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Allopregnanolone, a major endogenous inhibitory neurosteroid.
Steroid ring system.

This is a list of neurosteroids, or natural and synthetic steroids that are active on the mammalian nervous system through receptors other than steroid hormone receptors. It includes inhibitory, excitatory, and neurotrophic neurosteroids as well as pheromones and vomeropherines. In contrast to steroid hormones, neurosteroids have rapid, non-genomic effects through interactions with membrane steroid receptors and can quickly influence central nervous system function.

Contents

InhibitoryEdit

NaturalEdit

CholestanesEdit

AndrostanesEdit

The following are proneurosteroids:

  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone): 5α-androst-17β-ol-3-one – of the above-listed inhibitory androstane neurosteroids
  • Testosterone: androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one – of the above-listed inhibitory androstane neurosteroids

PregnanesEdit

  • 3α-Dihydroprogesterone (3α-DHP): pregn-4-en-3α-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • 5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP; allopregnanedione): 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • 5β-Dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP; pregnanedione): 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Allopregnanediol: 5α-pregnane-3α,20α-diol – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator[4]
  • Allopregnanolone (brexanolone; SAGE-547): 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (DHDOC): 21-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Pregnanediol: 5β-pregnan-3α,20α-diol – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator[4]
  • Pregnanolone (eltanolone): 5β-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC): 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

The following are proneurosteroids:

SyntheticEdit

CholestanesEdit

  • Acebrochol (cholesteryl acetate dibromide): 5α,6β-dibromocholestan-3β-ol 3β-acetate – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

PregnanesEdit

  • Alfadolone: 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnane-11,20-dione – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Alfadolone acetate: 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnane-11,20-dione 21-acetate – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Alfaxalone: 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnane-11,20-dione – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • EIDD-036 (P4-20-O): 20-(hydroxyimino)pregn-4-en-3-one – progesterone-like inhibitory neurosteroid[5]
  • Ganaxolone: 3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Hydroxydione: 21-hydroxy-5β-pregnane-3,20-dione – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Minaxolone: 11α-(dimethylamino)-2β-ethoxy-5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • ORG-20599: 21-chloro-2β-morpholin-4-yl-5β-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • ORG-21465: 2β-(2,2-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl)-3α-hydroxy-11,20-dioxo-5α-pregnan-21-yl methanesulfonate – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • Renanolone: 5β-pregnan-3α-ol-11,20-dione – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
  • SGE-516 – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator[6]
  • SGE-872 – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator[6]
  • SAGE-217, Zuranolone: 3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-21-(4-cyano-1H-pyrazol-1'-yl)-19-nor-5β-pregnan-20-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator[7][6]

The following are proneurosteroids:

ExcitatoryEdit

NaturalEdit

CholestanesEdit

  • Cerebrosterol (24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol): cholest-5-en-3β,24S-diol – NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator[12]

PregnanesEdit

  • 3β-Dihydroprogesterone (3β-DHP): pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator
  • Epipregnanolone: 5β-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator
  • Isopregnanolone (sepranolone): 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one – GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator
  • Pregnenolone sulfate (PS): pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one 3β-sulfate – GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator, NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator, sigma-1 receptor agonist, TRPM3 agonist, other actions

The following are proneurosteroids:

  • Pregnenolone (P5): pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one – of pregnenolone sulfate

AndrostanesEdit

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone): androst-5-en-3β-ol-17-one – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator, sigma-1 receptor agonist, other actions
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S; prasterone sulfate): androst-5-en-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate – GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator, other actions

SyntheticEdit

AndrostanesEdit

  • 17-Phenylandrostenol (17-PA): 17-phenyl-5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol – GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator

OthersEdit

  • SGE-201 - oxysterol/cholesterol analogue – NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator[6]
  • SGE-301 - oxysterol/cholesterol analogue – NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator[6]
  • SAGE-718: oxysterol/cholesterol analogue; exact chemical structure undisclosed – NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator[6]

MixedEdit

NaturalEdit

CholestanesEdit

  • Cholesterol: cholest-5-en-3β-ol – NMDA receptor positive allosteric modulator, possible GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, many other actions[13][14][15]

PregnanesEdit

  • Epipregnanolone sulfate: 5β-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one 3β-sulfate – GABAA and NMDA receptor negative allosteric modulator, TRPM3 agonist

NeurotrophicEdit

NaturalEdit

AndrostanesEdit

ErgostanesEdit

  • Anicequol (NGA0187, NGD-187): 16β-acetoxy-3β,7β,11β-trihydroxy-5α-ergost-22(E)-en-6-one – non-endogenous; fungi-derived; undefined mechanism of action; shows neurotrophic activity in vitro; was formerly under development for the treatment of cognitive disorders[16]

SyntheticEdit

AndrostanesEdit

  • BNN-20: 17β-spiro-(androst-5-en-17,2'-oxiran)-3β-ol – TrkA, TrkB, and p75NTR agonist

PregnanesEdit

  • BNN-27: 17α,20R-epoxypregn-5-ene-3β,21-diol – TrkA and p75NTR agonist

AntineurotrophicEdit

NaturalEdit

AndrostanesEdit

  • Testosterone: androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one – TrkA and p75NTR antagonist

SyntheticEdit

PregnanesEdit

  • Dexamethasone: 9α-fluoro-11β,17α,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione – TrkA and p75NTR antagonist

Pheromones and pherinesEdit

NaturalEdit

AndrostanesEdit

EstranesEdit

SyntheticEdit

AndrostanesEdit

EstranesEdit

PregnanesEdit

OthersEdit

OthersEdit

NaturalEdit

PregnanesEdit

SpirostanesEdit

SyntheticEdit

PregnanesEdit

AndrostanesEdit

  • Cetadiol: androst-5-ene-3β,16α-diol – undefined mechanism of action; developed as a "tranquilizer" and for the treatment of alcoholism in the 1950s

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  18. ^ http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800017449