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This is a list of known galaxies within 3.8 megaparsecs (12 million light-years) of the Solar System, in ascending order of distance. This encompasses all of the about 50 Local Group galaxies, and some that are members of neighboring galaxy groups, the M81 Group and the Centaurus A/M83 Group, and some that are currently not in any defined galaxy group.

The list aims to reflect current knowledge: not all galaxies within the 3.8 Mpc radius have been discovered. Nearby dwarf galaxies are still being discovered, and galaxies located behind the central plane of the Milky Way are extremely difficult to discern. It is possible for any galaxy to mask another located beyond it. Intergalactic distance measurements are subject to large uncertainties. Figures listed are composites of many measurements, some of which may have had their individual error bars tightened to the point of no longer overlapping with each other.[1]

ListEdit

# Picture Galaxy Type Distance from Earth Magnitude Group
Membership
Notes Diameter (ly)
Millions of light-years Mpc M m
  -   Milky Way SBbc 0.0265
(to the galactic center) [2]
0.008[2] −20.8[1] n/a Local Group Home galaxy of Earth. Barred spiral galaxy. 100,000–180,000 ly
  1 Canis Major Dwarf Irr (status as galaxy disputed) 0.025[3] 0.008 −14.5 23.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  2 Segue 1 dSph or Glob Clus 0.075 0.023[4] −3.0[4] 13.8[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  3   Sagittarius Dwarf Sphr SagDEG dSph/E7 0.081 0.024[5] −12.67[5] 4.5[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (partial accretion by Milky Way) 10,000 ly
  4 Ursa Major II Dwarf dSph 0.098 0.030 −4.2 14.3 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) ~1,800 ly
  5 Reticulum II Dwarf 0.098 0.030[7] −2.7[7] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  6 Triangulum II 0.098 0.030 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way (accretion by Milky Way) N/A
  7 Segue 2 dSph 0.114 0.035[8] −2.5[8] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way, one of the smallest known galaxies 220 ly
  8 Willman 1 dSph or Star Clus 0.120 0.038[9] −2.7[9] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
  9 Boötes II dSph 0.136 0.042[9] −2.7[9] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 10 Coma Berenices Dwarf dSph 0.137 0.042[10] −3.6[10] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 11 Boötes III dSph 0.150 0.046[11] −5.8[12] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 12   Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Irr/SB(s)m 0.163 0.050[5] −17.93[5] 0.9[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 14,000 ly
 13   Boötes I dSph 0.197[6] 0.060 −5.8[13] 13.1 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 14   Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, NGC 292) SB(s)m pec 0.206 0.063[5] −16.35[5] 2.7[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 15   Ursa Minor Dwarf dE4 0.206 0.063[5] −7.13[5] 11.9[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way
 16   Draco Dwarf (DDO 208) dE0 pec 0.258 0.079[5] −8.74[5] 10.9[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way with a large amount of dark matter ~2,700 × 1,900 ly
 17 Pisces I dIrr/dSph[14] 0.26 0.8[15] −10.35[14] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 18 Sextans Dwarf Sph dSph 0.281 0.086[5] −7.98[5] 12[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 8,400 ly
