List of massacres of Indigenous Australians
There were many massacres of Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islander people by settlers following the colonisation of Australia by the British Empire, in 1788. These events were a fundamental element of the Australian frontier wars, and frontier massacres were a significant component of Aboriginal casualties across the continent.
A project headed by historian Lyndall Ryan from the University of Newcastle and funded by the Australian Research Council, has been researching and mapping these massacres. A significant collaborator toward this project is Jonathan Richards from the University of Queensland. Criteria such as defining a massacre as the killing of six or more people are used and an interactive map as an online resource is included. As of 3 January 2020[update], at least 311 frontier massacres over a period of about 140 years had been documented, revealing "a state-sanctioned and organised attempt to eradicate Aboriginal people".[failed verification]
Massacres were conducted by the following forces: British Army, New South Wales Mounted Police, groups of armed colonists, Border Police, native police, officers of the Western Australia Police and Northern Territory Police and others. Most massacres were perpetrated as summary and indiscriminate punishment for the killing of settlers or the theft and destruction of livestock. There are over nine known cases of deliberate mass poisonings of Aboriginal Australians.
The following list tallies some of the better documented massacres of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, most of which took place during the colonial period.
Colonial period massacresEdit
New South WalesEdit
- July 1791 Governor Arthur Phillip wrote in his own journal that he granted 27 ex-convicts allotments of land at Prospect Hill and The Ponds. He gave them muskets which were utilised to shoot at Aboriginal Australians in the area. In retaliation, some of the British huts were burnt down. Arthur Philip then deployed soldiers to the area who "dispersed" about 50 Aboriginal Australians. Furthermore, as the allotments of land were separated by bushland which helped in "concealing the natives", the Governor ordered the woods to be cleared so that the "natives could find no shelter".
- April 1794 At Toongabbie an armed party of settlers pursued a group of Aboriginal Australians who were taking corn from the settlers' farms. They killed four, bringing back the severed head of one as proof of their exploits.
- September 1794 British settlers in the Hawkesbury River area killed seven Bediagal people in reprisal for the theft of clothing and provisions. Some of the surviving children of this raid were taken by the settlers and detained as farm labourers. One boy, who was considered a spy, was later dragged through a fire, thrown into the river and shot dead.
- May 1795 Conflict in the Hawkesbury region continued and following the alleged killing of two settlers, Lieutenant Governor William Paterson ordered two officers and 66 soldiers to "...destroy as many as they could meet with..in the hope of striking terror, to erect gibbets in different places, whereon the bodies of all they might kill were to be hung ...". Seven or eight Bediagal people were killed. A crippled man, some children and five women (one being heavily pregnant) were taken to Sydney as prisoners. One of the women and her baby had serious gunshot wounds. The child died not long after as did the newborn baby of the pregnant woman.
- September 1795 In the lower parts of the Hawkesbury, British settlers conducted an armed expedition against local Aboriginal Australians killing five and taking a number prisoner, again including a badly wounded child.
- March 1797 After Aboriginal Australians killed two British settlers, a large punitive expedition was organised which surprised and dispersed a native camp of about 100 people. The armed group then returned to Parramatta to rest. Pemulwuy, a noted Aboriginal resistance leader of the early frontier, followed them into the town demanding vengeance for the dispersal. A skirmish (known as the Battle of Parramatta) then occurred between Pemulwuy's group and a collection of British soldiers and settlers. One of the settlers was injured but at least five Aboriginal Australians were shot dead with many more wounded, including Pemulwuy. An unknown number of Aboriginal Australians were killed in the initial dispersal which led up to the battle.
- March 1799 Henry Hacking was ordered by Governor John Hunter to investigate claims of British sailors being trapped by Aboriginal Australians at the mouth of the Hunter River to the north of the colony. Hacking encountered a group of Awabakal people on the south side of the river who informed him that the sailors had left earlier on foot, endeavouring to walk back to Sydney. Hacking didn't believe them and became agitated, shooting dead four Awabakal men. The sailors later arrived in Sydney having walked the distance to return.
- March 1806 A group of Yuin people, resident to what the British named Twofold Bay, attempted to forcibly remove a gang of eleven sealers encamped on their land. The sealers opened fire on them with muskets killing nine, the bodies of which they hung from nearby trees to intimidate the other Yuin.
- 1816. Appin massacre. New South Wales Governor Macquarie sent soldiers against the Gundungurra and Dharawal people on their lands along the Cataract River, a tributary of the Nepean River (south of Sydney), in reprisal for violent conflicts with white settlers (in which several died) in the adjoining Nepean and Cowpastures districts, during a time of drought. The punitive expedition split in two at Bent's Basin, with one group moving south-west against the Gundungurra, and the other moving south-east against the Dharawal. On 17 April, at around 1 am, this latter group of soldiers arrived on horseback at a camp of Dharawal people near Cataract Gorge (Broughton Pass). At least 16 indigenes were killed by shooting, and many other men, women and children were driven to fall from the cliffs of the gorge to their deaths below.:7
- 1818. Minnamurra River massacre. Local settlers attacked and killed at least six members of the Wodiwodi people camped on the banks of the Minnamurra River on the pretext that they were retrieving two muskets lent to a group of aboriginals living on the river.
- 1824. Bathurst massacre. Following the killing of seven Europeans by Aboriginal people around Bathurst, New South Wales, and a battle between three stockmen and a warband over stolen cattle which left 16 Aboriginal Australians dead, Governor Brisbane declared martial law to restore order and was able to report a cessation of hostilities in which 'not one outrage was committed under it, neither was a life sacrificed or even Blood spilt'. Part of the tribe trekked down to Parramatta to attend the Governor's annual Reconciliation Day.
- 1826 Around 20 Birpai men, women and children at Blackmans Point. There is no single written account, but the diary of Henry Lewis Wilson, who oversaw convicts in the area, relates that after two convicts sent to work at Blackmans Point were killed by Indigenous men, a party of soldiers "got round the blacks and shot a great many of them, captured a lot of women and used them for a immoral purpose and then shot them. The offending soldiers were sent to Sydney to be tried, but managed to escape punishment.". Historian Lyndall Ryan, after studying other evidence, thinks that that the Blackmans Point event referred to by Wilson involved around 20 people, but other massacres in the area may have caused the deaths of up to 300 people.
- 1827. 12 Gringai Aboriginal Australians were shot dead for killing in reprisal a convict who had shot one of their camp dogs dead. 
- 18 December 1832. Joseph Berryman, overseer at Sydney Stephen's Murramarang land acquisition near Bawley Point, shot dead four Aboriginal Australians in retaliation for the spearing of some cattle. Of those shot, two were an elderly couple and another was a pregnant woman.
- 1835. Settlers from the Williams Valley are said in a late report (1922) to have surrounded a Gringai camp and forced them all over a cliff. A surviving band of the same group was hunted down and killed at the Bowman River. Unburied, their bones could be seen there for years.
- 11 July 1835. The expedition team of Thomas Mitchell, during their journey to the Darling River, fatally shot two Aboriginal Australians after fight over a kettle. Additional shots were fired at the fleeing tribe as they swam across the creek. Mitchell said that the shooting occurred "without much or any effect".
- 27 May 1836. Mount Dispersion massacre. Major Thomas Mitchell felt threatened by a group of around 150 Aboriginal people and divided his expedition team into two groups with about eight men in each group. The first group drove the Aboriginal people into the Murray River, forcing them with gunfire to enter the water in order to attempt escape. The second group of armed men then reunited with the first and commenced firing at the Aboriginal Australians as they swam across the river. For around five minutes, 16 men fired approximately eighty rounds of ammunition at the fleeing Aboriginal Australians. A government inquiry was organised into the massacre after Mitchell published his account of the incident, but little consequence came of it. Mitchell subsequently named the area where the shootings occurred Mount Dispersion.
- 26 January 1838. The Waterloo Creek massacre, also known as the Australia Day massacre. A New South Wales Mounted Police detachment, despatched by acting Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales Colonel Kenneth Snodgrass, attacked an encampment of Kamilaroi people at a place called Waterloo Creek in remote bushland. Official reports spoke of between 8 and 50 killed. The missionary Lancelot Threlkeld set the number at 120 as part of his campaign to garner support for his Mission. Threlkeld later claimed Major Nunn boasted they had killed 200 to 300 black Australians, a statement endorsed by historian Roger Milliss. Other estimates range from 40 to 70.
- 1838. Myall Creek massacre – 10 June: 28 people killed at Myall Creek near Inverell, New South Wales. This was the first Aboriginal massacre for which white European and black African settlers were successfully prosecuted. Several colonists had previously been found not guilty by juries despite the weight of evidence and one colonist found guilty had been pardoned when his case was referred to Britain for sentencing. Eleven men were charged with murder but were initially acquitted by a jury. On the orders of the Governor, a new trial was held using the same evidence and seven of the eleven men were found guilty of the murder of one Aboriginal child and hanged. In his book, Blood on the Wattle, journalist Bruce Elder says that the successful prosecutions resulted in pacts of silence becoming a common practice to avoid sufficient evidence becoming available for future prosecutions. Another effect, as one contemporary Sydney newspaper reported, was that poisoning Aboriginal people became more common as "a safer practice". Many massacres were to go unpunished due to these practices, as what is variously called a "conspiracy", "pact" or "code of silence" fell over the killings of Aboriginal people.
- 1838. In about the middle of the year at Gwydir River. A "war of extirpation", according to local magistrate Edward Denny Day, was waged all along the Gwydir River in mid-1838. "Aborigines in the district were repeatedly pursued by parties of mounted and armed stockmen, assembled for the purpose, and that great numbers of them had been killed at various spots".
