List of massacres in Turkey

The following is a list of massacres that occurred in Turkey (numbers may be approximate, as estimates vary greatly):

AntiquityEdit

Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Fall of Miletus 494 BC Miletus Most Milesian men Persian Empire Greeks [1]
Battle of Aegospotami 405 BC Aegospotami 3,000 Sparta Athenian sailors 3,000 Athenian sailors executed
Fall of Sestos 353 BC Sestos All males of Sestos Athens Greeks
Asiatic Vespers 88 BC Asia (Roman province) 80,000–150,000 Mithridates VI of Pontus Romans and Italians [2][3]

Middle AgesEdit

Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Nika Revolt January 532 Constantinople 30,000 Byzantine Empire Byzantines About thirty thousand rioters were reportedly killed.[4]
Sack of Amorium August 838 Amorium 30,000–70,000[5] Abbasid Caliphate Byzantines
Battle of Levounion 29 April 1091 Enez tens of thousands[6] Byzantine Empire & Cumans Pechenegs The Pechenegs consisting of 80,000 warriors and their families invaded the Byzantine Empire. Near Enez they were ambushed by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army, fighting soon turned into wholesale slaughter. Warriors and civilians were killed and the Pecheneg people were nearly wiped out.[6]
Siege of Antioch 3 June 1098 Antioch Muslim and Christian population Crusaders Muslim and Christian population
Massacre of the Latins May 1182 Constantinople Uncertain – tens of thousands Byzantine mob Roman Catholics The bulk of the Latin community, estimated at over 60,000 at the time, was wiped out or forced to flee; some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Turks. The massacre further worsened relations and increased enmity between the Western and Eastern Christian churches, and a sequence of hostilities between the two followed.
Siege of Constantinople (1204) 8–13 April 1204 Constantinople many civilians killed[7] Crusaders Byzantines The city was sacked and looted.
Siege of Antioch (1268) 18 May 1268 Antioch 14,000 Mamluk Sultanate Christians 14,000 Christians slaughtered by the forces of Baibars.[citation needed]
Fall of Constantinople 1453 Constantinople 4,000[8][9] Ottomans Byzantines 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages were massacred during these days. Moreover, the dwellings and the churches were plundered. Some 30,000 were enslaved.[9]

Ottoman EmpireEdit

Before 1914Edit

Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Constantinople massacre 1821 Constantinople unknown Ottoman government Greeks Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory V and other notables were executed.
Massacres of Badr Khan 1840 Hakkari 10,000[10] Kurdish Emirs of Buhtan, Badr Khan and Nurullah Assyrians. Many who were not killed were sold into slavery. 1826 Janissaries massacred by government (link to Auspicious Incident).
Hamidian massacres 1894–1896 Eastern Ottoman Empire 100,000–300,000[11] Ottoman Empire
Hamidiye,
Turkish, Kurdish tribes
Armenians
Massacres of Diyarbakır (1895) 1895 Diyarbakır Vilayet 25,000 Young Turks and Kurdish irregulars Armenians and Assyrians
Adana massacre April 1909 Adana Vilayet 15,000–30,000[12][13] local Turkish nationalist activist, conservative reactionary to Young Turk government Armenians
Ethnic cleansing of Turks in Edirne during First Balkan War[14] October 1912-June 1913 Edirne Vilayet 5,000 (excluding Edeköy Massacre)[15] Bulgarian army Turks
Havsa Massacre 1912 Havsa in Edirne Vilayet 10 Bulgarian army Turks Turkish quarter was almost entirely burnt.[16]
Edeköy Massacre November 1912 Edeköy (nowadays Kadıdondurma) in Edirne Vilayet Thousands[17] Bulgarian army Turks Many incidents of torture and robbery.[17]
Ethnic cleansing of Thracian Bulgarians Summer 1913 Edirne Vilayet 50,000–60,000[18][19] Young Turk government Bulgarians
Bulgarköy Massacre 7 July, 1913 Bulgarköy (nowadays Yenimuhacir) in Edirne Vilayet 450-1100 (included above)[20] Ottoman army Bulgarians

