All Worlds Tim Zell,
Lance Christie
1962
Witchcraft
Modern Pagan
[Melton 2003]: 909  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 58  [Chryssides 2001]: 88–89 
Church of Aphrodite (defunct) Gleb Botkin
1939
Witchcraft
Modern Pagan
[Melton 2003]: 911  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 58 
Church of Bible Understanding Stewart Traill
1971
Adventist
Fundamentalist
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 79  [Chryssides 2001]: 89–90  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 59 
Church of Euthanasia Chris Korda,
Robert Kimberk
1992
Parody Religion [41]
Church of Daniel's Band
1893
Non-Episcopal Methodism [Melton 2003]: 395  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 61 
Church of Divine Science Malinda Cramer
1888
New Thought
Faith healing
[Miller 1995]: 326 
Church of God in Christ Charles H. Mason
1908
Pentecostal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 85  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 62 
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres) Grady R. Kent
1957
White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 437  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 62 
Church of God Mountain Assembly J.H. Parks,
Steve N. Bryant,
Tom Moses,
and William O. Douglas
1906
White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 437  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 63, 65 
Church of God of Prophecy Ambrose Tomlinson
1903
White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 438  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 62–63 
Church of God with Signs Following George Went Hensley
1920s
Holiness Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 489  [Chryssides 2006]: 300–301 
Church of Israel Dan Gayman
1974
British Israelism [Melton 2003]: 653  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 65 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Joseph Smith
1830
Latter-day Saint Movement-Millenarian
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) Joseph Smith
James Strang
1844
Latter-day Saint Movement [42]
The Church of Light C.C. Zain
1932
neo-Hermetism [Lewis 1998]: 210–211 [43]: 105–106 
Church of Satan Anton LaVey
1966
Satanism [Clarke 2006]: 508–509  [Chryssides 2001]: 91–92  [Miller 1995]: 401–410 
Church of the SubGenius J.R. "Bob" Dobbs
1979
Parody
Church of the Creator Rev. Dr. Grace Marama URI
1969
Liberal family [Melton 2003]: 668 
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster or Pastafarianism Bobby Henderson
2005
Parody [44][45]
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk John Robert Stevens
1954
Fundamentalist
Occult
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 386  [Chryssides 2001]: 92–93 
Church of the Lord (Aladura) Josiah Ositelu
1930
Pentecostal Family [Melton 2003]: 517  [Chryssides 2001]: 93 
Church of World Messianity Mokichi Okada
1934
Shinto
Faith healing
[Melton 2003]: 1120  [Chryssides 2001]: 94  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 94, 371 
Church Universal and Triumphant Mark Prophet,
Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet
1958
Theosophical
Occult
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 97  [Chryssides 2001]: 94–95  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 281 
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP Sun Myung Moon
1955
Unification Church [46] [Chryssides 2001]: 71 [47]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God Arnold Josiah Ford
1924
Black Judaism [Melton 2003]: 951  [Lewis 1998]: 180  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 74 
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center Donald Lee Barnett
1967
Latter Rain
Pentecostal
[Melton 2003]: 496  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 75 
Concerned Christians Monte Kim Miller
1980s
[Chryssides 2001]: 96 [48]
Conservative Judaism Sabato Morais,
Marcus Jastrow,
H. Pereira Mendes
1887
Rabbinic Judaism [Melton 2003]: 943  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 76  [Chryssides 2001]: 97 
Core Shamanism, The Foundation for Shamanic Studies Michael Harner
1980
Neoshamanism [Clarke 2006]: 580 [49]
Covenant of the Goddess merger
1975
Goddess
Witchcraft
Modern Pagan
[Melton 2003]: 915  [Chryssides 2001]: 48–49  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 98 
Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans Margot Adler
1987
Witchcraft
Modern Pagan
[Melton 2003]: 915  [Chryssides 2001]: 99  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 99 
The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord James D. Ellison
1970s, mid
British Israelism [Chryssides 2001]: 99–100  [Melton 2003]: 654  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 78 
Creativity Ben Klassen
1970s, early
Pantheism
Agnostic Atheism
White Racialism.