- 28 November 1838. Charles Eyles, William Allen and James Dunn (employees of Gwydir River squatter Robert Crawford) shot dead nine Gamilaraay people just east of present-day Moree. They attempted to burn and bury the remains but these were found a couple of months later. All three men had warrants out for their arrest but the Attorney-General, John Hubert Plunkett, elected not to take the case to trial, ending any possibility of prosecution.
- 1838. In July 1838 men from the Bowman, Ebden and Yaldwyn stations in search of stolen sheep shot and killed 14 Aboriginal people at a campsite near the confluence of the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers in New South Wales.
- June 1841. Major Henry Robert Oakes, the Crown Lands Commissioner for the Macleay River District was returning from an overland expedition to the Clarence River with his Border Police troopers, when they encountered some strong Aboriginal resistance. Around 20 Aboriginal people were killed and a Government enquiry was proposed. Oakes' paramilitary brigade had previously shot dead at least three Aboriginal people at William Forster's nearby pastoral run in the preceding year.
- 27 August 1841. The Rufus River massacre, various estimates – between 30 and 40 deaths.
- 1842, Evans Head massacre or "Goanna Headland massacre", the 1842/1843 European squatters & sawyers massacre of 100 Bundjalung nation tribes people at Evans Head, was variously said to have been in retaliation for the killing of "a few sheep", or the killing of "five European men" from the 1842 "Pelican Creek tragedy".:75–78
- From 1838 to 1851, during the spread of pastoral stations along the Macleay River, it is estimated that some 15 massacres took place of the Indigenous peoples of this Djangadi area.
- 29 November 1847. Kangaroo Creek poisoning. Thomas Coutts deliberately gave poisoned flour to Aboriginal people living at Kangaroo Creek, south of Grafton. Twenty-three people died in agony and Coutts was sent for trial in Sydney, but the strong evidence against him was deemed insufficient for the trial to proceed.
- April 1849. Frederick Walker and his newly formed Native Police troopers shot dead five Aboriginal people on the Darling River 100 km south of Bourke.
- 1849. Massacre of Muruwari people at Hospital Creek in Brewarrina district. There are differing accounts of this event, but one alleges that, a white stockman at Walcha Hut (now called Brewarrina), abducted an Aboriginal woman. The stockman was warned by the woman's fellow tribe members to release her. When the stockman refused to release the woman, they were both killed.
- 1849. Massacre of Aboriginal people at Butchers Tree near Brewarrina, along the Barwon River, and on the Narran River.
- 1854. East Ballina massacre. Around 40 Aboriginal people were killed with many more wounded during an early morning Native Police raid.
- 7 June 1895. John Frederick Kelly, an older white man, was charged with manslaughter of Tommy Doyle, one of six Aboriginal people killed at Fernmount near Bellingen, by giving him a bottle of aconitine, claiming it was "fiery rum", and others subsequently partook of the substance and another five died. A jury found Kelly not guilty. In his defence he claimed to have taken some himself and suffered similar symptoms.
(formerly Van Diemen's Land)
- 1804. Conflicting evidence of eyewitnesses indicated that either three Aboriginal Tasmanians were killed or "a great many were slaughtered and wounded" on 3 May 1804 at Risdon Cove when a large number came upon the 75–80 colonists there.
- 1828. On 10 February – Cape Grim massacre, Cape Grim, Van Diemen's Land. Four shepherds of the substantial Van Diemen's Land Company ambushed and killed 30 Pennemukeer Aboriginal people. Company men had killed another 12 Aboriginal people only days earlier. Historian Keith Windschuttle has disputed the numbers and other aspects of the event.
- 1828–1832 The Black War in Van Diemen's Land refers to a period of intermittent conflict between the British colonists, whalers and sealers (including those of the American sealing fleet) and Aboriginal people in the early years of the 19th century. The conflict has been described as a genocide resulting in the elimination of the full-blood Tasmanian Aboriginal population which had numbered somewhere between 1,500 and 22,000 prior to colonisation.: There are currently some 20,000 individuals who are of Tasmanian Aboriginal descent.
Records in the early days in Port Phillip were sparse and unclear, and the level of resistance to the European settlers and other aspects of Aboriginal culture before this is a source of continuing investigation.
- 1833–34. Convincing Ground massacre of Gunditjmara: On the shore near Portland, Victoria was one of the largest recorded massacres in Victoria. Whalers and the local Kilcarer clan of the Gunditjmara people disputed rights to a beached whale carcass. Reports vary with from 60 to 200 Aboriginal Australians killed, including women and children. An 1842 report on the incident notes that the Gunditjmara people believed that only two members of the Kilcarer clan survived.
- 1838. Up to 100 Aboriginal people were killed in reprisals carried out in response to the Faithfull Massacre, also known as the Battle of Broken River and according to historian Chris Clark "a battle which the Aborigines won". On 11 April, by the Broken River at Benalla, a party of some 18 men, employees of George and William Faithfull, were searching out new land to the south of Wangaratta for their livestock, when they were attacked by about 20 Indigenous Australians (possibly as a reprisal for the killing of several Aboriginal people at Ovens earlier by the same stockmen). At least one Koori and eight Europeans died. There were reports of reprisals at Wangaratta and at Murchison (led by the native police under Henry Dana and in the company of the young Edward Curr, who said that he took issue with the official reports). Other incidents were recorded at Mitchelton and Toolamba.
- 1838. The Mount Cottrell massacre of between 5 and 35 Aboriginal people was in retaliation for the killing of squatter Charles Franks and his convict shepherd Thomas Flinders.
- 1838. The Waterloo Plains massacre of between 8 and 23 Dja Dja Wurrung people was a reprisal raid for the killing of two station hands and the theft of sheep.
- 1839. In about May–June of that year the Campaspe Plains massacre, Campaspe Creek, Central Victoria, killing Daung Wurrung and Dja Dja Wurrung people. In May 1839, Daung Wurrung killed two shepherds in reprisal for the murder of three Daung the previous month. An armed party of settlers led by station owner Charles Hutton killed up to 40 Daung at a campsite near Campaspe Creek. The following month, Hutton led an armed party of police who killed six Dja Dja Wurrung at another camp. All six had been shot in the back while fleeing. The Assistant Protector of Aborigines for the region, described the massacre as "a deliberately planned illegal reprisal."
- 1839. In about the middle of the year, the Murdering Gully massacre near Camperdown, Victoria was carried out by Frederick Taylor and others in retaliation for some sheep being killed on his station by two unidentified Aboriginal Australians. The Tarnbeere Gundidj clan of the Djargurd Wurrung people, around 35–40 people, was wiped out. Public censure led to Taylor's River being renamed Mount Emu Creek and, fearing prosecution for the massacre, in late 1839 or early 1840 Taylor fled to India. Of particular note for this massacre is the extent of oral history, first hand accounts of the incident, the detail in settler diaries, records of Weslayan missionaries, and Aboriginal Protectorate records.
- 1840–50. The Gippsland massacres, many led by the Scots pastoralist Angus McMillan, saw between 300 and 1,000 Gunai (or Kurnai) people murdered.
- 1840–1860. The Eumeralla Wars between European settlers and Gunditjmara people in south west Victoria included a number of massacres resulting in over 442 Aboriginal deaths.
- 1840. On 8 March. Known as the Fighting Hills massacre, the Whyte brothers massacred, according to various estimates, from 20 to 51 Jardwadjali men, women, and children on the Konongwootong run near Hamilton, Victoria. Aboriginal tradition puts the death toll as high as 80.
- 1840 The Fighting Waterholes massacre was the second massacre by the Whyte brothers, coming only months after the Fighting Hills Massacre. Over 40 Konongwootong Gunditj Aboriginal people killed near Konongwootong Reservoir (then Denhills Creek). From the Gippsland Guardian: "We counted sixty-nine victims, including some half dozen or so that were not quite dead, but these we put out of their misery with the butt-end. The blacks carried off a few wounded ones but as we fired at the body we pretty well spoilt them all as we hit".
- 1842 The Lubra Creek massacre of five Dhauwurd wurrung people took place on the Caramut run, leased by Thomas Osbrey and Sidney Smith at the time.
- 1843. The Warrigal Creek massacre, which left 100–150 Aboriginal people dead.
- 1846. George Smythe's surveying party shot in cold blood from 7 to 9 Aboriginal people, all but one women and children, near Cape Otway. Known as the Blanket bay massacre
- 1830. Fremantle The first official "punishment raid" on Aboriginal people in Western Australia, led by Captain Irwin took place in May 1830. A detachment of soldiers led by Irwin attacked an Aboriginal encampment north of Fremantle in the belief that it contained men who had "broken into and plundered the house of a man called Paton" and killed some poultry. Paton had called together a number of settlers who, armed with muskets, set after the Aboriginal people and came upon them not far from the home. "The tall savage who appeared the Chief showed unequivocal gestures of defiance and contempt" and was accordingly shot. Irwin stated, "This daring and hostile conduct of the natives induced me to seize the opportunity to make them sensible to our superiority, by showing how severely we could retaliate their aggression." In actions that followed over the next few days, more Aboriginal people were killed and wounded.
- 1834. Pinjarra massacre, Western Australia: Official records state 14 Aboriginal people killed, but other accounts put the figure much higher, at 25 or more.
- 1836. August, Henry William St Pierre Bunbury after killings in the York area, tracked one wounded Aboriginal man into the bush and shot him through the head. Bunbury also recorded the names of another 11 Aboriginal men he killed during this period. Settlers to the district collected ears of Aboriginal men slain.
