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List of Finnish monarchs and Heads of State

  (Redirected from List of monarchs of Finland)

Part of the Kingdom of Sweden, from the High Middle Ages until 1809Edit

Finland as an integral part of Sweden under the King of Sweden (Ruotsin kuningas).

Some texts suggest the Swedish rule of Finland started as early as during the Houses of Sverker and Eric (Sverker I of Sweden 1130–1156 and Eric the Saint 1156–1160). But the first historic documents suggesting rule by Swedish kings in Finland not limited to sparse crusades and conquests are dated at around 1249.

The House of BjelboEdit

The House of Mecklenburg-SchwerinEdit

Rulers of the Kalmar Union and Regents (Valtionhoitaja, Riksföreståndare)Edit

Karl Knutsson Bonde

The House of VasaEdit

Juhana III

The House of Pfalz-ZweibrückenEdit

  • 1654–1660 : Charles X Gustav (Kaarle X Kustaa), also titled Grand Prince of Finland
  • 1660–1697 : Charles XI (Kaarle XI, also titled Grand Prince of Finland
  • 1697–1718 : Charles XII (Kaarle XII), also titled Grand Prince of Finland
  • 1719–1720 : Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (Ulriika Eleonoora), also titled Grand Princess of Finland

The House of HesseEdit

The House of Holstein-GottorpEdit

Kustaa III

Grand Principality of Finland in Russian Empire 1809–1917Edit

The Grand Principality of Finland in the Russian Empire (1809–1917) with the Emperor of Russia as the Grand Prince of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas).

The House of RomanovEdit

Nikolai II

Interim period 1917–19Edit

During the interregnum from the fall of Nicholas II to the end of the Finnish Civil War in spring 1918, sovereignty in Finland was exercised by the Finnish Parliament and, until the October Revolution and the declaration of independence, the Russian interim government. After the civil war, regents (valtionhoitaja) were appointed by the parliament and a new king elected.

Regents appointed by parliamentEdit

The House of HesseEdit

For later heads of state after the proclamation of the republic, see List of Presidents of Finland.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ During Svinhufvud's regency, Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse was elected as the King of Finland on 9 October 1918. He never took office and renounced the throne on 14 December 1918.