[50]
Crossroads Movement
1970s
[Chryssides 2006]: 100  [Chryssides 2001]: 100 
Cyberchurches
2000s, early
Non-denominational Christian [Chryssides 2001]: 103 
Dalit Buddhist Movement, also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement or Navayana Buddhist movement B. R. Ambedkar
1956
Neo-Buddhism (Navayana)
Dances of Universal Peace Samuel L. Lewis
1968
[51]
Dianic Wicca merger
1971
Witchcraft
Modern Pagan
[Melton 2003]: 916  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 84 
Discordianism Greg Hill, Kerry Wendell Thornley
1963
Absurdism, Greek Mythology [52]
Eastern Lightning, a.k.a. the Church of Almighty God Yang Xiangbin,
Zhao Weishan
1991
Chinese house churches [53]: 97 [54]: 71 [55]: 96 [53][54]: 1 
Eckankar or ECK Paul Twitchell
1965/1971
Derived from Radha Soami but denies connection [Clarke 2006]: 178–79  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 144–146, 384  [Melton 2003]: 1056, 144, 384, 144, 508  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 91 
Efficacious Spirit Teachings, a.k.a. Spirit Church and The Lingling Sect Hua Xuehe
1986
Pentecostalism [56]: 43 [57]: 123 [56]: 42 [58]: 43 
Elan Vital, formerly Divine Light Mission Hans Ji Maharaj
1920s
Derived from Sant Mat but denies connection [Melton 2003]: 1055  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 384  [Clarke 2006]: 508  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 85–86, 167 [28]: 126 [59]: 156 
Emin Raymond Armin
1971
New Age
End Time Survivors Jesus Christians David McKay 1981 Fundamentalist Millennialism [60][61]
Esoteric Nazism
1940s, late
Occult
Western esotericism
[13][62]: 17 
Est (Erhard Seminars Training) Werner Erhard
1981
Human Potential Movement
Self religions
[63][64]: 193 [65][66]: 167, 171–172 [5]: 35 [67] [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 108, 107–108 [1]: 44 [28]: 126–127 
Evangelical Association of the Israelite Mission of the New Universal Covenant Ezequiel Ataucusi Gamonal
1968
Syncretistic Messianic Judaism-Indigenous [68]
Evangelical Methodist Church J.H. Hamblen
1946
Non-Episcopal Methodist [Melton 2003]: 396  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 97 
Falun Gong Li Hongzhi
1992
Qigong movement [Melton 2003]: 1126 [69]
Family International, previously the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family David Berg
1968
Fundamentalist, Jesus movement
countercultural
evangelical
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 133  [Clarke 2006]: 185 [70][28]: 126 [70]
Fellowship of Isis Olivia Robertson
1976
Modern Pagan
Goddess
[Melton 2003]: 888  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 103 
Fellowships of the Remnant Denver Snuffer Jr.
2013
Latter-day Saint Movement
Feraferia Frederick Adams
1967
Modern Pagan
Goddess
[71]
Findhorn Foundation Eileen Caddy,
Peter Caddy,
Alexis Edwards,
Roger Benson
1963
Christian-Anthroposophistical-Rosicrucian [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 138  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 104 
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas W.E. Fuller
1898
Black Trinitarian Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 482  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 104 
First Satanic Church Karla LaVey
1997
Satanism [72]: 701 
Followers of Christ Marion Reece (or Riess)
1800s, late
Unclassified Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 1137 [73]
Fourth Way George Gurdjieff
1913–1916
Esoteric
Esoteric Sufism
[Clarke 2006]: 245–47 [13]: 42  [Miller 1995]: 259–266 
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis Paschal Beverly Randolph
1858
Rosicrucianism [Melton 2003]: 843  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 108 
Fraternity of the Inner Light Dion Fortune
1924
neo-Hermeticism
Esoteric Christianity
[Clarke 2006]: 217–219 
Freedomites
1902
[Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 272 
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO), now a.k.a. Triratna Buddhist Community Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood)
1967
Neo-Buddhism [74]
Fundamentalist Christianity
1800s, late
Christian [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 113–114 
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Lorin C. Woolley
1929
Latter-day Saint Movement [75]
General Church of the New Jerusalem schism
1890
Swedenborgianism [Melton 2003]: 763  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 117 
The Genesis II Church of Health and Healing Jim Humble
2009/2010
UFO-New Age inspired
Pseudoscience
[76][77][78][79]
Gentle Wind Project John "Tubby" Miller and Mary "Moe" Miller
1980
Spiritualism [80]
Ghost Dance
1889
Native American religion [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 119 
Global Peace Foundation Hyun Jin Moon
2007
Unification Church [81][82]
Godianism, a.k.a. Chiism K. O. K. Onyioha