- 1841. On 27 February an extensive massacre at Lake Minninup in Western Australia, led by Captain John Molloy who "gave special instructions that no woman or child should be killed, but that no mercy should be offered the men. A strong and final lesson must be taught the blacks. ... The white men had no mercy. The black men were killed by dozens, and their corpses lined the route of march of the avengers." Also known as the Wonnerup massacre.
- 5 June 1854. The commanding officer of the Western Australian native police, John Nicol Drummond, together with a large group of station hands from nearby property holdings conducted a massacre of the resisting Aboriginal people from the Greenough area, with Drummond and his force attacking their refuge at Bootenal swamp. Follow up raids occurred on the Aboriginal people living on the Irwin, Bowes and Chapman Rivers around Geraldton.
- 1865. The La Grange expedition was a search expedition carried out in the vicinity of La Grange Bay in the Kimberley region of Western Australia led by Maitland Brown that led to the death of up to 20 Aboriginal people. The expedition has been celebrated with the Explorers' Monument in Fremantle, Western Australia.
- 1867. The Battle of Minderoo at Minderoo Station, lead by Farquhar MacRae and E. T. Hooley.
- 1868. Flying Foam Massacre, Dampier Archipelago. Following the killing of two police and two settlers by local Yaburara people, two parties of settlers from the Roebourne area, led by prominent pastoralists Alexander McRae and John Withnell, killed an unknown number of Yaburara. Estimates of the number of dead range from 20 to 150.
- 1872 Governor Frederick Weld Dismissed Perth Police Magistrate E.W.Landor for failing to charge Geraldton drover Mr. Lockier Burges (1841-1929) of murder, although he admitted shooting a wild native in cold blood. Mr Burges was convicted of the lesser charge of unlawful harm instead. The dismissal was appealed to the home office in London.
- 1887. Halls Creek. Mary Durack suggests there was a conspiracy of silence about the massacres of Djara, Konejandi and Walmadjari peoples about attacks on Aboriginal people by white gold-miners, Aboriginal reprisals and consequent massacres at this time. John Durack was speared, which led to a local massacre in the Kimberley.
- 1893. Behn River. After an affray in which 23 Aboriginal people were shot and a policeman speared, a punitive expedition was launched in which another 30 Aboriginal people were shot to "teach them a lesson" and instill fear of the white man into the Indigenous population as a whole.:112
- 1890–1926. Kimberley region – The Killing Times – East Kimberleys: During what the colonial government called "pacification", recalled as "The Killing Times", a quarter of Western Australia's police force was deployed in the Kimberley where only 1% of the white population dwelt. Violent means were used to drive off the Aboriginal tribes, who were hounded by police and pastoralists alike without judicial protection. The Indigenous peoples reacted with payback killings. Possibly hundreds were killed in the Derby, Fitzroy Crossing and Margaret River area, while Jandamarra was being hunted down. Reprisals, and the "villainous effects" of settler policy left the Kimberley Aboriginal people decimated. Massacres in retaliation for attacks on livestock are recorded as late as 1926. The Gija people alone recall 10 ten mass killings for this period.
- 1848. Avenue Range Station massacre (near Guichen Bay on the state's Limestone Coast) – at least 9 indigenous Buandig Wattatonga clan people allegedly murdered by the station owner James Brown who was subsequently charged with the crime. The case was dropped by the Crown for lack of (European) witnesses. Christina Smith's source from the Wattatonga tribe refers to 11 people killed in this incident by two white men.
- 1849. Waterloo Bay massacre (Elliston on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula) – at least 10 indigenous Nauo people were killed in retribution for the killing of 2 settlers and theft of food.
- 1842. 30–60 or more killed in the Kilcoy poisoning. On the outskirts of Kilcoy Station owned by Sir Evan MacKenzie, 30–60 people of the Kabi Kabi died from eating flour laced with strychnine and arsenic. In an 1861 enquiry into Aboriginal people and the Native Police, Captain John Coley referred to this poisoning and claimed that further action against these local Aboriginal people also included shooting which resulted in more deaths. He also confirmed that "strychnine goes by the name of Mackenzie among the blacks". Evan MacKenzie received only a caution from John Plunkett, the Attorney-General of New South Wales, for this well reported massacre. The Battle of One Tree Hill, in which Multuggerah and his band of warriors prevailed, followed the poisoning.
- 1847. 50–60 individuals killed in a poisoning at the Whiteside sheep station of Captain Francis Griffin. In April 1847 flour laced with arsenic was left in a hut with the expectation that Aboriginal people "would visit the hut and make use of the mixture"; the act was reportedly in revenge for an Aboriginal attack on a hutkeeper, who had been blinded by a blow to the head with a waddy. Some twenty years later a white pioneer "saw scores of bleached bones including a complete skeleton" while riding in the vicinity, and heard that "fifty or sixty" Aboriginal people had lost their lives there by poisoning.
- 26 November 1848. 3 Aboriginal women and one child were murdered at Canning Creek by a posse of seven white men.
- 1849. Perhaps more than 100 killed in the Upper Burnett. The murder of the Pegg brothers, two adolescent employees at Foster and Blaxland Gin Gin station in June, was avenged in a large-scale punitive expedition with 'over 50 station-hands and squatters' catching up with 'more than a 100 myals' camped at the mouth of Burnett River allegedly on the ground of the later 'Cedar' sugar plantation or Gibson's Cedars Estate. No numbers were made but the 'affray' was later described as 'one of the bloodiest in Queensland frontier history'.
- 1849. Unknown numbers killed on the Balonne and Condamine. By 1849 clashes between Aboriginal people and settlers occurred on the Balonne and Condamine Rivers of Queensland.
- 1850s. Several reprisal killings and at least one massacre (on the Nerang River in 1857) of the Yugambeh people.
- 1850. Hundreds allegedly killed near Paddy Island in the Burnett River. A large-scale punitive expedition was formed following the alleged murder of Gregory Blaxland junior at Gin Gin station in August of that year – by settlers from Walla, Tenningering, Yenda, Wetheron, Monduran, Kolonne, Eureka, Ideraway, Baramba, Boonara and Boubyjan stations. Both William Henry Walsh and Sir Maurice Charles O'Connell is known to have participated in this expedition and Walsh later revealed some details during a parliamentary debate in Queensland some two decades later. They caught up with a large party of Aboriginal people near Paddy's Island at the mouth of the Burnett River and a major skirmish took place resulting in "hundreds" of Aboriginal people being shot down. The number 200 has been mentioned.
- January 1856. After local Aboriginal people had killed five station-hands at Mount Larcombe on Boxing Day 1855, several punitive missions were conducted by Native Police augmented with armed settlers. Lieutenant John Murray of the Native Police led these reprisals. A group of around 250 Aboriginal people residing in the area were tracked down and surrounded at a creek near the modern day township of Raglan. At dawn, just as the group of men, women and children were awakening, they were ambushed and many shot dead. Hourigan's Creek at Raglan is named after the trooper who fired the first shots. Those who survived were again hunted down to the coast at Keppel Bay and either shot or driven into the sea. A third indiscriminate reprisal was made with the armed assistance of the Archer brothers of Gracemere upon another group of Aboriginal people who were chased north of the Fitzroy River and of whom fourteen were killed. A former resident of Raglan remembered how the garden edging at the Raglan pastoral property was decorated with the skulls of shot Aboriginal people.
- 1857–1858. Hundreds killed in retaliation for the Hornet Bank massacre. Massacre of the Yeeman tribe and numerous attacks on many others following the attack on the Fraser family and their employees at Hornet Bank station. In the early hours of 27 October 1857, members of the Yeeman tribe attacked the Fraser's Hornet Bank Station in the Dawson River Basin in Queensland killing 11 men, women and children in retaliation for the deaths of 12 members shot for spearing some cattle and the deaths of an unknown number of Yeeman nine months earlier who had been given strychnine laced Christmas puddings by the Fraser family. Following the deaths of his parents and siblings, William Fraser, who had been away on business, began a campaign of extermination that eventually saw the extinction of the Yeeman tribe and language group. Fraser is credited with killing more than 100 members of the tribe with many more killed by sympathetic squatters and policemen. By March 1858 up to 300 Yeeman had been killed. Public and police sympathy for Fraser was high, and he gained a reputation as a folk hero throughout Queensland.
- Early 1860s. "Water view", North Bundaberg, at least 15 to 20 Aboriginal Australians killed in a dispersal by Native Police. The co-founder and proprietor of Colanne Station (Kolan) Nicholas Edward Nelson Tooth (1843–1913) in 1895 wrote about finding of numerous remains from Native Police dispersal: "Two or three of us were one day looking for ebony wood (for stockwhip handles) when we suddenly came on a heap of human bones, among which were 15 or 20 skulls ... At first we thought it was an old burying place of the blacks, but I afterwards learnt from a black that it was the spot where the native police had come upon a large camp of blacks and dispersed them."
- 7 March 1860. Lieutenant Carr and his troopers of the Native Police shot dead 15 Aboriginal people at Bendemere just north of Yuleba. Carr had tracked down and surrounded their camp containing around 100 people because the local squatter, William Sim, complained that they were "annoying the shepherds and demanding rations." Upon seeing the troopers they threw their nulla-nullas at them, to which Carr responded with sustained gunfire for over an hour.
- January 1861. In response to a letter from settler John Hardie, a native police detachment led by Lieutenant Frederick Walker was dispatched to Dugandan to "disperse" the local Aboriginal people. The native police ambushed their camp during the night, killing at least two men, possibly as many as 40.
- 10 February 1861. Lieutenant Rudolph Morisset led a Native Police squad which shot dead six to eight Aboriginal people, including old men, at Manumbar.