 19 Virgo I 0.28 0.087[16] −0.8[16] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 20   Sculptor Dwarf (E351-G30) dE3 0.287 0.088[5] −9.77[5] 10.1[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 21 Ursa Major I Dwarf (UMa I dSph) dSph 0.330 0.10[17] −6.75[17] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way A few thousand ly
 22   Carina Dwarf (E206-G220) dE3 0.330 0.10[5] −8.97[17] 11.3[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 1,600 ly
 23 Crater II 0.383 0.1175[18] −8.2[18] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 24 Antlia 2 0.422 0.1294 −8.5 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way, most diffuse galaxy ever found N/A
 25   Hercules Dwarf dSph 0.430 0.133[19] −5.3[19] 14.7[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 26   Fornax Dwarf (E356-G04) dSph/E2 0.46 0.14[1] −11.5[5] 9.28[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 27 Canes Venatici II Dwarf dSph 0.49 0.15[4] −4.8[4] 15.1[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 28   Leo IV Dwarf dSph 0.502 0.154[20] −5.5[20] 15.9[4] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 29 Leo V Dwarf dSph 0.570 0.175[21] −5.2[21] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 30 Pisces II dG[22] 0.596 0.183[22] −4.1[22] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 31   Leo II Dwarf (Leo B, DDO 93) dE0 pec 0.701[23] 0.215 −9.23[5] 12.45[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 4,100 ly (tidal)
 32 Canes Venatici I Dwarf dSph 0.711 0.218[24] −7.9[25] 13.9[25] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 33   Leo I Dwarf (DDO 74, UGC 5470) dE3 0.820[23] 0.25 −10.97[5] 11.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 34 Leo T Dwarf dIrr/dSph 1.370 0.42[26] 16[6] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way? 2,300 ly
 35   Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy (P 6830) IAm 1.44 0.44 −10.22[5] 13.07[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 36   Barnard's Galaxy (NGC 6822) IB(s)m IV-V 1.630[23] 0.50 −15.22[5] 9.32[1] Local Group Satellite of Milky Way 7,000 ly
 37   NGC 185 dE3 pec 2.010[27] 0.62 −14.76[5] 9.99[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 38   Andromeda II dE0 2.130[27] 0.65 −9.33[5] 15.10[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 39   IC 10 (UGC 192) dIrr IV/BCD[6] 2.2 0.67 −15.57[5] 12.2[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 40   NGC 147 (DDO 3) dE5 pec 2.200[27] 0.68 −14.9[5] 10.36[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 41   Leo A (Leo III, DDO 69) IBm V 2.250[23] 0.80[28] −11.68[28] 12.92 Local Group Satellite of Milky Way N/A
 42   IC 1613 (UGC 668) IAB(s)m V 2.350[23] 0.72 −14.51[5] 9.92[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 43 Andromeda XI dSph 2.410 0.74[29] −7.3[30] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 44   Andromeda I dE3 pec 2.430[27] 0.75 −10.87[5] 13.9[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 45   Andromeda III dE2 2.440[27] 0.75 −9.30[5] 15.20[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 46   Cetus Dwarf dSph/E4 2.460[27] 0.75 −10.18[5] 14.4[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 47   M32 (NGC 221) E2 2.489;[23] 0.76 −15.96[5] 8.73[1] Local Group Close Satellite of Andromeda 6,500 ly
 48   Cassiopeia Dwarf (Cas dSph, Andromeda VII) dSph 2.490[27] 0.76 −11.67[5] 13.65[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 49 Andromeda IX dE 2.500[27] 0.77 −7.5[5] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 50   Pisces Dwarf dIrr/dSph 2.510[27] 0.77 −7.96[5] 16.18[1] Local Group Satellite of Triangulum[citation needed] N/A
