Open main menu

The Solar System's planets and officially recognized dwarf planets are known to be orbited by 194 natural satellites, or moons. 19 moons in the Solar System are large enough to be gravitationally rounded, and thus would be considered planets or dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun.

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than the Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. Over the following three centuries only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large, ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular. Recent years have had a drop in the number of discovered moons, with only 14 moons – twelve of Jupiter (ten of which were announced at the same time), one of Makemake, and one of Neptune – being discovered since 2012.

Moons by primaryEdit

 
Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale
 
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere.
 
The number of moons discovered in each year until the start of 2008.

Mercury, the smallest and innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi).[1] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus also has no moons,[2] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has at least two co-orbitals: the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29;[3] however, since they do not orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known moons, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd).[4]

Jupiter has 79 moons with known orbits, of which 72 have confirmed orbits and have thus received permanent designations; of these, 57 have been named. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They are named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Its 71 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and three others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups.

Saturn has 62 moons with known orbits; 53 of them have names, and these are the ones with confirmed orbits. Most of them are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Including these large moons, 24 of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining 38, all small, are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 27 named moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are another 13 inner moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another nine outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock.

Neptune has 14 moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was a dwarf planet that was captured. Neptune also has seven known inner regular satellites, and six outer irregular satellites.

Pluto, a dwarf planet, has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.[5]

Among the other dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself.[6] Haumea has two moons, Hi'iaka and Namaka, of radii ~195 and ~100 km, respectively.[7] Makemake has one moon, discovered in April 2016. Eris has one known moon, Dysnomia. Accurately determining its size is difficult: one indicative estimate of its radius is 257±110 km,[8] but on some assumptions could be as high as 342±25 km.[9] The Kuiper belt object 90482 Orcus, believed to be a dwarf planet, was found in 2005[10] to have a natural satellite, later named Vanth. As of October 2009, 190 asteroid moons[11] and 63 trans-Neptunian moons had been discovered.[11]

Summary – number of moons
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Number of moons 0 0 1 2 79 62 27 14
Dwarf planet Ceres Pluto Haumea Makemake Eris
Number of moons 0 5 2 1 1
Minor planet
See list

ListEdit

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the five recognised dwarf planets of the Solar System, ordered by their official Roman numeral designations. The 19 moons that are large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity are listed in bold. The seven largest moons, which are larger than any of the known dwarf planets, are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because it depends on the mass of the primary as well as the satellite's distance from it.[clarification needed]