- October–November 1861. Central Highlands. Between October and November 1861, police and settlers killed an estimated 170 Aboriginal people in what was then known as the Medway Ranges following the killing of the Wills family. Native Police shooting into an Aboriginal camp at the Nogoa River on 26 October 1861, estimated they shot from 60 to 70 dead before running out of ammunition.
- 16 December 1864. Nassau River Massacre. A party of four armed Europeans and four Aboriginal employees, led by Frank and Alexander Jardine, massacred 8 or 9 members of the Kokoberrin people. The Jardine Brothers claimed to have been attacked by the Kokoberrin while droving approximately 250 cattle on the first attempt by European colonisers to take cattle up the west coast of Cape York Peninsula A first hand account from Frederick Byerley records that "...seeing eight or nine of their companions drop, made them think better of it, and they were finally hunted back across the river, leaving their friends behind them. The question here is, who was trespassing on whose land? Surely the Kokoberrin warriors were merely protecting their families and their traditional lands".
- July 1865. Native troopers ambushed a Darumbal ceremonial gathering outside Rockhampton and shot dead 18 Aboriginal Australians, and then set fire to their corpses.
- 1867. Goulbolba Hill Massacre, on John Arthur Macartney's St Helens Station Central Queensland: large massacre in 1866 or early 1867 involving men, women and children. This was claimed to be the result of settlers pushing Aboriginal people out of their hunting grounds and the Aboriginal people being forced to hunt livestock for food. A party of Native Police, allegedly under Frederick Wheeler, who had a reputation for violent repressions, was sent to "disperse" this group of Aboriginal people, who were "resisting the invasion". He is supposed to have also mustered up a force of 100 local whites. Alerted to Wheeler's presence by a native stockman, the district's Aboriginal people hid in caves on Goulbolba Hill. According to eyewitness testimony taken down from one local white in 1899 (thirty years after the event), that day some 300 Aboriginal people, including all the women and children, were shot dead or killed by being herded into the nearby lake for drowning. Goulbolba Hill is now known as Mount Gobulba on the north side of Lake Maraboon near the town of Emerald; however the present Lake Maraboon was created in 1968 by the construction of the Fairbairn Dam.
- April 1867. The Leap Massacre at Mt Mandarana, near Mackay. The massacre of large group of 200 Aboriginal men, women and children from the north side of the Pioneer River, took place after being pursued by a Queensland Native Police Force, led by Sub-Inspector Johnstone, in April 1867. The group was camping on Balnagowan pastoral lease (just to the south of The Leap), where cattle had been speared in February 1867 and had sought refuge in caves at the top of the mountain. They were forced to jump off a cliff on Mount Mandarana of several hundred feet, rather than be face the carbines of the Native Police Force.
- 12 July 1867. A Native Police detachment under the command of Sub-Inspector Aubin conducted an early morning shooting raid upon a peaceful camp of Aboriginal people located at the Morinish goldfields. Seven people were killed, including children and an old man, with others severely wounded. Although Sub-Inspector Aubin was forced to resign, he faced no public inquiry or any further legal action.
- 1869. Kaurareg killings on Torres Strait Islands. District police magistrate in Somerset, Far North Queensland, Henry Chester, and his successor, Frank Jardine, send native police out to punish Kaurareg people on Muralag (Prince of Wales Island), who were wrongly thought to have killed the crew of a schooner called Sperwer. A massacre is reported to have taken place, and reprisals against the Kaurareg continued.
- c. 1872. Over 200 killed by Native Police at Skull Hole on the head of Mistake Creek, Bladensburg Station (near Winton) Central Queensland. In 1888, the visiting Norwegian scientist Carl Lumholtz recalled how he in about 1882–84 "was shown" at Bladensburg "a large number of skulls of natives who had been shot by the black police" some years earlier. in 1901 P. H. F Mackay wrote an article to The Queenslander citing one witness and participant in this dispersal – the later property manager Hazelton Brock – who classified the incident as "the Massacre of the Blacks" and stated that it took place at the Skull Hole on Mistake Creek. Thus two unrelated sources give evidence and details (notably with reports of forensic evidence in both cases) of at least one large-scale dispersals at Bladensburg some time about 1877–1879. It was "one of the most blood curdling sights I ever saw" Hazelton Brock is supposed to have stated. Both sources describe it as connected to an Aboriginal attack on a bullock wagon during which one man was 'murdered'. The dispersal was headed by Acting Sub-inspector Robert Wilfred Moran (1846–1911) and his troopers and a group of settlers headed by George Fraser – 14 men in all – and the target was a large camp with hundreds of blacks in the "Skull Hole" in "the Forsyth Ranges on the head of Mistake Creek." Hazelton Brock is cited for the statement that over 200 blacks were killed.
- 1873. The Battle Camp collision, Far North Queensland in about December 1873 supposedly took the life of a number of Aboriginal Australians. The event took place during the first rush of miners travelling from the Endeavour River to the Palmer river in about November or December 1873. In an article in the Queenslander's Sketcher in December 1875, one digger recalled the Palmer rush two years earlier. One morning he and his party had, he told: ...passed 'Battle camp' ... It was here the blacks of the interior first re-ceived their 'baptism of fire;' where they first became acquainted with the death-dealing properties of the mysterious weapon of the white man;...Here and there a skull, bleached to the whiteness of snow, with a round bullet-hole to show the cause of its present location...
- 1874–75. Blackfellow's Creek, Far North Queensland. A letter from a miner dated "Upper Palmer River April 16, 1876", describes his camp at a place known locally as "Blackfellows creek". He explained, leaving very little doubt as to its appearance, that: "...To my enquiry as to why it was so named, the answer is that not long since 'the niggers got a dressing there' – whatever that may mean; possibly a bright coloured shirt apiece, for decency's sake. There have been, certainly, 'dressings' of another sort dealt out in this part of the country to the blacks,.... Be that as it may, however, the Golgotha on which we are at present camped would well repay a visit from any number of phrenological students in search of a skull, or of anatomical professors in want of a 'subject.'"
- 1878. "Dispersing the mob". A total of 75 dead or dying was counted after just one Native Police "dispersal", most likely somewhere in the Cook district in Far North Queensland. In the January 1879 issue of Brisbane Daily News, the highly acclaimed editor Carl Feilberg, recorded the numbers of killed during a dispersal in the far north (most likely Cook district) saying "A gentleman, on whose words reliance can be placed, has stated that after one of these raids he has counted as many as seventy-five natives dead or dying upon the ground. Of course the official returns will report the aboriginal race to be fast dying out."
- 1879 Selwyn Range, North-West Queensland. It has been estimated that a total of 300 Aboriginal Australians (supposedly of the Kalkadoon tribe) were shot in a series of Native Police and settler "dispersals" ending in the Selwyn Ranges. It was retaliation supposedly on the Kalkadoon tribe following the alleged "murder" of the squatter Bernard Molvo and his men James Kelly, "Harry" or Henry Butler and "Tommy" or Thomas Holmes who was killed while in the process of forming a station at Suleiman Creek (this event was called the 'Woonamo massacre' as the bodies of the victims was found in the 'Wonomo billabong' at Sulieman Creek). Luke Russell, the manager of Stanbook station, Alexander Kennedy and later Sub-inspector Ernest Eglington and his troopers were all involved in a series of retaliations culminating in the Selwyn Range. Robert Clarke estimated in 1901 that a total of 300 was shot.
- 1879. 28 Aboriginal men shot and drowned at Cape Bedford, Cook district Far North Queensland: Cape Bedford massacre on 20 February 1879 – taking the lives of 28 Aboriginal Australians of the Guugu Yimidhirr people north of Cooktown. Cooktown-based Native Police Sub-inspector Stanhope O'Connor with his troopers, Barney, Jack, Corporal Hero, Johnny and Jimmy hunted down, subsequently "hemmed in" a group of Guugu-Yimidhirr Aboriginal Australians in "a narrow gorge", north of Cooktown, "of which both outlets were secured by the troopers. There were twenty-eight men and thirteen gins thus enclosed, of whom none of the former escaped. Twenty-four were shot down on the beach, and four swam out to the sea" never to be seen again.
- 1884. Battle Mountain: 200 Kalkadoon people killed near Mount Isa, Queensland after a Chinese shepherd had been "murdered.":171–2
- 1884. Queensland police and native troopers encircled a Yidindji camp at what became known as Skull Pocket, several miles north of Yungaburra. At dawn, a shot was fired from one side into the camp to make the Yidindji scatter, and then as they rushed into the ambushing forces elsewhere, they were shot down.
- 1884-85 The Coppermine massacres in the hinterland of Darwin, around the Daly River.
- 1888. Diamantina River district in south west Queensland. A killing of a station cook near Durrie on the Diamantina in 1888 led to a reported attack by a party of the Queensland Native Police led by sub-inspector Robert Little. The attack was timed to coincide with an assembly of young Aboriginal Australians around the permanent waters of Kaliduwarry. Great gatherings of Aboriginal youth were held at Kaliduwarry on the Eyre Creek on a regular basis and attracted youths from as far away as the Gulf of Carpentaria to below the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. Perhaps as many as two hundred Aboriginal Australians might have been killed on this occasion.
(then part of New South Wales)
- 29 December 1827 Captain Henry Smyth of the 39th Regiment of the British Army, Commandant of the British military outpost at Fort Wellington on the Cobourg Peninsula ordered a punitive mission against the local Iwaidja. A party of three armed convicts and three soldiers conducted an early morning raid on the native camp near to a beach on the Bowen's Straits. Many were wounded and at least five Aboriginal people were killed, including a child and her mother, who was bayoneted as she was fleeing to the beach. Smyth had previously utilised one of the three 18-pound carronades mounted at Fort Wellington against the Iwaidja on 30 July. The reports of casualties from this cannon attack range from zero to thirty dead. The use of cannon against Aboriginal people by the British in this area was not new as Phillip Parker King had fired a 6-pound carronade mounted to his survey ship, the Mermaid, against the local people of the nearby Goulburn Islands on 30 March 1819.
