List of musical instruments by Hornbostel–Sachs number: 32

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 32 under that system. This category includes all string instruments in which the resonator cannot be removed without resulting in the destruction of the instrument, labelled as composite chordophones.

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
32: Instruments in which the resonator and string bearer are physically united and can not be separated without destroying the instrument
321: Instruments in which the strings run in a plane parallel to the sound table (lutes)
322: Instrument whose strings are at right angles to the sound table, such that a line between the lower tips of the strings would point at the neck (harps)
322.1: Instrument without a pillar (open harps)
322.11: Instrument has a neck that curves away from the resonator (arched harp)
322.12: Instrument has a neck that sharply angles away from the resonator (angular harps)
322.2: Instrument has a pillar (frame harps)
323: Instrument has strings that lay at right angles to the sound table, so that a line joining the lower tips of the strings would be perpendicular to the neck, and the instrument has a notched bridge.

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


321. LutesEdit

322. HarpsEdit

323. Harp lutesEdit



  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.