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List of modern names for biblical place names

While the main Biblical place names like Jerusalem, Athens, Damascus, Alexandria, and Rome have been used for centuries, some have changed through the years.

Contents

Old TestamentEdit

Biblical name Mentioned in Present name Province/Region Country Name
Ai[1] Joshua 7:2 Khirbet Haiy;[2] others say, Et-Tell[3] Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate Palestinian territories
Almon[4] Joshua 21:18 Khirbet Almit[5] Palestinian territories
Babylon Jeremiah 50:1 - 50:46 Hillah[6] Babil Governorate Iraq
Beth Arbel[7] Hosea 10:14 Irbid[8] Irbid Governorate Jordan
Beth-tappuah[9] Joshua 15:53 Taffuh[10] Hebron Governorate Palestinian territories
Bozrah[11] Amos 1:12 Bouseira[12] Tafilah Governorate Jordan
Cuthah[13] II Kings 17:24 Tell Ibrahim[14] Babil Governorate Iraq
Dedan[15] Ezekiel 38:13 Al-'Ula[16] Al Madinah Region Saudi Arabia
Ecbatana[17] Ezra 6:2 Hamadan[18] Hamadan Province Iran
Elim[19] Exodus 16:1 Wadi Gharandel[20] South Sinai Governorate Egypt
Erech[21] Genesis 10:10 Uruk[22] Al Muthanna Governorate Iraq
Etam[23] II Chronicles 11:6 Solomon's Pools[24][25] Bethlehem Governorate Palestinian territories
Gath Joshua 13:3 Ramla[26][27] Central District Israel
Gerar[21] Genesis 10:19 Haluza[28] Southern District Israel
Gilo Joshua 15:51 Beit Jala[29][30] Bethlehem Governorate Palestinian territories
Gozan[31] I Chronicles 5:26 Tell Halaf Al Hasakah Governorate Syria
Harosheth Haggoyim[32] Judges 4:13 El Ahwat[33] Haifa District Israel
Hamath[34] II Samuel 8:9 Hama[35] Hama Governorate Syria
Hammath[36] Joshua 19:35 Tiberias[37] Northern District Israel
Hazezon-tamar[38] Genesis 14:7 Ein Gedi[39] Southern District Israel
Iron Joshua 19:38 Yaroun[40] Nabatieh Governorate Lebanon
Joppa[41] Jonah 1:3 Jaffa[42] Tel Aviv District Israel
Kadesh[43] Numbers 20:1 Petra[44] Ma'an Governorate Jordan
Kedesh-naphtali[45] Judges 4:6 Kedesh[46] Northern District Israel
Kir of Moab[47] Isaiah 15:1 Al Karak[48] Karak Governorate Jordan
Kiriath-Jearim Joshua 9:17 Abu Ghosh[49] Jerusalem District Israel
Kitron[50] Judges 1:30 Sepphoris[51] Northern District Israel
Laish/Leshem[52][53] Judges 18:29 & Joshua 19:47 Tel Dan (Banias)[54] Northern District Israel
Medeba[55][56] Numbers 21:30 & Joshua 13:9 Madaba[57] Madaba Governorate Jordan
Nephtoah[58] Joshua 15:9 Lifta[59][60] Jerusalem District Israel
No Ezekiel 30:14 Alexandria[61] Alexandria Governorate Egypt
Noph Isaiah 19:13 Memphis[62][63] Giza Governorate Egypt
No-amon/Thebes[64][65] Ezekiel30:16 & Nahum 3:8 Luxor Luxor Governorate Egypt
Noph Isaiah 19:13 Memphis[62][63] Giza Governorate Egypt
On/Awen[66] Genesis 46:20 Ayn Shams[67] Cairo Governorate Egypt
Ono I Chronicles 8:12 Or Yehuda[68] Central District Israel
Ophir Job 22:24 Sri Lanka[69] Island country Sri Lanka
Pi-beseth/Bubastis[64] Ezekiel 30:17 Tell Basta[70] Al Sharqia Governorate Egypt
Qiryat Arba[71] Joshua 14:15 Hebron[72] Hebron Governorate Palestinian territories