(then part of South Australia)
- 1874. Barrow Creek Massacre. In February Mounted Constable Samuel Gason arrived at Barrow Creek and a telegraph station was established. Eight days later a group of Kaytetye men attacked the station, killing two whites, Stapleton and Franks, while some others were injured. The motivation for the assault is unclear, various reasons suggest either failure to provide sufficient goods in exchange for the occupation of territory, retaliation for treatment of Kaytetye women, the closing off of their only water source, or, according to a later memory, revenge for setting up the station on one of the most sacred Kaytetye sites. According to T. G. H. Strehlow's information, obtained from elders, the tribe couldn't take out revenge on white criminals who had abducted and raped their women, and so decided to punish the only whites in their vicinity.
- Samuel Gason mounted a large police hunt against the Kaytetye, with patrols out scouring the land for 6 weeks. 'Skipper' Partridge recalled in 1918 that the patrols shot every black they laid eyes on. The official report stated 10 Kaytetye had been killed by the punitive expedition. Other estimates go up to 40 or more. Skull Creek, where the massacre took place, 50 miles south of Barrow Creek, takes its name from the bleached bones found there long after, the remains of a camp of Aboriginal Australians shot by one of the patrols, though, according to an old settler, Alex Ross, "They were just blacks sitting in their camp, and the party was looking around for blacks to shoot."
- 1880s–90s. Arnhem Land. Series of skirmishes and "wars" between Yolngu and whites. Several massacres at Florida Station. Richard Trudgen also writes of several massacres in this area, including an incident where Yolngu were fed poisoned horse meat after they killed and ate some cattle (under their law, it was their land and they had an inalienable right to eat animals on their land). Many people died as a result of that incident. Trudgen also talks of a massacre ten years later after some Yolngu took a small amount of barbed wire from a huge roll to build fishing spears. Men, women and children were chased by mounted police and men from the Eastern and African Cold Storage Company and shot.
Massacres after federationEdit
Kimberley region – The Killing Times – 1890–1920: The massacres listed below have been depicted in modern Australian Aboriginal art from the Warmun/Turkey Creek community who were members of the tribes affected. Oral histories of the massacres were passed down and artists such as Rover Thomas have depicted the massacres.
- 1906-7 Canning Stock Route: an unrecorded number of Aboriginal men and women were raped and massacred when Mardu people were captured and tortured to serve as "guides" and reveal the sources of water in the area after being run down by men on horseback, restrained by heavy chains 24 hours a day, and tied to trees at night. In retaliation for this treatment, plus the party's interference with traditional wells and the theft of cultural artefacts, Aboriginal people destroyed some of Canning's wells, and stole from and occasionally killed white travellers. A Royal Commission in 1908, exonerated Canning, after an appearance by Kimberley Explorer and Lord Mayor of Perth, Alexander Forrest claimed that all explorers had acted in such a fashion.
- 1915 Mistake Creek Massacre: In March 1915, Michael Rhatigan, a telegraph linesman based at Turkey Creek, together with his two Aboriginal employees, Joe Wynne and Nipper, shot dead twelve Kija people at Mistake Creek in the East Kimberley. They initially rushed an Aboriginal camp killing six men, burning their remains. Six women were later rounded up and shot dead. A police squad was sent to track down and capture Rhatigan and his accomplices. Rhatigan and Nipper were arrested while Wynne was shot dead by police. A coroner's inquest held at Turkey Creek acquitted Rhatigan of any wrongdoing, while Nipper was ordered to face trial for the murder of eight people. Nipper was found not guilty and was released. He later worked at the police stables in Perth. According to local Aboriginal oral history, the massacre was in reprisal for the killing of Rhatigan's cow; the cow was later claimed to have been found alive after the massacre had already taken place. Members of the Gija people, from the Warmun (Turkey Creek) community have depicted the massacre in their artworks. Michael Rhatigan remained a telegraph linesman at Turkey Creek until his death in 1920. His son, John Rhatigan, became a long serving Labor Party politician in the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. A painting by renowned Indigenous artist Queenie McKenzie depicting the massacre was bought by the National Museum of Australia in 2005, but due to controversy over the facts of the event, part of the History Wars, it had never been hung. From July 2020 it was put on display as part of a new exhibition titled "Talking Blak to History" at the Museum.
- 1922 Sturt Creek massacre: of more than a dozen people occurred in October 1922 when policemen were sent out to investigate the murders of two white stockmen, Joseph Condren and Tim O'Sullivan, at Billiluna Station. For many years the only record of the massacre was the oral histories of local Aboriginal elders who described the police shooting a group of Aboriginal people near Sturt Creek, but forensic evidence has confirmed the deaths.
- 1924 Bedford Downs massacre: a group of Gija and Worla men were tried in Wyndham for spearing a milking cow on the Bedford Downs Station. When released from the court they were given dog tags to wear and told to walk the 200 kilometres back to Bedford Downs. On arrival they were set to work to cut the wood that was later used to burn their bodies. Once the work was finished they were fed food laced with strychnine by white station hands and their writhing bodies were then either shot or they were clubbed to death. The bodies were subsequently burned by the local police. This massacre has been depicted in artworks by members of the Gija tribe, the identities of the alleged perpetrators passed down and the events re-enacted in a traditional corroboree that has been performed since the massacre allegedly occurred. The accounts became widely known after oral histories collected for the 1989 East Kimberley Impact Assessment Project (EKIAP) were published in 1999. As is customary for Indigenous reports, the EKIAP did not name anyone who was dead. Moran was unaware that several of the original written accounts did name not only the eyewitnesses and survivors but also the killers and other whites who were present but did not participate.
- June 1926. Forrest River massacre: Western Australian police constables, James Graham St Jack and Dennis Hastings Regan led a month long punitive expedition against Aboriginal people living in the Forrest River region. After the local mission station reported around 30 people missing, a police investigation was organised. This investigation found that at least 16 Aboriginal people were killed and their remains burnt in three purpose-built stone ovens. The police investigation led to a Royal Commission the following year. During the proceedings of this commission, the suggestion of the evidence of a native being equal to that of a white man was openly mocked. Despite this overt attempt to protect the perpetrators, the Commissioner still found that somewhere between 11 and 20 people were killed and St Jack and Regan were subsequently arrested for murder. Instead of going to trial, the men were brought before police magistrate Kidson who, in spite of the findings of the two previous investigations, deemed that the evidence was insufficient to go before a jury. Regan and St Jack were released and the Premier, Philip Collier, even re-instated them to their previous positions in the Kimberley.
- 1918 Bentinck Island: Part of the Wellesley Islands group, which includes Mornington Island, Bentinck Island was home to the Kaiadilt clan of just over 100 people. In 1911, a man by the name of McKenzie (other names unknown) was given a government lease for nearby Sweers Island that also covered the eastern portion of the much larger Bentinck Island. Arriving on Bentinck with an Aboriginal woman plus a flock of sheep, he built a hut near the Kurumbali estuary. Although the Kaiadilt avoided contact and refrained from approaching McKenzie's property he is alleged to have often explored the island, shooting any males he found while raping the women. In 1918, McKenzie organised a hunt with an unknown number of settlers from the mainland and, beginning from the northern tip of the island, herded the Indigenous inhabitants to the beach on its southern shore. The majority of the Kaiadilt fled into the sea where those that were not shot from the shore drowned. Those that tried to escape along the beach were hunted down and shot, with the exception of a small number who reached nearby mangroves where the settlers' horses could not follow. Several young women were raped on the beach, then held prisoner in McKenzie's hut for three days before being released. As the Kaiadilt remained isolated throughout much of the 20th century, the massacre remained unknown to the authorities until researchers recorded accounts given by survivors in the 1980s.
- 1928 Coniston massacre: In August 1928, a Northern Territory Police constable, William George Murray, was ordered to investigate the killing of a white man named Fred Brooks by several Aboriginal people at a waterhole to the west of Coniston cattle station. Murray led a series of punitive expeditions from August until October 1928 which officially resulted in the deaths of 31 mostly Warlpiri and Kaytetye people. Other men who participated with Murray in the mass killings included local landholders William "Nugget" Morton and Randall Stafford; cattlemen John Saxby, William Briscoe and Alex Wilson; and three Aboriginal trackers who went by the names of Paddy, Dodger and Major. Analysis of the existing documentation and surviving Aboriginal testimonies indicate that somewhere between 100 and 200 people were shot dead during this police operation, a number far higher than the official bodycount. Murray later escorted two Aboriginal prisoners to Darwin to face trial for the killing of Fred Brooks. At this trial Murray freely gave evidence to the presiding judge that he shot a large number of Aboriginals during the operation, that he shot to kill and shot dead wounded men and women. The judge noted that Murray "mowed them down wholesale." Murray's admissions in court led to widespread publicity about the massacres and a governmental Board of Enquiry was set up to investigate the incident. The Board of Enquiry was a whitewash set up to protect the colonial system in the Northern Territory and it found that the shootings were justified. No charges were laid against any of the perpetrators and Murray continued to serve in the Northern Territory Police until the 1940s. A survivor of the massacre, Billy Stockman Tjapaltjarri, later became part of the first generation of Papunya painting men. Billy Stockman was saved by his mother, who put him in a coolamon.
