List of medical triads, tetrads, and pentads

A medical triad is a group of three signs or symptoms, the result of injury to three organs, which characterise a specific medical condition. The appearance of all three signs conjoined together in another patient, points to that the patient has the same medical condition, or diagnosis. A medical tetrad is a group of four, while a pentad is a group of five.

TriadsEdit

Name Triad Disease
Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture Triad hypotension, pulsatile abdominal mass, flank pain Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Achalasia Triad increased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tone, decreased LES relaxation, aperistalsis Achalasia
Alkaptonuria Triad Ochronotic arthritis, Ochronotic pigmentation, Urine darkens on standing Alkaptonuria
Amyand's Triad Amyand's hernia, Appendicitis, Undescended testis
Anderson Triad Subcutaneous emphysema, rapid respirations, and abdominal rigidity Esophageal rupture (likely intra-abdominal)
Austrian syndrome Triad Pneumonia, Endocarditis, Meningitis (all caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae) Austrian syndrome
Beck's triad Muffled heart sound, Distended neck veins, Hypotension Cardiac tamponade
Budd–Chiari syndrome abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly Budd–Chiari syndrome
Charcot's cholangitis triad Right Upper Quadrant Pain, Fever, Jaundice Ascending cholangitis
Charcot's neurologic triad scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus Multiple sclerosis
Triad of congenital toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications Congenital toxoplasmosis
Triad of congenital rubella cataracts, patent ductus arteriosus, sensorineural hearing loss Congenital rubella
Congestive Heart Failure Triad Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Tender hepatomegaly Congestive heart failure
Cushing's triad of Increased Intracranial Pressure Bradycardia, Bradypnea, Hypertension Head injuries
Dieulafoy's triad hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over McBurney's point Acute appendicitis
Dietl's crisis Renal colic, swelling in loin which disappears after urination Hydronephrosis
Fanconi syndrome triad Aminoaciduria, Proteinuria, Phosphaturia Fanconi syndrome
Female athlete triad eating disorders, amenorrhoea, decreased bone mineral density
Gradenigos Triad Sixth cranial n. Palsy, Persistent ear discharge, Deep seated retro orbital pain Gradenigo's syndrome
Graves Disease Triad Goiter, exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema Graves' disease
Triad of opioid overdose Respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, CNS depression Opioid overdose
Triad of granulomatosis with polyangiitis Focal necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing granulomas in the lung and upper airway, necrotizing glomerulonephritis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Hakim Triad[1] (Adams Triad) Urinary incontinence, Gait disturbance, Dementia Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Triad (Triad of Sandblom) Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic Hemobilia
Triad of Meigs' Syndrome ascites, pleural effusion, benign ovarian tumor Meigs' syndrome
Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome Triad Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Kidney failure (But see Pentad of TTP below) Hemolytic–uremic syndrome
Horner's Syndrome Triad ptosis (eyelid), miosis, anhydrosis Horner's syndrome
Hutchinson's triad Hutchison's teeth, Interstitial keratitis, Nerve deafness Congenital syphilis
Kartagener Syndrome Triad Triad of bronchiectasis, Recurrent sinusitis, and, Situs inversus, Kartagener syndrome
Leriche's syndrome Triad Triad of bilateral hip, thigh, and buttock claudication, impotence, and symmetric atrophy of the bilateral lower extremities due to chronic ischemia Leriche's syndrome
Mackler's triad vomiting, pain and subcutaneous emphysema Boerhaave syndrome
Three C's of Measles cough, coryza, conjunctivitis Measles
Meltzer's triad purpura, arthralgias, weakness/myalgias Cryoglobulinemia
Triad of Reactive arthritis Urethritis, conjunctivitis and anterior uveitis, arthritis Reactive arthritis
Saint's Triad Gall stones, Diverticulosis, Hiatus hernia
Samter's triad (also known as Acetylsalicylic acid triad or Widal's triad or Francis' triad or Aspirin triad) Aspirin sensitivity, Nasal polyps, Asthma Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease
Tetany in Children - Triad Stridor, Carpopedal spasm, Convulsions Tetany
Trauma triad of death Coagulopathy, Hypothermia, Acidosis Death
Triad of Albinism Black locks, Occulo-cutaneous Albinism, Deafness of sensorineural type Albinism
Triad of Alport Syndrome Sensorineural deafness, Progressive kidney failure, Ocular anomalies Alport syndrome
Triad of Behcet's Syndrome Recurrent oral ulcers, Genital ulcers, Iridocyclitis Behçet's disease
Triad of Causes of Biotin Deficiency Glossitis, Alopecia, Dermatitis Biotin deficiency
Triad of Henoch–Schönlein purpura Palpable purpura on buttock/legs, arthralgias, abdominal pain IgA vasculitis
Triad of Hypernephroma Pain, hematuria, renal mass Hypernephroma
Triad of Kwashiorkor Growth retardation, Mental changes, Edema Kwashiorkor
Triad of Plummer–Vinson syndrome Iron deficiency anemia, dysphagia, esophageal webs Plummer–Vinson syndrome
Triad of Renal cell carcinoma hematuria, palpable abdominal mass, flank pain Renal cell carcinoma
Triple Test (for diagnosis of downs syndrome) Estimation of hcg, Estriol, and AFP Down's Syndrome
Trotter's triad Conductive deafness, Immobility of homolateral soft palate, Trigeminal neuralgia Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Unhappy Triad (Also known as O'Donoghue's triad or a blown knee) Injury to the ACL, MCL, and meniscus (either medial or lateral) Knee Injury
Virchow's triad Stasis, Hypercoagulability, Vessel injury Venous thrombosis
Triad of Wernicke encephalopathy Confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia Wernicke encephalopathy
Whipple's Triad Hypoglycaemia during attacks, resolution of symptoms upon correction of blood glucose, symptoms brought about by low glucose states. Insulinoma
Triad of Aortic stenosis Chest pain, Heart failure, Syncope Aortic stenosis
Murphy's triad Pain-> Vomiting -> Fever Acute appendicitis
Tillaux's triad soft fluctuant swelling in umbilical region, swelling moves perpendicular to messentery, zone of resonance all around swelling Mesenteric cyst
Rigler's triad small bowel obstruction, a gallstone outside the gallbladder, and air in the bile ducts Gallstone ileus
Wilkie's syndrome (SMA syndrome) Chronic peptic ulcer, chronic appendicitis and chronic calcular cholecystitis gastro-vascular disorder