World War I (1914–1918)Edit

Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Greek genocide[21][22][23][24] 1913–1922 Ottoman Empire 500,000–900,000 Young Turk government Greeks Reports detail massacres, deportations, individual killings, rapes, burning of entire Greek villages, destruction of Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries, drafts for "Labor Brigades", looting, terrorism and other atrocities.[25][26]
Assyrian genocide[27] 1914–1918 Ottoman Empire 270,000–750,000 Young Turk government and Kurdish tribes Assyrians Denied by the Turkish government.
Armenian Genocide 1915–1918 Ottoman Empire 850,000–1,800,000 Young Turk government and Kurdish tribes Armenians The Armenians of the eastern regions of the empire were massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars.[28][29][30] It is the second most publicised case of genocide after the Holocaust.[31]
Massacres in Eastern Anatolia 1915-1916 Eastern Anatolia 128,000+[32] to 600.000 [33] Russian army and Armenian irregulars Muslim population According to J. Rummel at least 128,000 Muslims were killed by Russian troops and Armenian irregulars during the period between 1915–1916[32]
Massacres in the Çoruh River valley 1916[34] Çoruh River valley 45,000[34] Cossack regiments Muslim population During WWI, Russian "General Liakhov, for instance 'accused the Muslims of treachery, and sent his Cossacks from Batum with orders to kill every native at sight, and burn every village and every mosque. And very efficiently had they performed their task, for as we passed up the Chorokh valley to Artvin not a single habitable dwelling or a single living creature did we see.'" [34]
Massacres in Erzincan and Erzurum 1918[35] Erzincan and Erzerum 8000-10,000[35] Hinchag, Tashnak and Armenagan[36] Muslim population

Post-World War I (1919–1923)Edit

Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Kozan Massacre [tr] 1920 Camili and İmamoğlu, Adana Vilayet Unknown Armenians Turks Occurred during Kaç Kaç incident.[37][38][39]
Massacre in Marash 1920 Marash, Aleppo Vilayet 4,500 Armenians Turks The retribution for the Armenian Genocide served as justification for armed Armenians.[40][41]
Massacre in Aintab 1920-1921 Aintab, Aleppo Vilayet 6,000-7,000[42] Armenians and French Turks 8,000 of the 10,000 houses in town was destroyed by French artillery.[43][44][45]
Massacre in Birecik[46] February 11-24, 1920 Birecik, Aleppo Vilayet 280 French Turks 70 wounded[42], many women was raped[47]
Kahyaoğlu Farm Massacre [tr] June 11, 1920 Yeşiloba, Adana Vilayet 64+ to 200~ Armenians Turks Report which was given to Mustafa Kemal Pasha included 43 men, 21 women and tens of children. Other estimates are up to 200.[48]
Massacres after Battle of Marash February 1920 Marash, Aleppo Vilayet 8,000-12,000 Turks Armenians Killing of Armenian populace in city occurred after its recapture by Turkish National Movement

Republic of Turkey (1923–present)Edit

Name Date Location Deaths Responsible Party Victims Notes
Zilan massacre July 1930 Van Province 4,500–15,000 Turkish security forces Sunni Kurds 5,000 women, children, and elderly people were reportedly killed[49]
1934 Thrace pogroms 21 June-4 July 1934 Thrace 1 Government forces Jews Over 15.000 Jews had to flee from region[50]
Dersim rebellion Summer 1937-Spring 1938 Tunceli Province 7,594–13,806[51] Turkish security forces Alevi Kurds The killings have been condemned by some as an ethnocide or genocide[52][53]
Zini Gediği Massacre [tr] 6 August 1938 Erzincan Province 95 Turkish villagers Kurdish villagers [54][55][56][57]
33 Bullets Incident [tr] July 1943 Van Province 32 Turkish Soldiers Kurdish villagers 32 Turkish villagers were extrajudicially executed by General Mustafa Muğlalı for smuggling livestock, one of them escaped.[58][59][60]
Istanbul pogrom 6–7 September 1955 Istanbul 13–30[61] Turkish government[62] primarily Greeks, as well as Armenians The killings are identified as genocidal by Alfred-Maurice de Zayas.[63] Many of the minorities, mostly Greek Christians, forced to leave Turkey. Several churches are demolished by explosives.
Taksim Square massacre May 1, 1977 Taksim Square in Istanbul 34[64]-42[65] Unknown Leftist demonstrators
Ümraniye massacre [tr] March 1978 Ümraniye in Istanbul 5 Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist Workers Victims was badly tortured[66][67]
Beyazıt massacre March 16, 1978 Istanbul 7 university students killed, 41 injured [1], Grey Wolves, Turkish Police, Deep State Leftist university students Cemil Sönmez, Baki Ekiz, Hatice Özen, Abdullah Şimşek, Murat Kurt, Hamdi Akıl and Turan Ören were killed and 41 others were injured by a bomb that was followed by gunfire March 16, 1978.
Malatya massacre [tr] April 17, 1978 Malatya Province 8 Salafists Alevi Turks Salafist groups attacked Alevi regions of city after assassination of Hamit Fendoğlu [tr] leaving 8 dead including 3 child and 100 wounded. 1000 shops was looted and destroyed.[68]
Bahçelievler massacre October 9, 1978 Bahçelievler, Ankara 7[69] Neo-fascists Leftist students
Maraş massacre December 19–26, 1978 Kahramanmaraş Province 109[70] Grey Wolves[70] Alevi Turks and Kurds
Piyangotepe massacre [tr] May 16, 1979 Keçiören in Ankara 7 Grey Wolves Leftists [citation needed]
Adana massacre September 19, 1979 Adana Construction Vocational High School 6 Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist Nationalist teachers Müslüm Teke, Yılmaz Kızılay, Davut Korkmaz, Ahmet Güleç, Özcan Doruk and Mustafa Karaca was killed by 2 Leftist men.[67][71][72]
Çorum massacre May–July, 1980 Çorum Province 57[73] Grey Wolves Alevi Turks
Ortabağ massacre [tr] January 23, 1987 Uludere in Şırnak Province 8 dead, 15 injured PKK Civilians [74][75]
Pınarcık massacre June 20, 1987 Pınarcık in Mardin Province 30 PKK (alleged)
The Turkish army (alleged)
Kurdish civilians
Çevrimli massacre [tr] June 11, 1990 Güçlükonak in Şırnak Province 27 dead, 6 injured PKK Civilians In the massacre, 27 people were killed, 12 were children and 7 were women. 4 village guards died in clashes with PKK members, 1 PKK member was killed.[76][77][78]
Çetinkaya Store massacre [tr] December 25, 1991 Bakırköy in Istanbul 11 (14 injured) PKK Civilians The PKK attacks a store in the Bakırköy district with Molotov cocktails, resulting in 11 deaths, including 7 women and 1 child.[79][80]
Yolaç Village massacre [tr] June 26, 1992 Silvan in Diyarbakır Province 10 PKK Civilians [81]
Cevizdalı massacre October 21, 1992 Cevizdalı in Bitlis Province 30 PKK Civilians Cevizdali village of Bitlis was raided during the nighttime, PKK militias killed 30 people, including 8 children, and wounded 20 others. Militias then burned whole the village by the news they received that soldiers are on the way to the village.[82]
Sivas massacre[83]