Satellite of Earth Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Pluto
Satellites of Mars Satellites of Uranus Satellites of Haumea
Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Neptune Satellite of Makemake
Satellite of Eris
Image Numeral Name Mean radius (km) Semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Discovery year Discovered by Notes Ref(s) Planet
I Moon 1737.10 384,399 27.321582 Prehistoric Synchronous rotation [12] Earth
I Phobos 11.1 ± 0.15 9,380 0.319 1877 Hall [13][14][15] Mars
II Deimos 6.2 ± 0.18 23,460 1.262 1877 Hall [13][14][15] Mars
I Io 1818.1 ± 0.1 421,800 1.769 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16] Jupiter
II Europa 1560.7 ± 0.7 671,100 3.551 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16] Jupiter
III Ganymede 2634.1 ± 0.3 1,070,400 7.155 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16] Jupiter
IV Callisto 2408.4 ± 0.3 1,882,700 16.69 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [15][16] Jupiter
V Amalthea 83.5 ± 2 181,400 0.498 1892 Barnard Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][17] Jupiter
VI Himalia 67 ± 10[18] 11,461,000 250.56 1904 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][19] Jupiter
VII Elara 43 11,741,000 259.64 1905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][20] Jupiter
VIII Pasiphae 30 23,624,000 743.63 (r) 1908 Melotte Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][21] Jupiter
IX Sinope 19 23,939,000 758.90 (r) 1914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][22] Jupiter
X Lysithea 18 11,717,000 259.20 1938 Nicholson Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][23] Jupiter
XI Carme 23 23,404,000 734.17 (r) 1938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][23] Jupiter
XII Ananke 14 21,276,000 629.77 (r) 1951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][24] Jupiter
XIII Leda 10 11,165,000 240.92 1974 Kowal Prograde irregular (Himalia) [14][15][25] Jupiter
XIV Thebe 49.3 ± 2.0 221,900 0.675 1979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][26] Jupiter
XV Adrastea 8.2 ± 2.0 129,000 0.298 1979 Jewitt, Danielson (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][27] Jupiter
XVI Metis 21.5 ± 2.0 128,000 0.295 1979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [14][15][28] Jupiter
XVII Callirrhoe 4.3 24,103,000 758.77 (r) 2000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][29] Jupiter
XVIII Themisto 4.0 7,284,000 130.02 1975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery) Prograde irregular (Themisto) [14][15][30][31] Jupiter
XIX Megaclite 2.7 23,493,000 752.86 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XX Taygete 2.5 23,280,000 732.41 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXI Chaldene 1.9 23,100,000 723.72 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXII Harpalyke 2.2 20,858,000 623.32 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXIII Kalyke 2.6 23,483,000 742.06 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXIV Iocaste 2.6 21,060,000 631.60 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXV Erinome 1.6 23,196,000 728.46 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXVI Isonoe 1.9 23,155,000 726.23 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXVII Praxidike 3.4 20,908,000 625.39 (r) 2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][32] Jupiter
XXVIII Autonoe 2.0 24,046,000 760.95 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXIX Thyone 2.0 20,939,000 627.21 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXX Hermippe 2.0 21,131,000 633.9 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXI Aitne 1.5 23,229,000 730.18 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXII Eurydome 1.5 22,865,000 717.33 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXIII Euanthe 1.5 20,797,000 620.49 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXIV Euporie 1.0 19,304,000 550.74 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXV Orthosie 1.0 20,720,000 622.56 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXVI Sponde 1.0 23,487,000 748.34 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXVII Kale 1.0 23,217,000 729.47 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXVIII Pasithee 1.0 23,004,000 719.44 (r) 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XXXIX Hegemone 1.5 23,577,000 739.88 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15] Jupiter
XL Mneme 1.0 21,035,000 620.04 (r) 2003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15] Jupiter
XLI Aoede 2.0 23,980,000 761.50 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15] Jupiter
XLII Thelxinoe 1.0 21,164,000 628.09 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15] Jupiter
XLIII Arche 1.5 23,355,000 731.95 (r) 2002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15][33] Jupiter
