List of musical instruments by Hornbostel–Sachs number: 311.222

This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 311.222 under that system. It includes instruments with a resonator that is not physically integral to the instrument, with more than one string stretched between the ends of a curved and inflexible stick. Anthropologist Thomas Alvad has concluded that instruments of this type are an intermediate stage in the development of the simple musical bow into an arched harp.[1]

3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
31: Instruments which consist solely of a string bearer or a string bearer with a resonator that is not integral to the instrument
311: Instruments with a string bearer shaped like a bar, or consisting of a sideways board (bar zithers)
311.2: Instrument has a rigid and inflexible string carrier (stick zither)
311.22: Instrument has no curved or flexible end (true stick zither)
311.222: Instrument has more than one resonator gourds

These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.

  • 4: Hammers or beaters
  • 5: Bare hands and fingers
  • 6: Plectrum
  • 7: Bowing
    • 71: Using a bow
    • 72: Using a wheel
    • 73: Using a ribbon
  • 8: Keyboard
  • 9: Using a mechanical drive


Instrument Tradition Hornbostel–Sachs classification Description
Nuristan, Afghanistan {{{Number}}} Curved stick with strings stretched from end to end and a boat-shaped resonator[2][3]


  • von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. 14: 3–29. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.


  1. ^ Alvad, pg. 154
  2. ^ Knight, pg. 12
  3. ^ Alvad, pg. 153