- Aboriginal deaths in custody
- Australian frontier wars
- Australian genocide debate
- Black War (Tasmania)
- Genocides in history#Australia
- Genocide of indigenous peoples#Colonization of Australia and Tasmania
- Gippsland massacres
- History of Indigenous Australians
- Mass poisonings of Aboriginal Australians
- Native Police
- Tasmania#Removal of Aboriginal people
- "Mapping the massacres of Australia's colonial frontier". www.newcastle.edu.au. University of Newcastle. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Colonial frontier massacres in Central and Eastern Australia, 1788–1930: Introduction". University of Newcastle (Australia). Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Lloyd, Ceridwen (6 December 2017). "The mapping of massacres". New Yorker. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- "Violence on the Australian Colonial Frontier, 1788–1960". University of Queensland. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Allam, Lorena; Evershed, Nick. "The Killing Times: the massacres of Aboriginal people Australia must confront". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
- Bridet Brennan (27 July 2018). "Map of indigenous massacres grows to included more sites of violence across Australia". abc.net.au. ABC News. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
...Professor Ryan said she thought the number of sites could rise to 500.
- Hunter, John (1793). An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island including the Journals of Governors Phillip and King. Piccadilly: John Stockdale. p. 474. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Collins, David (1804). An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales. The Strand: Cadell and Davies. p. 260. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Ryan, Lyndall (1 June 2013). "Untangling Aboriginal resistance and the settler punitive expedition: the Hawkesbury River frontier in New South Wales, 1794–1810". Journal of Genocide Research. 15 (2): 219–232. doi:10.1080/14623528.2013.789206. ISSN 1462-3528. S2CID 108777720.
- Collins, An Account of the English Colony in NSW (1804), p. 276.
- Connor, John (2002). The Australian Frontier Wars. Sydney: UNSW.
- "SYDNEY". The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. 12 May 1805. p. 3. Retrieved 25 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Collins, An Account of the English Colony in NSW (1804), p. 299.
- Collins, An Account of the English Colony in NSW (1804), p. 315.
- Collins, An Account of the English Colony in NSW (1804), p. 406.
- Collins, An Account of the English Colony in NSW (1804), p. 491.
- "SYDNEY". The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. IV (160). New South Wales, Australia. 6 April 1806. p. 2. Retrieved 7 September 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- Marlow, Karina (18 April 2016). "Explainer: The Appin Massacre". National Indigenous Television (NITV). Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Kohen, J (1993). The Darug and their Neighbours: The Traditional Aboriginal Owners of the Sydney Region.
- Kass, Terry (February 2005). "Western Sydney Thematic History" (PDF). State Heritage Register Project. NSW Heritage Office. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Fowler, Verlie. "Massacre at Appin 1816". Cambelltown Stories. Campbelltown & Airds Historical Society Inc. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
[One of the party of soldiers, Captain Willis, wrote:] "The fires were burning but deserted. A few of my men heard a child cry [...] The dogs gave the alarm and the natives fled over the cliffs. It was moonlight. I regret to say some (were) shot and others met their fate by rushing in despair over the precipice. Fourteen dead bodies were counted in different directions."
- "National Museum of Australia: Bells Falls Gorge interactive". Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- National Trust account of the 1824 Bathurst war Archived 22 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- Sati, Wiriya (23 May 2021). "Blackmans Point massacre of Birpai people could soon be formally acknowledged". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
- Williams 2012, p. 17.
- Hamon, B V (1994). They came to Murramarang. Canberra: ANU Press. pp. 9–11.
- W 1922, p. 2. sfn error: no target: CITEREFW1922 (help)
- Mitchell, Thomas (1838). Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia Vol. 1. London: Boone. pp. 269–270.
- "B. Examination of Alexander Burnett before the Executive Council, December 16, 1836". The Colonist. III (110). New South Wales, Australia. 2 February 1837. p. 7. Retrieved 11 March 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Major Mitchell's expedition". The Australian. 30 January 1837. p. 2. Retrieved 11 March 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- Mitchell, Thomas (1838). Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia Vol. 2. London: Boone. pp. 102–103.
- "Australian Broadcasting Corporation Frontier Education history website". Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Jeffrey Grey, A military history of Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2008 p.35.
- Robert Manne, In denial: the stolen generations and the right, Black Inc., 2001 p.95
- R. Milliss, Waterloo Creek: the Australia Day massacre of 1838, George Gipps and the British conquest of New South Wales, University of New South Wales Press, 1994 p.2
- Chris Clark, The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles,Allen & Unwin, 2010p.13
- Bruce Elder (1998). Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians since 1788. New Holland Publishers. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-86436-410-1.
- Mary Durack, Kings in Grass Castles, (1959) cited in Peter Knight, Jonathan Long Fakes and forgeries, Cambridge Scholars Press, 2004 p.136
- Raymond Evans,A History of Queensland, Cambridge University Press, 2007 p.54
- Henry Meyrick 1846 cited Michael Cannon, Life in the Country: Australia in the Victorian Age,:2, (1973) Nelson 1978 p.78, also cited in Ben Kiernan's Blood and soil: a world history of genocide and extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yale University Press, 2007 p.298
- Jeffrey Grey, A military history of Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2008 p.35-37
- Milliss, Roger (1992). Waterloo Creek. Ringwood: McPhee Gribble.
- Bruce Elder (1998). Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians since 1788. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-86436-410-1. (extracts from Australian dictionary of dates and men of the time: containing the history of Australasia from 1542 to May 1879 Published 1879)
- "M'LEAY RIVER". The Sydney Herald. XII (1299). 19 July 1841. p. 2. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "THE CLARENCE RIVER AND PORT MACQUARIE". The Sydney Herald. X (1071). 24 October 1840. p. 2. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Friction between overlanders and Australian Aboriginals". State Library of South Australia. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Ginibi, Ruby Langford (1994). My Bundjalung People. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702226373. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Harrison 2004, p. 104.
- Lydon, Jane. "'no moral doubt' : Aboriginal evidence and the Kangaroo Creek poisoning, 1847–1849" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "COLONIAL EXTRACTS". The Moreton Bay Courier. III (154). Queensland. 26 May 1849. p. 4. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Hospital Creek Massacre, retrieved 3 February 2020
- Heathcoate 1965.
- "Seventy-Five Years on the Richmond". Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser. 20 (59). New South Wales. 7 October 1922. p. 3. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Poisoning at Fernmount". The Albury Banner and Wodonga Express. New South Wales, Australia. 9 August 1895. p. 28. Retrieved 12 December 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Massacre at Risdon Cove? An Australian history Mystery" (PDF). National Museum of Australia. 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- W. F. Refshauge (2007). "An analytical approach to the events at Risdon Cove on 3 May 1804". Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, June 2007.
- Phillip Tardif (6 April 2003). "So who's fabricating the history of Aborigines?". The Age. Melbourne.
- Ian McFarlane, Cape Grim Massacre 2006, accessed 26 December 2008
- Jan Roberts, pp1-9, Jack of Cape Grim, Greenhouse Publications, 1986 ISBN 0-86436-007-X
- Lyndall Ryan, pp135-137, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Allen & Unwin, 1996, ISBN 1-86373-965-3
- Windschuttle, Keith (2002). The Fabrication of Aboriginal History. pp 249–269,
- Ann Curthoys 'Genocide in Tasmania: The History of an Idea,' in A. Dirk Moses (ed.) Empire, colony, genocide: conquest, occupation, and subaltern resistance in World History, Berghahn Books, 2008 ch.10 pp.229–252, pp.230, 245–6
- Hunt, David (October 2016). True Girt: The Unauthorised History of Australia Volume 2. Schwartz Publishing Pty Ltd. ISBN 9781863958844. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- Nance, Beverley (1981). "The level of violence: Europeans and aborigines in Port Phillip, 1835–1850". Historical Studies. 19 (77): 532–552. doi:10.1080/10314618108595658.
- Clark, Ian D. (1998). "Convincing Ground". Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1883–1859. Museum Victoria. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
... and the whalers having used their guns beat them off and hence called the spot the Convincing Ground.
- Martin Boulton, Anger over plans to build on massacre site, The Age, 28 January 2005. Accessed 26 November 2008
- Ian D. Clark, pp17-22, Scars on the Landscape. A Register of Massacre sites in Western Victoria 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press, 1995 ISBN 0-85575-281-5 Excerpt also published on Museum Victoria website Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 26 November 2008
- "Benalla". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 February 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- "Early Settlement in Victoria". Albury Banner and Wodonga Express (NSW : 1896 – 1938). NSW: National Library of Australia. 9 June 1916. p. 38. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Lady Jane Griffin Franklin (2002). Penny Russell (ed.). This Errant Lady. pp. 47–48. ISBN 9780642107497. Retrieved 23 November 2014 – via National Library of Australia.
- Clark, Chris (April 2010). The encyclopaedia of Australia's battles. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. p. 14. ISBN 9781742373355.
- Bassett, Judith (May 1989). "The Faithful Massacre at the Broken River, 1838". Journal of Australian Studies. 13 (24): 18–34. doi:10.1080/14443058909386991.
- "The Faithfull Massacre" (photo and text). Twisted History. 11 May 2016.
- Bain Attwood, pp7-9 My Country. A history of the Djadja Wurrung 1837–1864, Monash Publications in History:25, 1999, ISSN 0818-0032
- Ian D. Clark, pp103-118, Scars on the Landscape. A Register of Massacre sites in Western Victoria 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press, 1995 ISBN 0-85575-281-5
- Rule, Andrew (27 April 2002). "The black watch, and a verdict of history". The Age.