1949
African Indigenist Modern Pagan [Clarke 2006]: 242–43 
Grail Movement Oskar Ernst Bernhardt
1924
Syncretistic Christian
New Age
Channeling
[Melton 2003]: 786  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 122–123 
Hanuman Foundation Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)
1974/1980
Neo-Hindu [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 51  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 178  [Melton 2003]: 1013  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 129 
Happy Science (Kofuku-no-Kagaku) Ryuho Okawa
1986
Japanese [83]
Heaven's Gate formerly Human Individual Metamorphosis and Total Overcomers Anonymous Marshall Herff Applewhite,
Bonnie Lu Nettles
1973
Syncretistic Christian
New Age
UFO religion
[84][85]: 17 [84][86]: 71 
Hikari no Wa Fumihiro Joyu
2007
Aum Shinrikyo [87]: 29 
Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy Swami Rama
1971
Hindu [Melton 2003]: 1014  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 183–184  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 133 
House of Israel David Hill a.k.a. Rabbi Edward Washington
1972
Black Hebrew Israelites [88]
Humanistic Judaism Sherwin Wine
1965
Nontheistic Rabbinic Judaism [Clarke 2006]: 288–89 
Human Sacrifices Sect of Nacozari Silvia Meraz
2009
Santa Muerte [89]
Huna Max Freedom Long
1936
New Thought
New Age
Hawaiian religion
[Lewis 1998]: 406–407 
I AM Activity Guy Ballard, Edna Anne Wheeler Ballard
1930s, early
Neo-Theosophical [Melton 2003]: 873  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 138 
Iglesia ni Cristo Felix Manalo
1913, formally 1914
Restorationism
Nontrinitarian
Fundamentalist
[Clarke 2006]: 292–93 
Isha Foundation Jaggi Vasudev
1992
Hindu [90]
Indian Shaker Church John and Marry Slocum
1881
Native American and Christian
Independent Fundamental Churches of America R. Lee Kirkland
1922
Unaffiliated Fundamentalist [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 179  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 142 
Insight Meditation Society Jack Kornfield,
Sharon Salzberg,
Joseph Goldstein
1976
Theravada Buddhism [Melton 2003]: 1067  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 143 
International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), a.k.a. Hare Krishna movement A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
1966
Hindu [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 199 
International House of Prayer, a.k.a. IHOP or IHOPKC Mike Bickle
1999
Charismatic Movement
Post-tribulational
Historic premillennialism
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel Aimee Semple McPherson
1923
White Trinitarian Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 451  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 108 
International Community of Christ, a.k.a. Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians Eugene Douglas Savoy
1972
New Age [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 139 
Iriadamant Pierre Doris Maltais
1973
Animism
Native American religions
Spiritual ecology
[91]
ISKCON Revival Movement (IRM) ?
2000
Neo-Hindu
ISKCON
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 199–200, 78 
Ivanovism (the Ivanovites) Porfiry Ivanov
1933
Syncretistic
Modern Pagan
Slavic Native Faith
[92]: 128–145 
Jediism
2000s
Star Wars-inspired
New Age
[93]: 62 [93]: 62 
Jehovah's Witnesses Charles Taze Russell
1870
Adventist
Bible Students
Nontrinitarian
[Melton 2003]: 637  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 150, 152–153 
Jesus Army, a.k.a. "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship" Noel Stanton
1977
Fundamentalist
Communal
[10]: 149–163  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 153 
Jesus Movement
1960s, late
Fundamentalist [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 196  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 153 [94]
Jewish Renewal Zalman Schachter-Shalomi
1970s, mid
Neo-Hasidic Rabbinic Judaism
Syncretistic
[29]: 7:4868–74 
Jews for Jesus Moishe Rosen
1970
Fundamentalist
Messianic Judaism
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 197  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 155 
John Frum
1936
Syncretistic
Millenarian
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 197  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 155 
Joy of Satan Ministries Andrea Maxine Dietrich
2002
Satanism
Theism
[95]: 448 
Kabbalah Centre Philip Berg
1970s
Kabbalist
New Age
[Clarke 2006]: 322–23 
Kalki cult, a.k.a. Oneness Movement and Oneness University Kalki Bhagawan (Vijay Kumar Naidu)
1989
Indian religions-inspired
New Age
Neo-Hindu
2012 phenomenon-inspired
[96][97]
Karma Triyana Dharmachakra the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa
1976
Tibetan Buddhism [Melton 2003]: 1108  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 157–158. 