XLIV Kallichore 1.0 23,288,000 728.73 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15] Jupiter
XLV Helike 2.0 21,069,000 626.32 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15] Jupiter
XLVI Carpo 1.5 17,058,000 456.30 2003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [14][15] Jupiter
XLVII Eukelade 2.0 23,328,000 730.47 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15] Jupiter
XLVIII Cyllene 1.0 23,809,000 752 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15] Jupiter
XLIX Kore 1.0 24,543,000 779.17 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15] Jupiter
L Herse 1.0 22,983,000 714.51 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15] Jupiter
LI S/2010 J 1 1.0 23,314,335 723.2 (r) 2010 Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34] Jupiter
LII S/2010 J 2 0.5 20,307,150 588.1 (r) 2010 Veillet Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34] Jupiter
LIII Dia 2.0 12,570,000 287.93 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular (Himalia) [34] Jupiter
LIV S/2016 J 1 3.0 20,595,480 602.7 (r) 2016 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34] Jupiter
LV S/2003 J 18 1.0 20,426,000 596.58 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15] Jupiter
LVI S/2011 J 2 0.5 23,329,710 726.8 (r) 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34] Jupiter
LVII Eirene 2.0 23,498,000 738.74 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15] Jupiter
LVIII Philophrosyne 1.0 22,630,000 689.77 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [14][15] Jupiter
LIX S/2017 J 1 2.0 23,483,978 734.2 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34] Jupiter
LX Eupheme 1.0 20,224,000 583.88 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15] Jupiter
LXI S/2003 J 19 1.0 23,535,000 740.43 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15] Jupiter
LXII Valetudo 0.5 18,928,095 532.0 2016 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Valetudo) [34] Jupiter
LXIII S/2017 J 2 1.0 23,240,957 723.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34] Jupiter
LXIV S/2017 J 3 1.0 20,639,315 605.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34] Jupiter
LXV Pandia 1.0 11,494,801 251.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [34] Jupiter
LXVI S/2017 J 5 1.0 23,169,389 720.5 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34] Jupiter
LXVII S/2017 J 6 1.0 22,394,682 684.7 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [34] Jupiter
LXVIII S/2017 J 7 1.0 20,571,458 602.8 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34] Jupiter
LXIX S/2017 J 8 0.5 23,174,446 720.7 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34] Jupiter
LXX S/2017 J 9 1.0 21,429,955 640.9 (r) 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [34] Jupiter
LXXI Ersa 1.0 11,453,004 250.4 (r) 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Himalia) [34] Jupiter
LXXII S/2011 J 1 0.5 20,155,290 580.7 (r) 2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [34] Jupiter
S/2003 J 2 1.0 28,455,000 981.55 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [14][15] Jupiter
S/2003 J 4 1.0 23,933,000 755.26 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [14][15] Jupiter
S/2003 J 9 0.5 23,388,000 733.30 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [14][15] Jupiter
S/2003 J 10 1.0 23,044,000 716.25 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme?) [14][15] Jupiter
S/2003 J 12 0.5 17,833,000 489.72 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke?) [14][15] Jupiter
S/2003 J 16 1.0 20,956,000 616.33 (r) 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [14][15] Jupiter
S/2003 J 23 1.0 23,566,000 732.45 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae?) [14][15] Jupiter
I Mimas 198.2 ± 0.4 185,540 0.942 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15] Saturn
II Enceladus 252.3 ± 0.6 238,040 1.370 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15] Saturn
III Tethys 536.3 ± 1.5 294,670 1.888 1684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15] Saturn
IV Dione 562.5 ± 1.5 377,420 2.737 1684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15] Saturn
V Rhea 764.5 ± 2.0 527,070 4.518 1672 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15] Saturn
VI Titan 2575.5 ± 2.0 1,221,870 15.95 1655 Huygens Main-group moon [14][15] Saturn
VII Hyperion 138.6 1,500,880 21.28 1848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main-group moon [14][15] Saturn
VIII Iapetus 734.5 ± 4.0 3,560,840 79.33 1671 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [14][15] Saturn
IX Phoebe 106.6 ± 1.1 12,947,780 550.31 (r) 1899 Pickering Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
X Janus 90.4 ± 3.0 151,460 0.695 1966 Dollfus; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [14][15] Saturn
