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A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.[1] The national poet as culture hero is a long-standing symbol, to be distinguished from successive holders of a bureaucratically-appointed poet-laureate office. The idea and honoring of national poets emerged primarily during Romanticism, as a figure that helped consolidation of the nation states, as it provided validation of their ethno-linguistic groups.[1]

Most national poets are historic figures, though a few contemporary writers working in relatively new or revived national literatures are also considered "national poets." Some nations may have more than one national poet; the idea of a single one is always a simplification. It has been argued that a national poet "must write poetry that closely identifies with the nation's cause – or is thought to do so",[2] with an additional assumption being "that a national poet must write in a national language".[3]

The following is a list of nations, with their associated national poets. It is not a list of sovereign states or countries, though many of the nations listed may also be such. The terms "nation" (as cultural concept), "country" (as geographical concept) and "state" (as political concept) are not synonyms.

Contents

AfricaEdit

AsiaEdit

EuropeEdit

Country Poet
  Albania Gjergj Fishta, Naim Frashëri
  Andorra Albert Salvadó
  Armenia Grigor Narekatsi, Sayat-Nova, Hovhannes Tumanyan, Yeghishe Charents
  Austria Franz Grillparzer, Peter Rosegger, Johann Nepomuk Nestroy
  Belarus Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas
  Belgium Emile Verhaeren, Maurice Maeterlinck
  Flanders Hendrik Conscience, Guido Gezelle, Hugo Claus
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Izet Sarajlić
  Republika Srpska Aleksa Šantić, Gordana Kukić
  Bulgaria Hristo Botev,[8] Ivan Vazov
  Croatia Marko Marulić, Miroslav Krleža
  Cyprus Vasilis Michaelides
  Czech Republic Karel Hynek Mácha, Božena Němcová, Jan Neruda
  Denmark Adam Oehlenschläger
  Faroe Islands William Heinesen
  England William Shakespeare,[9] William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  Estonia Lydia Koidula, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
  Finland Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot
  France Victor Hugo, Charles Baudelaire
  Georgia Shota Rustaveli
  Germany Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller
  Gibraltar Héctor Licudi
  Greece Homer, Dionysios Solomos
  Guernsey George Métivier
  Hungary Sándor Petőfi, János Arany
  Iceland Jónas Hallgrímsson, Hallgrímur Pétursson, Halldór Laxness
  Ireland Thomas Moore, William Butler Yeats
  Italy Dante Alighieri, Giosuè Carducci, Giacomo Leopardi, Ugo Foscolo, Gabriele D'Annunzio
  Latvia Rainis, Andrejs Pumpurs
  Liechtenstein Peter Kaiser
  Lithuania Kristijonas Donelaitis, Maironis
  Luxembourg Edmond de la Fontaine, Michel Rodange, Michel Lentz
  Macedonia Kočo Racin, Georgi Pulevski and Kole Nedelkovski
  Malta Dun Karm Psaila
  Moldova Mihai Eminescu, Grigore Vieru
  Monaco Louis Notari
  Montenegro Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
  Netherlands Joost van den Vondel, Jacob Cats
  Friesland Gysbert Japicx (or Japiks)
  Norway Henrik Wergeland
  Poland Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Zygmunt Krasiński, Jan Kochanowski, Cyprian Norwid
  Portugal Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa
  Romania Mihai Eminescu
  Russia Alexander Pushkin
  Dagestan Rasul Gamzatov
  North Ossetia-Alania Kosta Khetagurov
  San Marino Pio Chiaruzzi
  Scotland Robert Burns, Hugh MacDiarmid, John Barbour, Edwin Morgan
  Serbia Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, Vladislav Petković Dis, Oskar Davičo, Desanka Maksimović (Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro)[10]
  Kosovo Din Mehmeti, Ali Podrimja
  Slovakia Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav
  Slovenia France Prešeren
  Spain Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega,[1] Federico García Lorca
  Catalonia Jacint Verdaguer, Salvador Espriu
  Galicia Rosalía de Castro
  Basque Country Xabier de Lizardi, Nicolás Ormaechea, Gabriel Aresti
  Sweden Carl Michael Bellman, Gustaf Fröding, Verner von Heidenstam, Esaias Tegnér
   Switzerland Gottfried Keller, Carl Spitteler
  Turkey Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Nâzım Hikmet
  Ukraine Taras Shevchenko
  Valencian Community Vicent Andrés Estellés
  Wales Dylan Thomas, Dafydd ap Gwilym

North AmericaEdit

OceaniaEdit

South AmericaEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Nemoianu, Virgil (2002). Esterhammer, Angela, ed. "'National Poets’ in the Romantic Age: Emergence and Importance." Romantic Poetry. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 537. ISBN 9789027234506. 
  2. ^ John Neubauer, "Figures of National Poets", in Marcel Cornis-Pope and John Neubauer, eds., Figures of National Poets (2004), p. 11.
  3. ^ Michael Baron, Language and Relationship in Wordsworth's Writing (1995), p. 13.
  4. ^ J. Cameron; W. A. Dodd (17 May 2014). Society, Schools and Progress in Tanzania: The Commonwealth and International Library: Education and Educational Research. Elsevier Science. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-1-4831-5914-0. 
  5. ^ Morgenstierne, G. (1960). "Khushhal Khan—the national poet of the Afghans". Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. 47: 49–57. doi:10.1080/03068376008731684. 
  6. ^ Aparna Chatterjee, Kaazi Nazrul Islam; The National Poet of Bangladesh : A Profile Study on The Literary Shelf, Boloji.com. Accessed 9 March 2007.
  7. ^ Rabindranath Tagore
  8. ^ Hristo Botev’s birth anniversary, Radio Bulgaria History and Religion, posted January 6, 2007, updated on January 12, 2007, accessed 9 March 2007
  9. ^ Michael Dobson (17 November 1994), The Making of the National Poet - Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660-1769, Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-818323-5 
  10. ^ Balazsr2=Michal Kopecek (1 November 2006). National Romanticism: The Formation of National Movements. Central European University Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-963-7326-60-8. Characteristically, although Njegoš saw himself as a definitely Serbian poet, his epic came to be later canonized as the most important work of 'Yugoslav' literature [...] 
  11. ^ Daniel Balderston, Mike (2004). Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900-2003. Routledge. p. 666. ISBN 0-415-30687-6. 
  12. ^ James Woodall, Borges: A Life, Basic Books (1996). ISBN 0-465-04361-5. Relevant excerpt available on the New York Times web site, accessed 9 March 2007.

Further readingEdit