Rabbah[11] Amos 1:14 Amman[73] Amman Governorate Jordan
Rakkath Joshua 19:35 Tiberias[74] Northern District Israel
Sarepta[75][76] I Kings 17:9 & Obadiah 20 Sarafand Southern Governorate Lebanon
Seba (Saba)[77] Psalm 72:10 Meroë[78] River Nile Governorate Sudan
Sheba[79] I Kings 10:1 Ma'rib[80] Ma'rib Governorate Yemen
Shechem Genesis 12:6 Nablus[81] Nablus Governorate Palestinian territories
Shiloah[82] Isaiah 8:6 Silwan Jerusalem Governorate
Shomron (Samaria) I Kings 16:24 Sebaste[83] Nablus Governorate Palestinian territories
Sin/Pelusium[64] Ezekiel 30:15 Tell el Farama[84] North Sinai Governorate Egypt
Susa[85] Nehemiah 1:1 Shush[86] Khūzestān Province Iran
Syene[87][64] Ezekiel 29:10 & 30:6 Aswan[88] Aswan Governorate Egypt
Tadmor[89] II Chronicles 8:4 Palmyra[90][91] Homs Governorate Syria
Tahpanhes[92] Jeremiah 44:1 Tell Defenneh[93] Dakahlia Governorate Egypt
Timnah[94] Judges 14:1 Khirbet Tibneh[95] Central District Israel
Timnath-heres[96] Joshua 19:50 Kifl Haris[97][98][99] Salfit Governorate Palestinian territories
Ur[100][101] Genesis 11:31 & Nehemiah 9:7 Tell el Muqayyar Dhi Qar Governorate Iraq
Zephathah (Zephath)[102] II Chronicles 14:10 Tell es-Safi Central District Israel
Ziddim Joshua 19:35 Hittin[103] Northern District Israel
Zoan[104] Numbers 13:22 Tanis[105] Al Sharqia Governorate Egypt
Zorah Joshua 15:33 Sar'a[106][107] Central District Israel

New TestamentEdit

Biblical name Mentioned in Present name Province/Region Country Name Country Flag
Adramyttium Acts 27:2 Burhaniye Balıkesir Province Turkey  
Antioch Acts 11:26 Antakya[108] Hatay Province Turkey  
Aphek Acts 23:31 Rosh HaAyin[109] Central District Israel  
Assos Acts 20:13 Behramkale[110] Çanakkale Province Turkey  
Attalia Acts 14:25 Antalya[111] Antalya Province Turkey  
Berea Acts 17:10-13 Veria Imathia Greece  
Cauda Acts 27:16 Gavdos Chania Greece  
Cenchrea Romans 16:1 Kechries Korinthía Greece  
Gerasa Mark 5:1 & Luke 8:26 Jerash[112] Jerash Governorate Jordan  
Iconium Acts 14:1 Konya Konya Province Turkey  
Lod Acts 9:32 Lod[113] Central District Israel  
Lystra Acts 14:8 Klistra[114] Konya Province Turkey  
Mitylene Acts 20:14 Mytilene[115] Lesbos Greece  
Myra Acts 27:5 Demre[116] Antalya Province Turkey  
Neapolis Acts 16:11 Kavala[117] East Macedonia and Thrace Greece  
Nicopolis Titus 3:12 Preveza[118] Epirus Greece  
Pergamum Revelation 2:12 Bergama İzmir Province Turkey  
Philadelphia Revelation 3:7 Alaşehir[119] Manisa Province Turkey  
Ptolemais Acts 21:7 Acre Northern District Israel  
Puteoli Acts 28:13 Pozzuoli Campania Italy  
Rhegium Acts 28:13 Reggio Calabria Calabria Italy  
Smyrna Revelation 2:8 İzmir İzmir Province Turkey  
Thessalonica I & II Thessalonians Thessaloniki Central Macedonia Greece  
Thyatira Revelation 2:18 Akhisar Manisa Province Turkey  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Joshua 7 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  2. ^ W.F. Birch, On the Identification of "Ai", Palestine Exploration Fund - Quarterly Statement for 1877, London 1878, pp. 132–133.