Kemetic Orthodoxy Tamara Siuda
1988
Modern Pagan
Polytheistic reconstructionism
Kemetic
[98]
Kerista John Presmont
1956
Communal—After 1960 [Melton 2003]: 730  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 158 
Kopimism Isak Gerson
2012
Internet religion
Konkokyo Bunjirō Kawate [ja]
1859
Japanese
Shinto
[Melton 2003]: 1122  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 161 
Krishnamurti Foundations Jiddu Krishnamurti
1928
Neo-Theosophical
Universalism
[99]
Kripalu Center (Kirpalu) Amrit Desai
1966
Hindu [Melton 2003]: 1019  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 161 
Lama Foundation Steve Durkee
1967
Communal [Melton 2003]: 731  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 164 
Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism) Joseph Smith
1830
Christian restorationism [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 187  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 190, 192 
Latter Rain Movement George Hawtin,
Percy Hunt
1946
Millenarian Pentecostal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 209  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 165 
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement Paul S. L. Johnson
1920, circa
Adventist
Bible Students
[Melton 2003]: 639  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 165 
Lectorium Rosicrucianum Jan van Rijckenborgh; Zwier Willem Leene; Catharose de Petri
1924
Rosicrucianism [Clarke 2006]: 338–339  [Melton 2003]: 844  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 165–166 
The Living Word Fellowship John Robert Stevens
1951
Latter Rain Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 506 [100]
Local Church movement Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)
1920s
Independent Fundamentalist
Other Bible Students
[Melton 2003]: 609–610  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 169, 171 
Love Family, a.k.a. the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel Paul Erdman
1969
Communal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 216  [Chryssides 2001]: 90–91 
Love Has Won Amy Carlson
2005, circa
New Age [101][102]
Lucis Trust Alice A. Bailey
1923
Neo-Theosophical [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 217  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 172–173 
Lumpa Church Alice Lenshina
1953
African initiated church [103]
Mahikari Kotama Okada
1959
Shinto [Melton 2003]: 1123  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 176 
Makasol (Wind Nation), a.k.a. Paliau movement Paliau Maloat
1970s, circa
Papuan Indigenist
Millenarian
countercultural
[Clarke 2006]: 482–85 
Manson Family Charles Manson
1967
Millenarianism [104]
Maranatha Campus Ministries Bob Weiner
1972
Pentecostal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 223  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 178 
Martinus' Spiritual Science Martinus Thomsen
1932
Esoteric [105][106][107]
Mata Amritanandamayi Math Mata Amritanandamayi
1981
Neo-Hindu [Clarke 2006]: 31–32  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 26–27 
Mazdaznan Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish
1902
Zoroastrianism [Melton 2003]: 991  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 181 
Meher Baba followers Merwan Sheriar Irani
1921
Hindu-inspired [Melton 2003]: 991 [59]
Messianic Judaism
1960s
Judeo-Christian [Clarke 2006]: 397–99, 399  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 184 
Million Man March Louis Farrakhan
1995
Nation of Islam [108]: 245 
Mita Congregation Juanita García Peraza
1940
Deliverance Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 462  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 186 
Modekngei (Ngara Modekngei) Tamadad from Chol
1915, circa
Syncretistic Christian-Indigenous [109]
Monastic Order of Avallon Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han
1972
Modern Pagan [110]
Moody Church Dwight L. Moody
1864
Fundamentalist
Evangelical
[Melton 2003]: 602  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 186 
Moorish Science Temple of America Timothy Drew
1925
Black Islam [Melton 2003]: 988  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 186, 188 
Moral Re-Armament Frank N. D. Buchman
1921
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 233  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 188, 190 
Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God Credonia Mwerinde,
Joseph Kibweteere
1989
Catholicism [111]: 209 [111]: 203 [111]: 213, 206 
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness John-Roger Hinkins
1971
Syncretistic
Sant Mat and Eckankar-influenced
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 384  [Clarke 2006]: 412, 412–14  [Melton 2003]: 1054  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 194 
Namdhari Balak Singh
1800s, mid
Sikh [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 243  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 196 
Narcosatánicos Adolfo Constanzo
1985
Palo [112]
Nation of Islam Elijah Muhammad
1930s, mid
Black Islam
UFO religion
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 245 [113]
Nation of Yahweh Hulon Mitchell, Jr.