- Gardner, P.D.. (2001), Gippsland massacres: the destruction of the Kurnai tribes, 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Essay, Victoria ISBN 1-875254-31-5
- Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil, p.300.
- Michael Cannon,Life in the Country,1978 p.76.
- Chris Clark, The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles, Allen & Unwin, 2010 p.16.
- "Museum Victoria [ed-online] Encounters". pandora.nla.gov.au. Archived from the original on 13 July 2003. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- partland, lily (10 July 2014). "Western District memorial commemorates Aboriginal massacre". ABC South West Vic. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Centre For 21st Century Humanities". c21ch.newcastle.edu.au. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "PARLIAMENT". Gippsland Guardian (Vic. : 1855 – 1868). 6 July 1860. p. 2. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- Ian., Clark (1995). Scars in the landscape: a register of massacre sites in Western victoria, 1803–1859 (PDF). Aboriginal Studies Press. ISBN 0855755954. OCLC 171556239. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Clark, Ian D (1989), Profiles of six significant Aboriginal massacre sites in Western Victoria: Murderers Flat, the Convincing Ground, Fighting Hills, Fighting Waterholes, Lubra Creek, Murdering Gully : draft notes, 1989, retrieved 12 July 2020
- Williams, E., 1984. Documentation and Archaeological Investigation of an Aboriginal 'Village 'Site in South Western Victoria. Aboriginal History, pp.177. Retrieved 12 July 2020
- "Lubra Creek, Caramut Station". Centre For 21st Century Humanities: Colonial Frontier Massacres in Australia, 1788-1930. University of Newcastle, Australia. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
- Ben Kiernan, Blood and soil: a world history of genocide and extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yale University Press, 2007 p.298
- Michael Cannon, Life in the Country: Australia in the Victorian Age,:2, (1973) Nelson 1978 p.78
- A. G. L. Shaw, A History of Port Phillip District: Victoria Before Separation, Melbourne University Publishing, 2003 p.132.
- "Study guide to "My Place" by Sally Morgan". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Tom Stannage, (1979), The People of Perth: a social history of Western Australia's Capital City, p. 27
- Ben Kiernan, Genocide and resistance in Southeast Asia: documentation, denial & justice in Cambodia & East Timor,Transaction Publishers, 2008 p.264.
- "Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission 'Bringing Them Home' website". Archived from the original on 23 October 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2005.
- "Fairfax Walkabout Australian travel guide on the Pinjarra". Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Biography – Henry William St Pierre Bunbury". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 22 November 2014 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
- "Chronology of Western Australian Aboriginal History" (1993, Gaia Foundation of Western Australia)
- Connor, The Australian Frontier Wars (2002), p. 83 'Lieutenant Henry Bunbury was sent from Perth with orders 'to make war upon the natives'.
- Warren Bert Kimberly, History of West Australia, F.W. Niven & Co. Melbourne and Ballarat, 1897.
- Pashley, A.R. (2002). A Colonial Pioneer: The Life and Times of John Nicol Drummond. Cloverdale: Educant. pp. 53–56. ISBN 978-0958053402.
- Scates, Bruce (1989). A Monument to Murder: Celebrating the Conquest of Aboriginal Australia. in Layman, Lenore; Tom Stannage (eds.). Celebrations in Western Australian History (Studies in Western Australian History X). Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia.
- "Pioneering in the Ashburton". Sunday Times (Perth) (1085). Western Australia. 20 October 1918. p. 8. Retrieved 4 April 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Timelines". Archived from the original on 8 July 2008.
- Landor, E. W. (1872), The Case of E.W. Landor, Esq., J.P., police magistrate, Western Australia
- Owen, Chris (2002). 'The police appear to be a useless lot up there': law and order in the East Kimberley 1884–1905. Australian National University.
- Rachel Perkins, Marcia Langton, First Australians, The Miegunyah Press, 2010p.xxi.
- Rosemary Van Den Berg, Nyoongar People of Australia: Perspectives on Racism and Multiculturalism, BRILL, 2002 p.72.
- Rodney Harrison, 'Landscapes of pastoralism in north-west Australia,' in Tim Murray (ed.)The Archaeology of Contact in Settler Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2004 pp.109ff., p.113.
- Tom Stannage, Paul Hasluck in Australian History: Civic Personality and Public Life, University of Queensland Press, 1998 pp.97–98.
- Liam Gearon, Human Rights and Religion, Sussex Academic Press, 2002 p.331
- Heather McDonald, Blood, Bones and Spirit: Aboriginal Christianity in an East Kimberley Town, Melbourne University Press, 2001 p.55. Two others occurred, according to one native informant's memory, in the 1930s.
- Foster, Robert; Hosking, Rick; Nettelbeck, Amanda (2001). Fatal Collisions: The South Australian Frontier and the Violence of Memory. Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press. pp. 74–93. ISBN 978-1-86254-533-5.
- Christina Smith, pp62, The Booandik Tribe of South Australian Aborigines: A Sketch of Their Habits, Customs, Legends, and Language, Spiller, 1880
- "Waterloo Bay, Elliston, Eyre Peninsula". Colonial Frontier Massacres in Central and Eastern Australia 1788–1930. University of Newcastle. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- Foster, Robert; Hosking, Rick; Nettelbeck, Amanda (2001). Fatal Collisions: The South Australian Frontier and the Violence of Memory. Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press. pp. 44–73. ISBN 978-1-86254-533-5.
- Evans, Raymond (2007). A History of Queensland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87692-6., p. 54
- Queensland. Parliament. Legislative Assembly. Select Committee on Native Police Force and the Condition of the Aborigines Generally. (1861), Report from the Select Committee on the Native Police Force and the Condition of the Aborigines Generally together with the proceedings of the Committee and minutes of evidence, Fairfax and Belbridge, retrieved 23 December 2017
- Marr, David (14 September 2019). "Battle of One Tree Hill: remembering an Indigenous victory and a warrior who routed the whites". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
- Kerkhove, Ray (19 August 2017). "Battle of One Tree Hill and Its Aftermath". Retrieved 5 August 2020. Note: Dr Ray Kerkhove, owner of this site, is a reputable historian. See here and here.
- "Moreton Bay". The Australian. Sydney. 13 April 1847. p. 3.
- Foreman, Edgar (1928). The History and Adventures of a Queensland Pioneer. Exchange Printing. pp. 19–20.
- Bottoms, Timothy (2013). Conspiracy of Silence: Queensland's Frontier Killing Times. Allen & Unwin. p. 303. ISBN 9781743313824.
- Rolleston, Christopher. "Letters to Colonial Secretary relating to Moreton Bay and Queensland 1848" (PDF). Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Maryborough Chronicle 14 May 1870, p2; . "Reminiscences of Another Wide Bay Pioneer" (I); J Nolan Bundaberg chapter 2; Clem Lack 'One hundred years young: Bundaberg, the city of charm, 1867–1967' 56 p publ. Bundaberg News-Mail 23 May 1967 & "The Tragedy of Tirroan Station: Slaughter of the Aboriginals." Bundaberg News-Mail Centenary Supplement, 23 May 1967.
- Maryborough Chronicle 14 May 1870, page 2: "Reminiscences of Another Wide Bay Pioneer" (I); J. Nolan: Bundaberg, chapter 2; Clem Lack 'One hundred years young: Bundaberg, the city of charm, 1867–1967' 56 pages publ. Bundaberg 'News-Mail' 23 May 1967.
- "ALONG THE COAST". Morning Bulletin. LXI (10, 814). Queensland. 13 June 1900. p. 7. Retrieved 19 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Skinner, Leslie (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier. UQP. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
- "THE RAINBOW TRAIL". The Capricornian. XLIX (43). Queensland. 25 October 1924. p. 67. Retrieved 19 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Reid, Gordon: Nest of Hornets: The Massacre of the Fraser Family at Hornet Bank Station, Central Queensland, 1857, and Related Events, Melbourne: Oxford University, 1982 ISBN 0-19-554358-0
- Bundaberg Mail 21 Jan 1895, page 2; Maryborough Chronicle 22 Jan 1895, page 2; Brisbane Courier 28 Jan 1895, page 3.
- "AFFRAY WITH THE BLACKS". The Sydney Morning Herald. XLI (6811). 4 April 1860. p. 5. Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "The Native Police". The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser. XVIII (1974). Maitland. 12 January 1861. p. 7. Retrieved 17 January 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Hardie's Station massacre". c21ch.newcastle.edu.au. Centre for 21st Century Humanities, University of Newcastle. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
- "Letter to the Editor". The Courier. XVI (1166). Brisbane. 2 November 1861. p. 2. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Prideaux, P (1988). From Spear to Pearl-Shell – Somerset Cape York Peninsula 1864. Boolarong Publications. pp. 33–38.
- Bottoms, Timothy (2013). Conspiracy of Silence – Queensland's frontier killing times. Allen & Unwin. p. 103. ISBN 9781743313824.
- Byerley, Frederick, ed. (1867). Narrative of the Overland Expedition of Messers Jardine, from Rockhampton to Cape York, North Queensland. J W Buxton Brisbane-1995 facsimile Bundaberg Corkwood Press. p. 34.
- Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yale University Press, 2007 p.307 ISBN 978-0-300-10098-3.
- "NORTHERN MEMS". Northern Argus. Queensland. 27 June 1866. p. 3. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "ST. HELENS". Morning Bulletin. LXI (10, 47). Queensland. 4 August 1899. p. 7. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- Ross Gibson, Seven versions of an Australian badland, Univ. of Queensland Press, 2008, pp.66–67.see also Ørsted-Jensen, Robert: Frontier History Revisited (Brisbane 2011), page 71.