  XI Epimetheus 58.3 ± 3.1 151,410 0.694 1980 Walker; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [14][15] Saturn
XII Helene 16 ± 4 377,420 2.737 1980 Laques, Lecacheux Main-group trojan [14][15] Saturn
XIII Telesto 12 ± 3 294,710 1.888 1980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain (Voyager 1) Main-group trojan [14][15] Saturn
XIV Calypso 9.5 ± 1.5 294,710 1.888 1980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main-group trojan [14][15] Saturn
XV Atlas 15.3 ± 1.2 137,670 0.602 1980 Terrile (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15] Saturn
XVI Prometheus 46.8 ± 5.6 139,380 0.613 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15] Saturn
XVII Pandora 40.6 ± 4.5 141,720 0.629 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15] Saturn
XVIII Pan 12.8 133,580 0.575 1990 Showalter (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15] Saturn
XIX Ymir 9 23,140,400 1,315.58 (r) 2000 Gladman Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XX Paaliaq 11 15,200,000 686.95 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15] Saturn
XXI Tarvos 7.5 17,983,000 926.23 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15] Saturn
XXII Ijiraq 6 11,124,000 451.42 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15] Saturn
XXIII Suttungr 3.5 19,459,000 1,016.67 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXIV Kiviuq 8 11,110,000 449.22 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15] Saturn
XXV Mundilfari 3.5 18,628,000 952.77 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXVI Albiorix 16 16,182,000 783.45 2000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15] Saturn
XXVII Skathi 4 15,540,000 728.20 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXVIII Erriapus 5 17,343,000 871.19 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15] Saturn
XXIX Siarnaq 20 18,015,400 896.44 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14][15] Saturn
XXX Thrymr 3.5 20,314,000 1,094.11 (r) 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXXI Narvi 3.5 19,007,000 1,003.86 (r) 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXXII Methone 1.6 194,440 1.010 2004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [15] Saturn
XXXIII Pallene 2 212,280 1.154 2004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [15] Saturn
XXXIV Polydeuces 1.25 377,200 2.737 2004 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Main-group trojan [15] Saturn
XXXV Daphnis 3–4 136,500 0.594 2005 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] Saturn
XXXVI Aegir 3 20,751,000 1,117.52 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXXVII Bebhionn 3 17,119,000 834.84 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [14][15] Saturn
XXXVIII Bergelmir 3 19,336,000 1,005.74 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XXXIX Bestla 3.5 20,192,000 1,088.72 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XL Farbauti 2.5 20,377,000 1,085.55 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XLI Fenrir 2 22,454,000 1,260.35 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XLII Fornjot 3 25,146,000 1,494.2 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XLIII Hati 3 19,846,000 1,038.61 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14][15] Saturn
XLIV Hyrrokkin 4 18,437,000 931.86 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
XLV Kari 3.5 22,089,000 1,230.97 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
XLVI Loge 3 23,058,000 1,311.36 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
XLVII Skoll 3 17,665,000 878.29 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
XLVIII Surtur 3 22,704,000 1,297.36 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
XLIX Anthe 1 197,700 1.0365 2007 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [35] Saturn
L Jarnsaxa 3 18,811,000 964.74 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
LI Greip 3 18,206,000 921.19 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] Saturn
LII Tarqeq 3.5 18,009,000 887.48 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Inuit) [15] Saturn
LIII Aegaeon 0.33 167,500 0.808 2008 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [36][37] Saturn
S/2004 S 7 3 20,999,000 1,140.24 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15] Saturn
S/2004 S 12 2.5 19,878,000 1,046.19 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15] Saturn
S/2004 S 13 3 18,404,000 933.48 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15] Saturn
S/2004 S 17 2 19,447,000 1,014.70 (r) 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14][15] Saturn
S/2006 S 1 3 18,790,000 963.37 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] Saturn
S/2006 S 3 3 22,096,000 1,227.21 (r) 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] Saturn
S/2007 S 2 3 16,725,000 808.08 (r) 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] Saturn