1970s
Black Judaism [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 200  [Melton 2003]: 952–953 [114]: 217 
National Spiritualist Association of Churches Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond
1893
Spiritualism [Melton 2003]: 772  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 197 
Native American Church, a.k.a. Peyotism
1906
Native American religion Indigenist Entheogen Groups [Melton 2003]: 809  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 202 
Native Ukrainian National Faith, a.k.a. RUNVira or Sylenkoism Lev Sylenko
1960s, mid
Modern Pagan
Slavic Native Faith
[92]: 130 
Neo-charismatic movement
1980s, early
Charismatic Christian
Nondenominational Christian
[35]: 286–87 
Neo-Hinduism or Reform Hinduism
1830, circa
Hindu [Clarke 2006]: 435–36 
New Acropolis (Nouvelle Acropole) Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi
1957
Neo-Theosophical
Western esotericism
[Clarke 2006]: 441–442 [115]: 217 
New Apostolic Church Heinrich Geyer
1863
Catholic Apostolic Church
Unclassified Christian Churches
[Melton 2003]: 1139  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 205 
New Kadampa Tradition Geshe Kelsang Gyatso
1970s, mid
Tibetan Buddhism [Melton 2003]: 1112 [116]: 310–311 
The New Message from God Marshall Vian Summers
1992
UFO religion [117][118]
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn
1969
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
Witchcraft
Modern Pagan
[Melton 2003]: 923  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 207 
New Thought Phineas Parkhurst Quimby
1800s, mid
Metaphysical
Faith healing
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 258  [Miller 1995]: 325–330  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 208 
Noahidism
1990s
Orthodox Judaism-inspired [119][120][121]: 115 
Nuwaubian Nation or United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors Dwight York 1967 UFO religion, New Age, Christian, Jewish, Black supremacist [122][123]
Oahspe Faithists John Ballou Newbrough
1882
UFO religion [124]
Odinism Orestes Brownson
1848
Modern Pagan [125]
Oneida Community John Humphrey Noyes
1848
Perfectionism [126]
Oomoto Mrs. Nao Deguchi
1899
Japanese
Shinto-Millenarian
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 266  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 216 
Open Bible Standard Churches merger
1935
White Trinitarian Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 454  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 217 
Opus Dei: 251  Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer
1928
Roman Catholic [127][128]: 251 [129][130]: 3, 122–123  [Clarke 2006]: 427–428 [28]: 126, 470–71 [131]
Order of the Solar Temple Joseph Di Mambro,
Luc Jouret
1984
Rosicrucian [111]: 130 [111]: 125 [111]
Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) Carl Kellner;Theodor Reuss
1895/1906
Western esotericism
Neo-Hermetism
Thelema
[Clarke 2006]: 430  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 270 
Pentecostal Church of God
1919
Pentecostal [35][16]: 109  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 225 
Pentecostalism
1900s
Charismatic Christian [35] [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 224–25 
People Unlimited, also known as Eternal Flame Foundation, People Forever, and CBJ Charles Paul Brown, Bernadeane Brown, James Russell Strole
1982
Immortalism, Christianity [Lewis 1998]: 95–96 [132]
Peoples Temple Jim Jones
1955
Psychic-New Age [Melton 2003]: 832  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 226 [133]
Philosophical Research Society Manly Palmer Hall
1934
Occult [Melton 2003]: 849  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 228 
Pilgrims of Arès Michel Potay
1974
[134]
Plymouth Brethren John Nelson Darby
1830
evangelical
Millenarian
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 281  [Chryssides 2001]: 61  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 228–229 
Potter's House also known as Christian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc. Wayman Mitchell
1970
Pentecostal [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 51–52 
The Process Church of the Final Judgment Mary Ann MacLean and Robert de Grimston
1963
Satanism [135]: 329 
Quiverfull Mary Pride
1985
Christian Natalism [136]
Radha Soami, also Radhasoami Movement or Sant Mat movement Shiv Dayal Singh
1861
Sikh-derived or Syncretistic Sikh-Hindu or Sant Mat-inspired [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 344–45, 344–45, 383–84  [Clarke 2006]: 507  [Melton 2003]: 1059, 507–509 
Radha Soami Satsang Beas Baba Jaimal Singh
1891
Sant Mat
Radha Soami
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 345  [Melton 2003]: 1059  [Clarke 2006]: 508  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 234 
Radha Soami Satsang Dayalbagh Kamta Prasad Sinha
1907
Radha Soami [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 344–45 
Raëlism, a.k.a. Raëlian Church Claude Vorilhon (Rael)
1973/1974
UFO religion [Melton 2003]: 806  [Clarke 2006]: 509–10  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 234 
Rainbow Family, a.k.a. Rainbow Coalition Barry Adams or Jesse Jackson
1960s, late
Communal