  3. ^ Watson E. Mills & Roger Aubrey Bullard, Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press 1990, p. 18 ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7
  4. ^ "Joshua 21 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  5. ^ "The Cities of the Tribe of Benjamin". www.jewish-history.com. 
  6. ^ Babylon
  7. ^ "Hosea 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  8. ^ "Bible Map: Beth-arbel". bibleatlas.org. 
  9. ^ "Joshua 15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  10. ^ See page 310 in:Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, Herbert H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 
  11. ^ a b "Amos 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  12. ^ "Bible Map: Bozrah". bibleatlas.org. 
  13. ^ "2 Kings 17 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  14. ^ "Bible Map: Cuthah". bibleatlas.org. 
  15. ^ "Ezekiel 38 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  16. ^ "The Incense Road: Dedan". nabataea.net. 
  17. ^ "Ezra 6 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  18. ^ http://www.hegmataneh.ir/
  19. ^ "Exodus 16 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  20. ^ "Lion Tracks Photo QnA -- Elim. Second stop in the Sinai wilderness after crossing the Red Sea during the exodus from Egypt". www.bibleistrue.com. 
  21. ^ a b "Genesis 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  22. ^ "Bible Map: Erech". bibleatlas.org. 
  23. ^ "2 Chronicles 11 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  24. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book viii, chapter vii, section 3; 8:186); Burial Places of the Fathers, published by Yehuda Levi Nahum in book: Ṣohar la-ḥasifat ginzei teiman (Heb. צהר לחשיפת גנזי תימן), Tel-Aviv 1986, p. 253, who quotes from an ancient rabbinic source: "Between Beth-Lehem and Hebron is the great pool, being the [water] duct that Hezekiah made, and the pool that he made, and it is [known as] Ein Etam." Rashi, who had not seen Josephus' writings, surmised that Ein Etam was the place known as "the waters of Nephtoah" (cf. Rashi's commentary on Yoma 31a and Zevahim 54b, s.v. עין עיטם); see also Rashi's comments on Joshua 15:8 and Deuteronomy 33.
  25. ^ Victor Guérin, Description de la Palestine, Judée, Description de la Judée, Paris 1869, pp. 104–119, 303–309
  26. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach, vol. II, chapter 11, s.v. ויבנה בארץ פלשתים, (3rd edition) Jerusalem 2007, p. 78 (Hebrew)
  27. ^ B. Mazar (1954). "Gath and Gittaim". Israel Exploration Journal. 4 (3/4): 227–235. 
  28. ^ Rabbi Saadia Gaon's Judeo-Arabic Translation of the word Gerar (Judeo-Arabic: אלכ'לוץ = al-Khalūṣ) in the Pentateuch (Tafsir), s.v. Genesis 10:19, Genesis 20:2, Genesis 26:17, 20. On Haluza's proximity to Gerar, see: M. Naor, Gerar — Tell el Far'a, Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society (1955), pp. 99–102 (Hebrew)
  29. ^ Victor Guérin, Description de la Palestine, Judée, Description de la Judée, Paris 1869, p. 298; See: Guérin, Victor (1869). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 3. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.  Others identify Giloh with Khirbet Jala, ca. 8 km. (5 mi.) north, northwest of Hebron. See: David Noel Freedman and Allen C. Myers, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Grand Rapids 2000, p. 505 (s.v. Giloh) ISBN 0-8028-2400-5
  30. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 2000. p. 505. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5. 
  31. ^ "1 Chronicles 5 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  32. ^ "Judges 4 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  33. ^ "Long time archaeological riddle solved". 
  34. ^ "2 Samuel 8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  35. ^ "Bible Map: Hamath". bibleatlas.org. 
  36. ^ "Joshua 19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  37. ^ Jerusalem Talmud, Erubin 5:7; Tosefta, Erubin 7:2; cf. Jerusalem Talmud, Megillah 1:1 (2a). Hammath was, originally, an independent town (separate from Rakkath where Tiberias stands), but the suburbs of both towns merged into one. The Jerusalem Talmud mentions that Hammath was within the Sabbath-day walking distance, meaning, less than 1 biblical mile from Tiberias.