S/2007 S 3 3 18,975,000 977.8 (r) 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] Saturn
S/2009 S 1 0.15 117,000 0.471 2009 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [38] Saturn
I Ariel 578.9 ± 0.6 190,900 2.520 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [14][15] Uranus
II Umbriel 584.7 ± 2.8 266,000 4.144 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [14][15] Uranus
III Titania 788.9 ± 1.8 436,300 8.706 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15] Uranus
IV Oberon 761.4 ± 2.6 583,500 13.46 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [14][15] Uranus
V Miranda 235.8 ± 0.7 129,900 1.413 1948 Kuiper Main-group moon [14][15] Uranus
VI Cordelia 20.1 ± 3 49,800 0.335 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15] Uranus
VII Ophelia 21.4 ± 4 53,800 0.376 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [14][15] Uranus
VIII Bianca 25.7 ± 2 59,200 0.435 1986 Smith (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
IX Cressida 39.8 ± 2 61,800 0.464 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
X Desdemona 32.0 ± 4 62,700 0.474 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
XI Juliet 46.8 ± 4 64,400 0.493 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
XII Portia 67.6 ± 4 66,100 0.513 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
XIII Rosalind 36 ± 6 69,900 0.558 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
XIV Belinda 40.3 ± 8 75,300 0.624 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
XV Puck 81 ± 2 86,000 0.762 1985 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Uranus
XVI Caliban 49 7,231,100 579.73 (r) 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XVII Sycorax 75 12,179,400 1,288.38 (r) 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XVIII Prospero 25 16,256,000 1,978.29 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XIX Setebos 24 17,418,000 2,225.21 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XX Stephano 10 8,004,000 677.36 (r) 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XXI Trinculo 9 8,504,000 749.24 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XXII Francisco 6 4,276,000 266.56 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XXIII Margaret 5.5 14,345,000 1,687.01 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XXIV Ferdinand 6 20,901,000 2,887.21 (r) 2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al. Retrograde irregular [14][15] Uranus
XXV Perdita 15 76,417 0.638 1986 Karkoschka (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] Uranus
XXVI Mab 6 97,736 0.923 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [15] Uranus
XXVII Cupid 9 74,392 0.613 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [15] Uranus
I Triton 1353.4 ± 0.9 354,800 5.877 (r) 1846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
II Nereid 170 ± 25 5,513,820 360.14 1949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
III Naiad 33 ± 3 48,224 0.294 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Neptune
IV Thalassa 41 ± 3 50,075 0.311 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Neptune
V Despina 75 ± 3 52,526 0.335 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Neptune
VI Galatea 88 ± 4 61,953 0.429 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Neptune
VII Larissa 97 ± 3 73,548 0.555 1982 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Neptune
VIII Proteus 210 ± 7 117,647 1.122 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14][15] Neptune
IX Halimede 31 15,728,000 1,879.71 (r) 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
X Psamathe 20 46,695,000 9,115.91 (r) 2003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
XI Sao 22 22,422,000 2,914.07 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
XII Laomedeia 21 23,571,000 3,167.85 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
XIII Neso 30 48,387,000 9,373.99 (r) 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [14][15] Neptune
  XIV Hippocamp 17.4 105,283 0.9362 2013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [39] Neptune
  I Charon 606 ± 0.5 19,591 6.387 1978 Christy [14][15] Pluto
  II Nix 23.0 ± 2 48,671 24.85 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. [14][15] Pluto
  III Hydra 30.5 ± 4 64,698 38.20 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. [14][15] Pluto
  IV Kerberos 14.0 57,729 32.17 2011 Showalter (Hubble) [14][15][40][41] Pluto
  V Styx 10.0 42,393 20.16 2012 Showalter (Hubble) [14][15][42] Pluto
I Hiʻiaka ~160 49,880 49.12 ± 0.03 2005 Brown et al. [7][43][44] Haumea
II Namaka ~85 25,657 18.2783 2005 Brown et al. [7][43][44] Haumea
  S/2015 (136472) 1 ~87.5 ~21,000 ~12.4 2016 Parker et al. [45][46] Makemake
I Dysnomia 350 ± 60[8] 37,370 ± 150 15.774 ± 0.002 2005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. SDO moon [47][48][49] Eris