Afro-American
[Melton 2003]: 732  [Clarke 2006]: 511–12  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 234, 236 
Rajneesh movement, a.k.a. Osho movement Rajneesh Chandra Mohan
1966
Indian religions-inspired
Syncretistic
[Clarke 2006]: 512–14  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 345–46  [Melton 2003]: 1051  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 236, 238 
Ramakrishna Mission, a.k.a. Ramakrishna movement or Vedanta Society Swami Vivekananda
1897
Neo-Hindu
Neo-Vedanta
[Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 314  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 483–84  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 382 [137]: 57–58 
Ramtha's School of Enlightenment J. Z. Knight
1977
New Age [138][139][140]
Rastafari Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds
1920s/1935
Jewish and Christian-influenced Afro-centric [Melton 2003]: 954  [Clarke 2006]: 518–20  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 241,243 [141]
Reconstructionist Judaism Mordecai Kaplan
1922
Rabbinic Judaism [Clarke 2006]: 523–25 
Reform Judaism, a.k.a. Progressive or Liberal Judaism Isaac Harby; Isaac M. Wise; others
1820s
Rabbinic Judaism [Clarke 2006]: 525–26 
Reformed Druids of North America
1960s
Modern Pagan [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 299  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 244 
Reiki, also Usui Shiko Ryoho System of Healing Mikao Usui
1922
Energy medicine
Japanese Buddhism
[Clarke 2006]: 528–529 
Religious Science Ernest Holmes
1948
New Thought [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 301  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 245–246 
Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism Vladimir Megre
1997
Syncretistic
Modern Pagan
Slavic Native Faith
[95]: 442 
Risshō Kōsei Kai Nikkyo Niwano,
Myoko Naganuma
1938
Nichiren Buddhist [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 248 [142]
The Rosicrucian Fellowship Carl Louis von Grasshof
1909
Rosicrucianism [Melton 2003]: 845  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 249 
Ruhani Satsang, a.k.a. Kirpal Light Satsang Kirpal Singh
1948
Radha Soami [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 345  [Clarke 2006]: 508 
Sacred Name Movement Clarence Orvil Dodd
1930s
Judeo-Christian (Judaizers)
Nontrinitarian
Church of God (Seventh-Day)
[Clarke 2006]: 543  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 251 
Sadharan Brahmo Samaj Anandamohan Bose, Sivanath Sastri, Umesh Chandra Dutta
1878
Brahmoism [30]: 43–57 
Sahaja Yoga Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi
1970
Neo-Hindu [Melton 2003]: 1029  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 373–74 [143]
Saiva Siddhanta Church Subramuniy
1957
Hindu [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 376–77  [Melton 2003]: 1029  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 251 
The Salvation Army William Booth
1865
Holiness movement [Melton 2003]: 419  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 252, 254 
Saminism, Samin movement: 207–240  Samin Surosentiko
1889
Abrahamic religions
Indigenist
[144]: 103 [145]: 207 
Sant Nirankari Mission Baba Buta Singh Ji
1929, formally 1947
Sikh
Nirankari
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 313  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 210 
Santa Muerte Cult
1940s, late (or earlier)[146]
Syncretic Folk Catholic [147]
Sathya Sai Baba movement or Sai Baba movement Sathya Sai Baba
1950
Neo-Hindu [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 389–90, 389  [Clarke 2006]: 545–47 
Science of Identity Foundation (SIF) Chris Butler alias Jagad Guru Siddhaswarupananda
1977
Neo-Hindu
ISKCON
[Jones & Ryan 2007]: 411–12 
Scientology L. Ron Hubbard
1955
UFO-Psychic
New Age
[148][149] [Melton 2003]: 816  [Miller 1995]: 385–392 [28]: 126 [150]
Sekta Niebo Bogdana Kacmajora
1990
Christian [151]
Seicho-no-Ie Masaharu Taniguchi, Fenwicke Holmes
1930
Japanese
Religious Science-Shinto
[83] [Clarke 2006]: 568–569 
Self-Realization Fellowship Paramahansa Yogananda
1935
Neo-Hindu [Melton 2003]: 1031  [Jones & Ryan 2007]: 392–94  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 261 
Semitic Neopaganism Raphael Patai
1960s
Modern Pagan
Polytheistic reconstructionism
Feminism
[152]
Seventh-day Adventist Church Ellen G. White; Joseph Bates
1860
Adventist
Millerite
Seventh-day Sabbatarian
[Melton 2003]: 621  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 262 
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement schism
1925
Seventh-day Adventist [Melton 2003]: 622–623  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 262–263 
Shakers Ann Lee
1750s
Communal—Before 1960 [Melton 2003]: 724  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 263, 265 
Shengdao, a.k.a. Tongshanshe Peng Tairong (Ruzun)
1900s, early
Chinese salvationist [153]: 685 
Shepherd's Rod, a.k.a. the Davidians, officially, the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association Victor T. Houteff
1935
Seventh-day Adventist [Melton 2003]: 619  [Lewis 1998]: 189 
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers John J. Higgins, Jr.