  38. ^ "Genesis 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  39. ^ Targum Onkelos on Genesis 14:7; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Ben-Uzziel on Genesis 7:14 and II Chronicles 20:2.
  40. ^ "Bible Map: Yiron". bibleatlas.org. 
  41. ^ "Jonah 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  42. ^ "Bible Map: Joppa". bibleatlas.org. 
  43. ^ Place name translated by Onkelos in all places as Rekem (Hebrew: רקם). Not to be mistaken with the Kadesh of Upper Galilee.
  44. ^ Flavius, Josephus. "Antiquities of the Jews (iv.vii.§1)". Loeb Classical Library, London 1961.  (see: Josephus. "Jewish Antiquities". doi:10.4159/DLCL.josephus-jewish_antiquities.1930. Retrieved 6 August 2016.   – via digital Loeb Classical Library (subscription required))
  45. ^ "Judges 4 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  46. ^ A. Neubauer, La Géographie du Talmud, Paris 1868, pp. 224–225
  47. ^ "Isaiah 15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  48. ^ "Bible Map: Kir". bibleatlas.org. 
  49. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica (vol. 2), Jerusalem 1971, p. 182 (s.v. Abu Ghosh)
  50. ^ "Judges 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  51. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach, vol. II (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 64 (Hebrew), where he cites the Babylonian Talmud (Megillah 6a).
  52. ^ "Judges 18 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  53. ^ "Joshua 19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". www.mechon-mamre.org. 
  54. ^ Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach, vol. II (3rd edition, published by ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 53 (Hebrew)
  55. ^ "Numbers 21 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  56. ^ "Joshua 13 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  57. ^ "Visit Madaba". www.visitmadaba.org. Archived from the original on 2008-03-19. 
  58. ^ "Joshua 15 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  59. ^ List of Geographical Names, (A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names), Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects, Benjamin Maisler, Tel-Aviv 1932, p. 51
  60. ^ See p. 51 in: Maisler, Benjamin (1932). "A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names". Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects. 4 (3): 1–92. Retrieved 21 February 2017 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  (Hebrew)
  61. ^ Jonathan ben Uzziel's Aramaic Targum on Ezekiel 30:14; Commentary of Rabbi David Kimhi (RADAK) on Ezekiel 30:14. Jewish tradition differs from the modern identification of this place name. Modern historical geographers place No with the ancient city of Thebes, in Egypt.
  62. ^ a b "Bible Map: Memphis". bibleatlas.org. 
  63. ^ a b Jonathan ben Uzziel's Aramaic Targum on Ezekiel 30:16
  64. ^ a b c d "Ezekiel 30 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  65. ^ "Nahum 3 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  66. ^ "Genesis 46 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  67. ^ "Bible Map: On". bibleatlas.org. 
  68. ^ Maisler (Mazar), Benjamin (1932). "The Method of Transcribing Geographical and Personal Names". Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects: 19. JSTOR 24384308. (Registration required (help)). ; Shmuel Klein, Eretz Yehudah (Heb. ארץ יהודה : מימי העליה מבבל עד חתימת התלמוד), Tel-Aviv 1939, s.v. אונו (Ono)
  69. ^ Solomon Skoss (ed.), The Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible, Known as `Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāẓ` (Agron) of David ben Abraham al-Fasi, Yale University Press: New Haven 1936, vol. 1, p. 46 (s.v. אופיר), being identified with Serendip, the old Persian name for Sri Lanka (aka Ceylon). Cf. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book 8, chapter 6, §4), s.v. Aurea Chersonesus.
  70. ^ Wilkinson, Richard H. (2000). The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 109
  71. ^ "Joshua 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  72. ^ "Bible Map: Kiriath-arba (Hebron)". bibleatlas.org. 
  73. ^ "Bible Map: Rabbah". bibleatlas.org. 
  74. ^ "TIBERIAS - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. 