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Warell, J.; Karlsson, O. (2007). "A search for natural satellites of Mercury". Planetary and Space Science. 55 (14): 2037–2041. Bibcode:2007P&SS...55.2037W. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2007.06.004.
  2. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Planets: Venus: Moons". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ Whitehouse, David (21 October 2002). "Earth's little brother found". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  4. ^ Sheppard, Scott; et al. (2004). "A Survey for Outer Satellites of Mars: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal. 128 (5): 2542–2546. arXiv:astro-ph/0409522. Bibcode:2004AJ....128.2542S. doi:10.1086/424541.
  5. ^ Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, William M.; Young, Eliot F.; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. Alan (2006). "Orbits and Photometry of Pluto's Satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". The Astronomical Journal. 132 (1): 290–298. arXiv:astro-ph/0512491. Bibcode:2006AJ....132..290B. doi:10.1086/504422.. a, i, e per JPL (site updated 2008 Aug 25)
  6. ^ Bieryla, Allyson; Parker, J. W. (December 2006). "Search for Satellites around Ceres". 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #25.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 38: 933. Bibcode:2006AAS...209.2502B.
  7. ^ a b c Dumas, C.; Carry, B.; Hestroffer, D.; Merlin, F. (2011). "High-contrast observations of (136108) Haumea". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 528: A105. arXiv:1101.2102. Bibcode:2011A&A...528A.105D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015011.
  8. ^ a b Johnston, W. R. (30 December 2008). "(136199) Eris and Dysnomia". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  9. ^ Santos-Sanz, P.; et al. (2012). ""TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region IV. Size/albedo characterization of 15 scattered disk and detached objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory-PACS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A92. arXiv:1202.1481. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A..92S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118541.
  10. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (22 February 2007). "IAUC 8812: Sats OF 2003 AZ_84, (50000), (55637), (90482)". IAU Circular. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ a b "Satellites and Companions of Minor Planets". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  12. ^ Wieczorek, M.; et al. (2006). "The constitution and structure of the lunar interior". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 60 (1): 221–364. Bibcode:2006RvMG...60..221W. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.60.3.
  13. ^ a b "Notes: The Satellites of Mars". The Observatory. 1 (6): 181–185. 20 September 1877. Bibcode:1877Obs.....1..181. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL, NASA. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2016., and references therein.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl "Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters". JPL, NASA. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2016., and references therein.
  16. ^ a b c d Showman, Adam P.; Malhotra, Renu (1999). "The Galilean Satellites" (PDF). Science. 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564.
  17. ^ Barnard, E. E. (1892). "Discovery and Observation of a Fifth Satellite to Jupiter". Astronomical Journal. 12: 81–85. Bibcode:1892AJ.....12...81B. doi:10.1086/101715.
  18. ^ Porco, Carolyn C.; et al. (March 2003). "Cassini Imaging of Jupiter's Atmosphere, Satellites, and Rings". Science. 299 (5612): 1541–1547. Bibcode:2003Sci...299.1541P. doi:10.1126/science.1079462. PMID 12624258.
  19. ^ Crommelin, A. C. D. (10 March 1905). "Provisional Elements of Jupiter's Satellite VI" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 65 (5): 524–527. Bibcode:1905MNRAS..65..524C. doi:10.1093/mnras/65.5.524.
  20. ^ Perrine, C. D. (1905). "The Seventh Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 17 (101): 62–63. Bibcode:1905PASP...17...56.. doi:10.1086/121624. JSTOR 40691209.
  21. ^ Melotte, P. J. (1908). "Note on the Newly Discovered Eighth Satellite of Jupiter, Photographed at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 68 (6): 456–457. Bibcode:1908MNRAS..68..456.. doi:10.1093/mnras/68.6.456.
  22. ^ Nicholson, S. B. (1914). "Discovery of the Ninth Satellite of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 26 (1): 197–198. Bibcode:1914PASP...26..197N. doi:10.1086/122336. PMC 1090718. PMID 16586574.
  23. ^ a b Nicholson, S.B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 50 (297): 292–293. Bibcode:1938PASP...50..292N. doi:10.1086/124963.
