List of mammals of Eswatini
This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Eswatini. There are 107 mammal species in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), of which one is critically endangered, two are endangered, five are vulnerable, and four are near threatened.
The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature:
|EX||Extinct||No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.|
|EW||Extinct in the wild||Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.|
|CR||Critically endangered||The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.|
|EN||Endangered||The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.|
|VU||Vulnerable||The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.|
|NT||Near threatened||The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.|
|LC||Least concern||There are no current identifiable risks to the species.|
|DD||Data deficient||There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.|
Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories:
|LR/cd||Lower risk/conservation dependent||Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.|
|LR/nt||Lower risk/near threatened||Species which are close to being classified as vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.|
|LR/lc||Lower risk/least concern||Species for which there are no identifiable risks.|
Order: Afrosoricida (tenrecs and golden moles)Edit
The order Afrosoricida contains the golden moles of southern Africa and the tenrecs of Madagascar and Africa, two families of small mammals that were traditionally part of the order Insectivora.
- Family: Chrysochloridae
Order: Hyracoidea (hyraxes)Edit
The hyraxes are any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. About the size of a domestic cat they are well-furred, with rounded bodies and a stumpy tail. They are native to Africa and the Middle East.
Order: Proboscidea (elephants)Edit
The elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals.
- Suborder: Strepsirrhini
- Suborder: Haplorhini
Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40% of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (99 lb).
- Suborder: Hystricognathi
- Suborder: Sciurognathi
- Family: Gliridae (dormice)
- Family: Nesomyidae
- Family: Muridae (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
- Subfamily: Otomyinae
- Subfamily: Gerbillinae
- Subfamily: Murinae
- Genus: Aethomys
- Genus: Grammomys
- Woodland thicket rat, Grammomys dolichurus LC
- Genus: Lemniscomys
- Single-striped grass mouse, Lemniscomys rosalia LC
- Genus: Mastomys
- Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis LC
- Genus: Mus
- African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides LC
- Genus: Rhabdomys
- Four-striped grass mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio LC
- Genus: Thallomys
- Acacia rat, Thallomys paedulcus LC
Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)Edit
The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.
Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)Edit
The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout-bodied burrowers.
- Family: Soricidae (shrews)
- Subfamily: Crocidurinae
- Genus: Crocidura
- Genus: Suncus
- Least dwarf shrew, Suncus infinitesimus LC
- Subfamily: Myosoricinae
- Subfamily: Crocidurinae
Order: Chiroptera (bats)Edit
The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.
- Family: Pteropodidae (flying foxes, Old World fruit bats)
- Family: Vespertilionidae
- Subfamily: Kerivoulinae
- Subfamily: Myotinae
- Subfamily: Vespertilioninae
- Subfamily: Miniopterinae
- Family: Molossidae
- Family: Emballonuridae
- Family: Nycteridae
- Family: Rhinolophidae
- Subfamily: Rhinolophinae
- Subfamily: Hipposiderinae
There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.
- Suborder: Feliformia
- Family: Felidae (cats)
- Subfamily: Felinae
- Subfamily: Pantherinae
- Family: Hyaenidae (hyaenas)
- Family: Felidae (cats)
- Suborder: Caniformia
- Family: Canidae (dogs, foxes)
- Family: Mustelidae (mustelids)
Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)Edit
The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals. They are usually large to very large, and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe.
- Family: Equidae (horses etc.)
- Family: Rhinocerotidae
Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)Edit
The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.
- Family: Suidae (pigs)
- Family: Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses)
- Family: Giraffidae (giraffe, okapi)
- Family: Bovidae (cattle, antelope, sheep, goats)
- Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
- Subfamily: Antilopinae
- Subfamily: Bovinae
- Subfamily: Cephalophinae
- Subfamily: Hippotraginae
- Subfamily: Peleinae
- Subfamily: Aepycerotinae
- Subfamily: Reduncinae
- This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD). The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institution, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.
- "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Mammals of Swaziland". IUCN. 2001. Retrieved 22 May 2007.[dead link]
- "Mammal Species of the World". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
- "Animal Diversity Web". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 1995–2006. Retrieved 22 May 2007.