- "Mount Gobulba – mountain in the Central Highlands Region (entry 14110)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Lake Maraboon – reservoir in Central Highlands Region (entry 20880)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- Moore, Clive (1990). "Blackgin's Leap: A Window into Aboriginal-European Relations in the Pioneer Valley, Queensland in the 1860s (PDF)". Aboriginal History. Aboriginal History Incorporated. 14: 61–79.
- "SHOOTING OF BLACKS ON MORINISH DIGGINGS". Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser. VII (493). Queensland. 17 July 1867. p. 3. Retrieved 19 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "ROCKHAMPTON". The Queenslander. II (81). 17 August 1867. p. 6. Retrieved 19 December 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Hammond". Queensland Government. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- "Thursday Island (Waiben)". Queensland Government. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- Smith, Aaron (26 May 2018). "The 'forgotten people': When death came to the Torres Strait". CNN. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- Lumholtz: Among Cannibals: an account of four years travels in Australia, and of camp life with the aborigines of Queensland (London 1889) page 58-9: Queenslander 20 Apr 1901, page 757-758: "The Massacre of the Blacks at the Skull Hole on Mistake Creek". See also Timothy Bottoms, Conspiracy of Silence, page 172-174.
- Ørsted-Jensen, Robert: Frontier History Revisited (Brisbane 2011), page 73.
- Ørsted-Jensen, Robert: Frontier History Revisited (Brisbane 2011), page 72.
- Daily News (Brisbane) 1 Jan 1879, page 2.
- Queenslander 8 Mar 1879, page 294; T. Bottoms Conspiracy of Silence page 162-163
- Ørsted-Jensen, Robert (2011). Frontier History Revisited: Colonial Queensland and the 'History War'. Lux Mundi. pp. 54–55 & 126. ISBN 9-7814-6638-6822.
- Drake, Jack (2012). The Wild West in Australia and America. 1. Boolarong Press. ISBN 978-1-921-92047-9.
- Bottoms, Timothy (2013). Conspiracy of Silence (PDF). Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-743-31382-4.
- Deborah Bird Rose, 'Tropical Hundreds:monoculturalism and colonisation,' in John Docker, Gerhard Fischer (eds.) Race, Colour and Identity in Australia and New Zealand, UNSW Press, 2000 978-0-868-40538-4 pp.59–78 p.68
- "BIRDSVILLE OR BUST". Joe the Rainmaker. Kevin JR Murphy. 2003. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Connor, The Australian Frontier Wars (2002), pp. 73–74.
- Wilson, T.B. (1835). Narrative of a Voyage Around the World. London. p. 148. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- McKenna, Mark (2016). From the Edge. Miegunyah Press.
- King, P.P. (1827). Narrative of Survey of Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Kimber 1991, pp. 5–6.
- Kimber 1991, p. 7.
- Hill 2002, p. 155.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 19 August 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- 'The massacre of Aboriginal people in a 'war of extermination' was widespread and relentless. As one of the early missionaries, R.D.Joynt, wrote (1918:7), hundred had been "shot down like game." And possibility, however, that they might have succeeded in preserving their cultural integrity ended drastically around the start of the 20th century when a huge London-based cattle consortium The Eastern and African Cold Storage Company acquired massive tracts of land to carve out a pastoral empire from the Roper River north into Arnhem Land. Purchasing all stocked and viable stations along the western Roper River, they began moving cattle eastward. Determined to put down all Aboriginal resistance, they employed gangs of up to 14 men to hunt down all inhabitants of the region and shoot them on sight. With police and other authorities maintaining a "conspiracy of silence", they staged a systematic campaign of extermination against the Roper River peoples (Harris 1994:695–700). They almost succeeded.' Gerhard Leitner, Ian G. Malcolm, The habitat of Australia's aboriginal languages: past, present and future, Walter de Gruyter, 2007 pp.143–4
- Remote Area Tours – History Archived 29 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- "SENSATIONAL CHARGES". The West Australian. Western Australia. 1 April 1915. p. 7. Retrieved 15 January 2020 – via Trove.
- "NORTH-WEST SENSATION". The West Australian. Western Australia. 27 April 1915. p. 8. Retrieved 15 January 2020 – via Trove.
- Deane, William (27 November 2002). "Decrying the memories of Mistake Creek is yet further injustice". Sydney Morning Herald. Opinion. Retrieved 17 June 2006.
- Carrington, Betty. "Mistake Creek Massacre". DesertRiverSea. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- "Family Notices". The West Australian. Western Australia. 30 March 1920. p. 1. Retrieved 15 January 2020 – via Trove.
- Burnside, Niki (22 July 2020). "Queenie McKenzie's 'Mistake Creek Massacre' displayed by National Museum after years of controversy". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
- "TERRIBLE TRAGEDY". Daily Herald. XIII (3943). South Australia. 7 November 1922. p. 3. Retrieved 31 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Forensic study of Aboriginal massacre sites". ABC News. 1 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Walshe, Keryn. "Oral testimony of an Aboriginal massacre now supported by scientific evidence". The Conversation. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Smith, Pamela A. "THE STURT CREEK MASSACRE – SUMMARY OF FINAL REPORT" (PDF). Department of Archaeology. Flinders University. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Nevill Drury, Anna Voigt, Fire and shadow: spirituality in contemporary Australian art,Craftsman House, 1996 p.84
- "ABC 7:30 report". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Review of exhibitions and public programs Archived 5 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of Australia
- "Mr. Gribble Cross-Examined". Western Mail. XLII (2, 145). Western Australia. 10 March 1927. p. 16. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "MURDER OF NATIVES". The Brisbane Courier (21, 636). 1 June 1927. p. 17. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "RELEASE ORDERED". The Daily Telegraph. XLVII (188). Tasmania. 11 August 1927. p. 3. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Constables Regan and St. Jack". The Yalgoo Observer And Murchison Chronicle. Western Australia. 22 March 1928. p. 3. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
- Bruce Elder (1998). Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians since 1788. New Holland Publishers. pp. 203–206. ISBN 978-1-86436-410-1.
- Bradley, Michael (2019). Coniston. Perth: UWA Press.
- Cribbin, John (1984). The Killing Times. Sydney: Fontana.
- Jo-Anne Birnie Danzker Dreamings—Tjukurrpa: aboriginal art of the Western Desert, the Donald Kahn Collection, Prestel, 1994
- Harrison, Rodney (2004). Shared Landscapes: Archaeologies of Attachment and the Pastoral Industry in New South Wales (PDF). University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-868-40559-9.
- Collins, David (1804). An Account of the English Colony in NSW.
- Kimber, R. G. (1991). The End of the Bad Old Days: European Settlement in Central Australia, 1871–1894 (PDF). Occasional Papers. State Library of the Northern Territory. pp. 1–24. ISBN 0-7245-0645-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Hill, Barry (2002). Broken Song: T G H Strehlow and Aboriginal Possession. Knopf-Random House. ISBN 1-74051-065-8.
- Williams, Michael (2012). A History in Three Rivers:Dungog Shire Heritage Study (PDF). carste STUDIO Pty Ltd.
- W., J.E. (25 April 1922). "Peeps into the past:Berrico Public School. Aborigines". Wingham Chronicle. p. 2.
- Allam, Lorena; Evershed, Nick (18 November 2019). "Forced to build their own pyres: dozens more Aboriginal massacres revealed in Killing Times research". The Guardian.
- Bamford, Matt (18 November 2019). "Dozens of massacre sites added to online map of colonial time Aboriginal killings". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Batten, Bronwyn (2009). The Myall Creek Memorial:history, identity and reconciliation. Taylor & Francis.:82–96,85in William Logan, William Stewart Logan, Keir Reeves (eds.) Places of pain and shame: dealing with 'difficult heritage'
- Blomfield, Geoffrey (1982). Baal Belbora, the end of the dancing: the agony of the British invasion of the ancient people of Three Rivers:the Hastings, the Manning & the Macleay, in New South Wales Apcol 1981. ANU.:35 (citing Aboriginal history, Volumes 6–8)
- Broome, Richard (2005). Aboriginal Victorians:a history since 1800. Allen & Unwin.:80
- Clark, Ian D (1995). Scars in the landscape: a register of massacre sites in western Victoria, 1803–1859. Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.:1–4
- Halse, Christine (2002). A Terribly Wild Man. Allen & Unwin.:99
- Kiernan, Ben (2007). Blood and soil: a world history of genocide and extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press.:296
- Leitner, Gerhard; Malcolm, Ian G (2007). The habitat of Australia's aboriginal languages: past, present and future. Walter de Gruyter.:143–4
- Manne, Robert (2001). In denial: the stolen generations and the right. Black Inc.:96
- McAuley, Gay (2006). Unstable ground: performance and the politics of place. Peter Lang.:163
- Moses, A. Dirk (2004). Frontier violence and stolen Indigenous children in Australian history. Berghahn Books.:205
- Neill, Rosemary (2002). White out: how politics is killing black Australia. Allen & Unwin.:76
- Rose, Deborah Bird (1991). Hidden histories: black stories from Victoria River Downs, Humbert River, and Wave Hill Stations. Aboriginal Studies Press.:23
- Schaffer, Kay (1995). In the wake of first contact: the Eliza Fraser stories. Cambridge University Press Archive.:243
- Smith, Claire (2005). Country, kin and culture: survival of an Australian Aboriginal community. Wakefield Press.:18
- Smith, Laurajane; Akagawa, Natsuko (2009). Intangible heritage. Routledge/Taylor & Francis. (D Byrne's A Critique of unfeeling heritage):229–253,233
- Turbet, Peter (2011). The First Frontier. Rosenberg Publishing. ISBN 9781922013002.