TetradsEdit

Name Tetrad Disease
Tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, overriding aorta Tetralogy of Fallot
Ménière's disease vertigo, tinnitus, fluctuating low frequency hearing loss, aural fullness Ménière's disease

PentadsEdit

Name Pentad Disease
Pentad of TTP Remembered by the mnemonic "FAT RN" (or alternatively "ART FaN"); Fever, Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic anemia), Thrombocytopenia, Renal failure, Neurologic disturbances Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Pentalogy of Cantrell Omphalocele, Anterior diaphragmatic hernia, Sternal cleft, Ectopia cordis, Intracardiac defect. Thoracoabdominal syndrome
Pentalogy of Fallot Fallot's tetralogy with, in addition, a patent foramen ovale or Atrial septal defect.
Pentad of Primary hyperparathyroidism "Stones", "Bones", "Abdominal groans", "Thrones", "Psychiatric overtones" Primary hyperparathyroidism
Reynold's Pentad Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal pain, Fever, Jaundice, Shock and Depression of central nervous system function Acute suppurative cholangitis

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wallenstein, Matthew B.; McKhann, Guy M. (July 2010). "Salomón Hakim and the discovery of normal-pressure hydrocephalus". Neurosurgery. 67 (1): 155–159, discussion 159. doi:10.1227/01.neu.0000370058.12120.0e. ISSN 1524-4040. PMID 20568668.