  75. ^ "1 Kings 17 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  76. ^ "Obadiah 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  77. ^ "Psalms 72 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  78. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (book 2, chapter 10, section 2) [Paragraph # 249]
  79. ^ "1 Kings 10 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  80. ^ Kenneth A. Kitchen: The World of Ancient Arabia Series. Documentation for Ancient Arabia. Part I. Chronological Framework and Historical Sources p.110; Sefer Me'or ha-Afelah of Rabbi Nethanel ben Isaiah (ed. Yosef Qafih), Kiryat Ono 1983, p. 74 (Parashat Noah) (Hebrew), being an eponym for one of the sons of Joktan.
  81. ^ "SHECHEM - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. 
  82. ^ "Isaiah 8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  83. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (Book xv, chapter viii, §5)
  84. ^ "Pelusium: Gateway to Egypt - Archaeology Magazine Archive". www.archaeology.org. 
  85. ^ "Nehemiah 1 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  86. ^ "Susa - Livius". www.livius.org. 
  87. ^ "Ezekiel 29 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  88. ^ "Bible Map: Syene". bibleatlas.org. 
  89. ^ "2 Chronicles 8 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  90. ^ "Bible Map: Tadmor". bibleatlas.org. 
  91. ^ Art, Author: Department of Ancient Near Eastern. "Palmyra - Essay - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 
  92. ^ "Jeremiah 44 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  93. ^ "Bible Map: Tahpanhes". bibleatlas.org. 
  94. ^ "Judges 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". www.mechon-mamre.org. 
  95. ^ Page 214 in:Clermont-Ganneau, Charles Simon (1896). [ARP] Archaeological Researches in Palestine 1873-1874, translated from the French by J. McFarlane. 2. London: Palestine Exploration Fund. 
  96. ^ "Joshua 19 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". www.mechon-mamre.org. 
  97. ^ List of Geographical Names, (A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names), Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects, Benjamin Maisler, Tel-Aviv 1932, p. 38 (Part II)
  98. ^ See p. 38 in: Maisler, Benjamin (1932). "A Memo of the National Committee to the Government of the Land of Israel on the Method of Spelling Transliterated Geographical and Personal Names, plus Two Lists of Geographical Names". Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects: 1–92. Retrieved 21 February 2017 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).  (Hebrew)
  99. ^ According to the Samaritan Chronicle, in Kefr Ghuweirah (now called Awarta) is found the tomb of Joshua bin Nun. Conder and Kitchener, citing another Samaritan tradition, say rather that it was Eleazer the priest who was buried a "little way west of Awarta (at al 'Azeir)," while Joshua bin Nun was buried at Kefr Haris. See: Conder and Kitchener, 1882, p. 218 - 219
  100. ^ "Genesis 11 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  101. ^ "Nehemiah 9 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  102. ^ "2 Chronicles 14 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  103. ^ Jerusalem Talmud, Megillah 1:1 (2a)
  104. ^ "Numbers 13 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". mechon-mamre.org. 
  105. ^ "Bible Map: Zoan". bibleatlas.org. 
  106. ^ E. Robinson & E. Smith, Biblical researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea (vol. 2), Boston 1841, pp. 339–340, 343; C.R. Conder, Tent Work in Palestine (vol. 1), London 1879, pp. 274–275; Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach (3rd edition), vol. II -- chapter 11, Jerusalem 2007, p. 78 (note 282) (Hebrew), et al.
  107. ^ Victor Guérin, Description géographique, historique et archéologique de la Palestine (vol. 3), Paris 1869, p. 323
  108. ^ "Bible Map: Syrian Antioch". bibleatlas.org. 
  109. ^ "Bible Map: Antipatris". bibleatlas.org. 
  110. ^ "Bible Map: Assos". bibleatlas.org. 
  111. ^ "Bible Map: Attalia". bibleatlas.org. 
  112. ^ "Bible Map: Gerasa". bibleatlas.org. 
  113. ^ "Bible Map: Lod". bibleatlas.org. 
  114. ^ http://www.kilistra.org.tr/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13&Itemid=30
  115. ^ "Bible Map: Mitylene". bibleatlas.org. 
  116. ^ "Bible Map: Myra". bibleatlas.org. 
  117. ^ "Bible Map: Neapolis". bibleatlas.org. 
  118. ^ "Bible Map: Nicopolis". bibleatlas.org. 
  119. ^ "Bible Map: Philadelphia". bibleatlas.org.