1969
Communal—After 1960 [Melton 2003]: 734  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 266 
Shinji Shumeikai, a.k.a. Shumei Mihoko Koyama
1970
Church of World Messianity
Faith healing
[83]
Shinnyo-en Shinjo Ito,
Tomoji Ito
1936
Japanese
Japanese Buddhism
[Melton 2003]: 1081  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 266–267 
Shinreikyo Kanichi Otsuka
1950, circa
Japanese
Shinto
Syncretistic
[Melton 2003]: 1123  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 266 
Shouters Li Changshou
1965
Christianity [56]: 45 [56]
Shri Ram Chandra Mission Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj
1945
Hindu [154]
Slavic Native Faith, a.k.a. Rodnovery or Slavic Neopaganism Władysław Kołodziej, Jan Stachniuk
1920–30s
Modern Pagan
Polytheistic reconstructionism
[92]: 112–127 [155]
Slavic-Hill Rodnovery Aleksandr Belov
1980s
Modern Pagan
Slavic Native Faith
[155]: 39 
Soka Gakkai International Tsunesaburo Makiguchi
1930
Japanese
Nichiren Buddhism
[Melton 2003]: 1082  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 271 [156]
Spiritualism Kate and Margaret Fox
1848
Psychic-Mediumship
Metaphysical
[Miller 1995]: 331–338 [157]: 248 
Subud (Susila Budhi Dharma) Muhammed Subuh
1933
Kejawèn
neo-Sufism
[Clarke 2006]: 607–608  [Miller 1995]: 267–274 [144]: 101  [Melton 2003]: 981  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 279 
Sufi Ruhaniat International Samuel L. Lewis
1968
neo-Sufism [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 342  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 279 
Sukyo Mahikari Sekiguchi Sakae
1978
Japanese
Mahikari Syncretistic
[Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 344  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 281 
Summum Claude Rex Nowell
1975
Unclassified Christian Churches [Melton 2003]: 1141  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 281 
Syntheism Alexander Bard
2012
Pantheist
Humanist
Netocratic
[158]
The Satanic Temple Lucien Greaves,
Malcolm Jarry
2012
Satanism
Nontheistic
[159][160][161][162][163]
Tenrikyo Miki Nakayama
1838
Japanese
Shinto
[Melton 2003]: 1124  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 287–288 
Tensegrity Carlos Castaneda
1995
Neoshamanism
New Age
[49] [Clarke 2006]: 581 
Terasem Martine Rothblatt
2004
Transhumanism [164]
The Family, a.k.a. Santiniketan Park Association & Great White Brotherhood Anne Hamilton-Byrne
1963
New Age [165]
Thelema, a.k.a. the A∴A∴ order Aleister Crowley
1900s, early
Occult
neo-Hermetism
Western esotericism
[13]: 41–42 
Theosophy or Theosophical Society, a.k.a. 1882 as Theosophical Society Adyar Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge
1875
Occult
Eastern and Western esotericism
[13]: 40–41 [166] [Clarke 2006]: 624–625  [Miller 1995]: 315–324 [166]
Theosophical Society Pasadena William Quan Judge
1895
Theosophical [166]: blz. 427  [Miller 1995]: 315–324 
Tolstoyan primitivism Leo Tolstoy
1901
Christian anarchism
Pacifism
[167]: 672 [167]: 672 
Toronto Blessing Randy Clark
1994
Pentecostal [10]: 122–123 [168]
Transcendental Meditation (TM) Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
1958
Neo-Hindu-inspired [Melton 2003]: 1045  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 292–293, 295–296 
Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly FWBO) Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood)
1967
Neo-Buddhism [74]
True Buddha School Lu Sheng-yen
1980s, late
Tibetan Buddhism
Taoism
[169]
True Russian Orthodox Church Pyotr Kuznetsov
2007
Russian Orthodoxy Apocalypticism [170]
Twelve Tribes Gene and Marsha Spriggs
1972
Messianic Jewish Communal—After 1960 [Melton 2003]: 737  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 212, 334–335 
Two by Twos, a.k.a. Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.