  24. ^ Nicholson, S. B. (1951). "An unidentified object near Jupiter, probably a new satellite". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 63 (375): 297–299. Bibcode:1951PASP...63..297N. doi:10.1086/126402.
  25. ^ Kowal, C. T.; Aksnes, K.; Marsden, B. G.; Roemer, E. (1974). "Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter". Astronomical Journal. 80: 460–464. Bibcode:1975AJ.....80..460K. doi:10.1086/111766.
  26. ^ Synnott, S.P. (1980). "1979J2: The Discovery of a Previously Unknown Jovian Satellite". Science. 210 (4471): 786–788. Bibcode:1980Sci...210..786S. doi:10.1126/science.210.4471.786. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1684562. PMID 17739548.
  27. ^ Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G.E.; Synnott, S.P. (1979). "Discovery of a New Jupiter Satellite". Science. 206 (4421): 951. Bibcode:1979Sci...206..951J. doi:10.1126/science.206.4421.951. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1749286. PMID 17733911.
  28. ^ Synnott, S.P. (1981). "1979J3: Discovery of a Previously Unknown Satellite of Jupiter". Science. 212 (4501): 1392. Bibcode:1981Sci...212.1392S. doi:10.1126/science.212.4501.1392. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1686790. PMID 17746259.
  29. ^ "IAUC 7460: S/1999 J 1". 20 July 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  30. ^ "IAUC 2845: Probable New Satellite of Jupiter". 3 October 1975. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  31. ^ "IAUC 7525: S/1975 J 1 = S/2000 J 1". 25 November 2000. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i "IAUC 7555: Satellites of Jupiter". 5 January 2001. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "IAUC 7900: Satellites of Jupiter". 16 May 2002. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Jupiter's Known Satellites". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  35. ^ C. Porco & the Cassini Imaging Team (18 July 2007). "S/ 2007 S 4". IAU Circular. 8857.
  36. ^ "IAU Circular No. 9023". International Astronomical Union. 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  37. ^ Thomas, P. C.; Burns, J. A.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; et al. (2013). "Saturn's Mysterious Arc-Embedded Moons: Recycled Fluff?" (PDF). 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. p. 1598. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  38. ^ "IAU Circular No. 9091". International Astronomical Union. 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  39. ^ Kelly Beatty (15 July 2013). "Neptune's Newest Moon". Sky & Telescope. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  40. ^ Showalter, M. R.; Hamilton, D. P. (20 July 2011). "New Satellite of (134340) Pluto: S/2011 (134340) 1". Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  41. ^ "NASA's Hubble Discovers Another Moon Around Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  42. ^ "Hubble Discovers a Fifth Moon Orbiting Pluto". NASA. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  43. ^ a b D. C. Fabrycky; M. J. Holman; D. Ragozzine; M. E. Brown; T. A. Lister; D. M. Terndrup; J. Djordjevic; E. F. Young; L. A. Young; R. R. Howell (2008). "Mutual Events of 2003 EL61 and its Inner Satellite". AAS DPS Conference 2008: 36.08. Bibcode:2008DPS....40.3608F.
  44. ^ a b Ragozzine, D.; Brown, M.E. (2009). "Orbits and Masses of the Satellites of the Dwarf Planet Haumea = 2003 EL61". The Astronomical Journal. 137 (6): 4766–4776. arXiv:0903.4213. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.4766R. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/6/4766.
  45. ^ "Hubble Discovers Moon Orbiting the Dwarf Planet Makemake". hubblesite.org. 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  46. ^ Parker, A. H.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S. (25 April 2016). "Discovery of a Makemakean Moon". The Astrophysical Journal. 825 (1): L9. arXiv:1604.07461. Bibcode:2016ApJ...825L...9P. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L9.
  47. ^ Brown, Michael E.; Schaller, Emily L. (15 June 2007). "The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris". Science. 316 (5831): 1585. Bibcode:2007Sci...316.1585B. doi:10.1126/science.1139415. PMID 17569855. (Including Supporting Online Material 25 March 2016. VOL 351, ISSUE 6280, PAGES 1371-1494.)
  48. ^ "Dwarf Planet Outweighs Pluto". space.com. 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  49. ^ Brown, M. E.; Van Dam, M. A.; Bouchez, A. H.; Le Mignant, D.; Campbell, R. D.; Chin, J. C. Y.; Conrad, A.; Hartman, S. K.; Johansson, E. M.; Lafon, R. E.; Rabinowitz, D. L. Rabinowitz; Stomski, P. J., Jr.; Summers, D. M.; Trujillo, C. A.; Wizinowich, P. L. (2006). "Satellites of the Largest Kuiper Belt Objects" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 639 (1): L43–L46. arXiv:astro-ph/0510029. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..43B. doi:10.1086/501524. Retrieved 19 October 2011.