 51 Andromeda V dSph 2.52[27] 0.77 −8.41[5] 16.67[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 52   Andromeda Galaxy (M31) SA(s)b 2.54[27] 0.78 −21.58[5] 4.17[1] Local Group Largest Galaxy in the Local Group, with at least 19 satellite galaxies. Barred spiral galaxy. 220,000 ly
 53   Pegasus Dwarf Sph (And VI) dSph 2.55[27] 0.78 −10.80[5] 14.05[1] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda[5] N/A
 54   M110 (NGC 205) E6p 2.67[27] 0.83 −16.15[5] 8.72[1] Local Group Close Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 55 Andromeda VIII dSph[31] 2.7 0.828 −15.6 9.1 Local Group Tidally distorted dwarf close to Andromeda discovered 2003[31] N/A
 56   Triangulum Galaxy (M33) SA(s)cd 2.73[27] 0.83 −18.87[5] 6.19[1] Local Group Most distant (difficult) naked eye object. Closest unbarred spiral galaxy to us. 60,000 ly
 57   Andromeda XXI[32] dSph 2.8 0.86 −9.9 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda 13,000 ly
 58   Tucana Dwarf dE5 2.87 0.88[5] −9.16 15.7[1] Local Group[5] Isolated group member — a 'primordial' galaxy[33] N/A
 59   Andromeda X dSph[6] 2.90 0.889 −8.1[34] 16.1[6] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda discovered 2006 N/A
 60   Pegasus Dwarf Irregular (DDO 216) dIrr/dSph[6] 3.00[27] 0.92 −11.47[5] 13.21[6] Local Group Satellite of Andromeda N/A
 61   Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM, DDO 221) Ib(s)m[6] 3.04 0.933[28] −14.06[28] 11.03[6] Local Group Isolated member at the edge of the local group N/A
 62 Andromeda XIX[35] dG 3.04 0.933 −9.3 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda, spread over 1.7 kpc 2,200 ly
 63   Andromeda XXII[32] dSph 3.22 0.987 18.0 Local Group Satellite of Andromeda
 64   Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (SagDIG) IB(s)m V[6] 3.39 1.04[5] −11.49 15.5 Local Group[1] Isolated group member N/A
 65   Aquarius Dwarf Galaxy (DDO 210) Im V 3.49[27] 1.07 / 0.94[28] −11.09[28] 14.0[6] Local Group Isolated group member N/A
 66   UGC 4879 (VV124)[36] IAm 4.18 1.283 −11.5[28] 13.2 Local Group 3,000 ly
 67   Antlia Dwarf dE3.5[6] 4.28 1.31[28] −9.63[28] 16.19[1] Antlia-Sextans Group May have interacted with NGC 3109[37] 3,000 ly
 68   Sextans A (92205, DDO 75) IBm[6] 4.31[38] 1.32 −13.95[5] 11.86[6] Antlia-Sextans Group 5,000 ly
 69   NGC 3109 SB(s)m 4.338 1.35[37] −15.68[1] 10.39[1] Antlia-Sextans Group Possibly spiral galaxy 25,000 ly
 70   Andromeda XVIII[35] dG 4.42 1.35 −9.7 Local Group ≈ 1,200 ly
 71   Sextans B (UGC 5373) IM IV-V[6] 4.44 1.37[28] −14.08[28] 11.85[6] Antlia-Sextans Group 6,000 ly
 72   KKh 060 Irr 4.89 1.5[1] 18B[6] N/A
 73 KUG 1210+301B (KK98 127) S.. 4.89 1.5[1] 15.7[6] between LG and M94 Pair? N/A
 74 HIZSS 003 dIrr 5.5 1.69[28] −12.60[28] 18B[6] Far below the SG plane Hidden by the Milky Way N/A
 75   IC 5152 IA(s)m[6] 5.87 1.74[28] −15.56[28] 11.06[6] Local Group ? Possible outlying member of Local Group 4,000 ly
 76   NGC 300 SA(s)d[6] 6.07 1.86[39] −17.92[1] 8.95[6] between LG and Sculptor Group Closest spiral galaxy to Local Group
forms pair with NGC 55
94,000 ly
 77   KKR 25 Irr 6.1 1.90[1] −9.94[28] 17.0[6] between LG and M81 N/A
 78   ESO 410-G005 E3[6] 6.33 1.94[28] −11.60[28] 14.85[6] NGC 55 & 300 N/A
 79   ESO 294-010 dS0/Im[6] 6.36[39] 1.96[28] −10.95[28] 15.6[6] NGC 55 & 300 N/A
 80   NGC 55 SB(s)m: sp[6] 6.5 2.00[28] −18.47[28] 8.84[1] between LG and Sculptor Group Forms pair with NGC 300 70,000 ly