(aka Madımak massacre)

July 2, 1993 Sivas, Turkey 35 (+2 perperators) Salafists[citation needed] Alevi intellectuals
Başbağlar massacre July 5, 1993 Başbağlar, near Erzincan 33 Turkish army/PKK (disputed) Turkish civilians
Lice massacre October 20-23, 1993 Lice in Diyarbakır Province 30+ Turkish Armed Forces Civilians of Kurdish origin Turkish security forces attacked the town of Lice, destroying 401 houses, 242 shops and massacring more than thirty civilians, and leaving one hundred wounded.[84]
Yavi massacre [tr][85] October 25, 1993 Yavi, Çat, Erzurum Province 38 PKK Turkish civilians
Kuşkonar massacre March 23, 1994 Kuskonar, Sirnak 38[86] Turkish forces Civilians of Kurdish origin The government bombed and killed residents of villages who refused to join the government forces. The government spread pictures of dead children in newspapers and blamed the PKK. Turkey was condemned for carrying out the massacre of Kurdish civilians in the ECHR.
Gazi Quarter massacre March 15, 1995 Istanbul and Ankara 23[87] Anonymous Alevi Turks More than 400 injured[87]
Güçlükonak massacre [tr] February 15, 1996 Güçlükonak in Şırnak province 11 JİTEM/PKK (disputed) Civilians [88][89][90][91]
Blue Market massacre March 13, 1999 Istanbul 13 (5 injured) PKK Civilians [92]
Operation Back to Life [tr] December 19, 2000 Turkey 32 (Hundreds were injured) Police forces and soldiers Prisoners Deaths include 30 prisoners and 2 soldiers[93]
Mardin engagement ceremony massacre May 4, 2009 Bilge, Mardin 44[94] Village guards Civilians of Kurdish origin Reuters said it was "one of the worst attacks involving civilians in Turkey's modern history", declaring that the scale of the attack had shocked the nation.[95]
Roboski airstrike December 28, 2011 Uludere, Sirnak 34[86] Turkish forces Civilians of Kurdish origin Warplanes killed villagers who had been involved in smuggling gasoline and cigarettes in the area, during an operation meant to target Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) rebels. The government gave no information about the facts.
2016 Atatürk Airport attack June 28, 2016 Atatürk Airport, Istanbul 45 ISIS Civilians
2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt July 15–16, 2016 Turkey (Mainly Istanbul, Ankara, Malatya, Kars and Marmaris) 270–350 Turkish forces Civilians and Military
2017 Istanbul nightclub attack January 1, 2017 Istanbul 39 ISIS Civilians

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

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