1897
Independent fundamentalist family [Melton 2003]: 611  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 298  [Chryssides 2001]: 330 [171]
Umbanda Zélio Fernandino de Moraes
1920
Spiritism [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 299 [172]
Unarius Academy of Science Ernest Norman, Ruth Norman
1954
UFO Religion [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 300, 302–303 
Unification Church, also known as the Moonies Sun Myung Moon
1954
Syncretistic Christian [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 365  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 300, 302–303 
Unitarian Universalism consolidation
1961
Unitarian Universalism [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 308–310  [Chryssides 2006]: 335 
United Holy Church of America Isaac Cheshier
1900
Black Trinitarian Pentecostal [Melton 2003]: 487  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 304 
United House of Prayer for All People Marcelino Manoel de Graca
1925
African American Pentecostal [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 371  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 304–305 
United Israel World Union David Horowitz
1944
Other Jewish Groups [Melton 2003]: 959  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 305 
United Lodge of Theosophists Robert Crosbie
1909
Theosophical [Melton 2003]: 855  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 305 
United Pentecostal Church International merger
1945
Apostolic Pentecostals [Melton 2003]: 476  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 287–306 
Unity Church Charles Fillmore and Myrtle Fillmore
1889/1903
New Thought-Christian [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 373  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 306–307 
Universal Great Brotherhood Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere
1940s, late
Other Theosophical Groups [Melton 2003]: 883  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 310 
Universal Life Church Kirby Hensley
1962
Liberal Family [Melton 2003]: 680  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 311 
Universal White Brotherhood Peter Deunov
1900
Other Theosophical Groups
Esoteric Christianity
[Melton 2003]: 880 [173]
Urantia Foundation William S. Sadler
1934
UFO religion
Psychic
New Age
Christian occultist
[Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 319–322  [Melton 2003]: 839  [Beit-Hallahmi 1997]: 380 
Vajradhatu Chögyam Trungpa
1973
Tibetan Buddhism [Melton 2003]: 1115  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 313 
Vale do Amanhecer Tia Neiva
1959
Spiritualism [174]
Volunteers of America Ballington Booth,
Maud Booth
1896
Holiness movement [Melton 2003]: 420  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 316 
The Way International Victor Paul Wierwille
1942
Independent fundamentalist family [Melton 2003]: 608  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 318 
The Way of the Livingness (Universal Medicine) Serge Benhayon
1999
Neo-Theosophical and/or "Socially harmful cult". [175][176][177]
White Eagle Lodge Lady Elizabeth Carey
1943
Other Theosophical Groups [Melton 2003]: 884  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 319 
Wicca Gerald Gardner
1949, circa
Modern Pagan
Witchcraft
Occult
[13]: 55  [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006]: 338  [Miller 1995]: 339–346 
Wotansvolk David Lane
1990s
neo-völkisch paganism [178]
The Word Foundation Harold W. Percival
1904, circa
Theosophical [Melton 2003]: 856  [Beit-Hallahmi 1992]: 320 
World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church Hyung Jin Moon,
Yeon Ah Lee Moon
2015
Unification Church-based
ultra-Orthodox/Fundamentalism
[179][180]
Yiguandao Wang Jueyi; Chang Thien Ran
1800s, late
Chinese salvationist-Millenarian [153]: 702–703  [Clarke 2006]

See also edit

Bibliography edit

Main sources edit

  1. [Beit-Hallahmi 1992] Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (28 December 1992). Rosen, Roger (ed.). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-1505-7.
  2. [Beit-Hallahmi 1997] Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1997). The illustrated encyclopedia of active new religions, sects, and cults (Rev. ed.). New York: Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-2586-5.
  3. [Chryssides 2006] Chryssides, George D. (2006). The A to Z of new religious movements (Rev. pbk. ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5588-5.
  4. [Clarke 2006] Clarke, Peter B., ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-26707-6 https://books.google.com/books?id=heeCAgAAQBAJ. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. [Jones & Ryan 2007] Jones, Constance A.; Ryan, James D. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Encyclopedia of World Religions. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9 https://books.google.com/books?id=OgMmceadQ3gC. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. [Lewis 1998] Lewis, James R. (1998). The encyclopedia of cults, sects, and new religions. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-222-7 https://books.google.com/books?id=oVQUAQAAIAAJ. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. [Melton 2003] Melton, J. Gordon (2003) [1978]. Encyclopedia of American religions (7th ed.). Farmington Hills, Mi: Gale Group. ISBN 978-0-7876-6384-1.
  8. [Nichols, Mather & Schmidt 2006] Nichols, Larry A.; Mather, George; Schmidt, Alvin J. (13 August 2006). Dictionary of cults, sects, and world religions (Rev. and updated ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-23954-3.

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