 81 KKs 3 dSph[40] 6.91 2.12[40] −12.3[40] 14.47[40] 4,900 ly[40]
 82   GR 8 (DDO 155) ImV[6] 6.95 2.13[28] −12.14[28] 14.65[6] Inner edge of M94 Group "footprint galaxy" N/A
 83   KKR 03 (KK98 230) dIrr 6.98 2.14[28] −9.8 17.90[6] Inner edge of M94 Group 980 ly
 84   UGCA 438 (ESO 407-018) IB(s)m pec:[6] 7.24 2.22[28] −12.92[28] 13.86[1] NGC 55 & 300
 85   UGC 9128 (DDO 187) ImIV-V 7.3 2.24[28] −12.47[28] 14.38[6] Inner edge of M94 Group
 86   IC 3104 IB(s)m 7.40 2.27[1] −14.85[28] 13.63[6] On the way to Circinus galaxy
 87   IC 4662 (ESO 102-14) IBm 7.96 2.44[28] −15.56[28] 11.74[6] On the way to Circinus galaxy 7,000 ly
 88   KKh 98 Irr 7.99 2.45[1] −10.78[1] 16.7[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
89   NGC 2403 SAB(s)cd HII 8.00 2.5[5] −19.29 8.93[6] Inner edge of M81 group 50,000 ly
 90   UGC 8508 (I Zw 060) IAm 8.35[41] 2.69[28] −13.09[28] 14.40[6] M94 Group
 91   KKh 086 Irr 8.51 2.60[28] −10.30[28] 16.8[6] Isolated (M94/Cent A)
 92   DDO 99 (UGC 6817) Im 8.61 2.64[1]–3.9[6] −13.52[28] 13.4[6] M94 Group
 93   UGC 7577 (DDO 125) Im 8.94 2.74[28] −14.32[28] 12.84[6] M94 Group
 94   UGC 9240 (DDO 190) IAm 9.10 2.80[28] −14.19[28] 13.25[6] M94 Group 15,000 ly
 95   Dwingeloo 1 SB(s)cd 9.13 2.8[1] −18.78 19.8[6] IC 342/Maffei Group 35,000 ly
 96   UGCA 276 (DDO 113) Im 9.32 2.86[1] 15.40[6] M94 Group
 97   NGC 4214 (UGC 7278) IAB(s)m 9.58 2.94[1] 10.24[6] M94 Group Starburst galaxy
 98   UGCA 86 SAB(s)m[42] 9.65 2.96[43] 13.5[6] IC 342/Maffei Group[42] 20,000 ly
 99   NGC 4163 (NGC 4167) dIrr 9.65 2.96[43] 14.5[6] M94 Group 4,000 ly
 100 Dwingeloo 2 Im? 9.78 3.0[1] −14.55[1] 20.5[6] IC 342/Maffei Group 20,000 ly
 101 KKH 11 (ZOAG G135.74-04.53) dE/N 9.78 3.0[1] −13.35[5] 16.2[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
102 KKH 12 Irr 9.78 3.0[1] −13.03 17.8[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
103 MB 3 dSph 9.78 3.0[1] −13.65[5] 19.8[6] IC 342/Maffei Group 10,000 ly
104 MB 1 (KK98 21) SAB(s)d? 9.78 3.0[1] −14.81[5] 20.5[6] IC 342/Maffei Group 5,000 ly
105   Maffei 1 S0- pec 9.78 3.0[1] −18.97[5] 11.4[6] IC 342/Maffei Group 55,000 ly
 106   Maffei 2 SAB(rs)bc 9.8 3.005[1] −20.15[5] 14.77[6] IC 342/Maffei Group 60,000 ly
107   UGCA 92 Im?[6] 9.82 3.01[43] 13[6] IC 342/Maffei Group[42]
108   UGC 8651 (DDO 181) Im 9.82 3.01[1] 14.7[6] M94 Group
109   NGC 404 SA(s)0-:[6] 10.00 3.08[28] −16.61[28] 11.21[6] 'Mirach's Ghost'
110   ESO 274-01[44] SAd: 10.1 3.09 11.7 Centaurus A/M83 Group
111   UGCA 292 ImIV-V 10.11 3.1[1] 16.0[6] M94 Group
112   NGC 3741 ImIII/BCD 10.21[41] 3.13 14.3[6] M94 Group
113 KK98 35 Irr 10.31 3.16[1] −14.30 17.2[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
114 HIPASS J1247-77 Im 10.31 3.16[45] 17.B[6] Aligned with IC 3104
115   NGC 2366 IB(s)m 10.40[41] 3.19 11.43[6] M81 group
116   UGCA 133 (DDO 44) Im 10.40[41] 3.19 15.54[6] M81 group
117   ESO 321-014[44] IBm[6] 10.40[44] 3.19 15.16[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
118   UGC 8833 Im 10.41 3.19[1] 16.5[6] M94 Group
119   UGC 4483 dIrr 10.47[41] 3.21 15.2[6] M81 group
120   UGCA 105 Im? 10.63[41] 3.26 −16.81 13.9[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
121   IC 342 SAB(rs)cd[6] 10.70 3.28[1] −20.69[1] 9.37[1] IC 342/Maffei Group "the hidden galaxy" 75,000 ly
122 Cas 1 (KK98 19) dIrr 10.76 3.3[1] −16.70 16.38[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
123 Camelopardalis B Irr 10.80[41] 3.31 −11.85 16.1[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
124   UGCA 15 (DDO 6) IB(s)m 10.90 3.34[5] −12.50[5] 15.19[6] Sculptor group
125   NGC 5253 Im pec 10.90 3.53[5] 10.9 [6] Centaurus A/M83 Group Nearest Wolf-Rayet galaxy to us.
126   NGC 1569 (UGC 3056) IBm;Sbrst[6] 10.96 3.36[46] −18.17[1] 11.86[6] IC 342/Maffei Group[42] 6,000 ly
127   KKH 37 (Mai 16) S/Irr 11.06 3.39[45] 16.4[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
128   Holmberg II (DDO 50, UGC 4305) Im 11.06[41] 3.39 11.1[6] M81 group
129   NGC 5102 SA0- HII 11.09 3.40[1] −18.08.56 10.35[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
130   NGC 5237 I0?[6] 11.09 3.40;[44] 13.23[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
131   ESO 325-11 11.09 3.40;[44] 13.99[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
132   ESO 540-030 (KDG 2) IABm 11.10 3.40[5] −11.39 16.45[6] Sculptor group
133   NGC 247 SAB(s)d 11.1 3.4[5] −20.00 9.9[6] Sculptor group
134 FM2000 1 dSph? 11.15[41] 3.42 17.5[6] M81 group
135   ESO 540-032 IAB(s)m pec: 11.15 3.42[5] −11.32[5] 16.55[6] Sculptor group
136   NGC 1560 SA(s)d HII 11.25 3.45[1] −16.87[5] 12.16[6] IC 342/Maffei Group
137   ESO 383-087 (ISG 39) SB(s)dm 11.3 3.45[44] −15.16[1] 11.03[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
138   NGC 5206 SB0 11.3 3.47;[44] Centaurus A/M83 Group
139   KK98 77 dSph 11.35[41] 3.48 16.2[6] M81 group
140   KK 179 (ESO 269-37) IABm: 11.4 3.48[44] Centaurus A/M83 Group
141   Sculptor Galaxy
(NGC 253)
SAB(s)c 11.40[41] 3.49 8.0[6] Sculptor group 90,000 ly
142   DDO 71 Im 11.42[41] 3.50 18[6] M81 group
143   Messier 82 I0;Sbrst HII 11.42 3.53[5] −19.63[5] 9.30 [6] M81 group 37,000 ly, possibly up to 100,000 ly
144   ESO 269-66 (KK98 190) dE,N 11.55 3.54[1] −13.56 14.11[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
145 M81 Dwarf A (KDG 52) I? 11.58[41] 3.55 −11.49[5] 16.5[6] M81 group
146   NGC 2976 SAc pec HII 11.61[41] 3.56 −17.1[5] 10.82[6] M81 group
147   UGC 4459 (DDO 53) Im 11.61[41] 3.56 −13.37[5] 14.48 [6] M81 group
148   NGC 4945 SB(s)cd:sp[6] 11.70[47] 3.59 −20.51[1] 9.3[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group
149   Messier 81 SA(s)ab, LINER 11.74[41] 3.62 6.94[6] M81 group Brightest galaxy in M81 Group 90,000 ly
150   NGC 4449 IBm 12.00[41] 3.71 10.00[6] M94 group 18,000 ly
151   Centaurus A S0 pec 12.01[41] 3.8 6.84[6] Centaurus A/M83 Group Brightest galaxy in Centaurus A Group and brightest and nearest radio galaxy 60,000 ly
#   Galaxy Type Dist from Earth Magnitude Group
Membership
Notes
Mly Mpc M m

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl I. D. Karachentsev et al.(2004) A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies Refinements in distance measurements could change the order presented in this list.
  2. ^ a b Earth is 8,122 ± 31 parsecs (26,490 ± 100 ly) or 0.0265 million light years from the galactic center (the center of the Milky Way). The distance of Earth from the galaxy which contains it is of course "zero"
  3. ^ "Astronomers find nearest galaxy to the Milky Way" (Press release). University of Strasbourg. 4 November 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-05-27. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Belokurov, V.; Zucker, D. B.; Evans, N. W.; Kleyna, J. T.; Koposov, S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, M. J.; Gilmore, G.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Fellhauer, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Hewett, P. C.; Vidrih, S.; De Jong, J. T. A.; Smith, J. A.; Rix, H. ‐W.; Bell, E. F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Newberg, H. J.; Mayeur, P. A.; Yanny, B.; Rockosi, C. M.; Gnedin, O. Y.; Schneider, D. P.; Beers, T. C.; Barentine, J. C.; Brewington, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Harvanek, M.; Kleinman, S. J. (2007). "Cats and Dogs, Hair and a Hero: A Quintet of New Milky Way Companions". The Astrophysical Journal. 654 (2): 897. arXiv:astro-ph/0608448. Bibcode:2007ApJ...654..897B. doi:10.1086/509718.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn I. D. Karachentsev (2005). "The Local Group and Other Neighboring Galaxy Groups". Astronomical Journal. 129 (1): 178–188. arXiv:astro-ph/0410065. Bibcode:2005AJ....129..178K. doi:10.1086/426368.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Retrieved 2008.
  7. ^ a b Sergey E. Koposov; Vasily Belokurov; Gabriel Torrealba; N. Wyn Evans (10 March 2015). "Beasts of the Southern Wild. Discovery of a large number of Ultra Faint satellites in the vicinity of the Magellanic Clouds". The Astrophysical Journal. 805: 130. arXiv:1503.02079. Bibcode:2015ApJ...805..130K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/130.
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ReferencesEdit