List of main battle tanks by generation
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Main battle tanks are often classified as belonging to a particular generation, although the actual definition and membership in these generations is not clearly defined. Soviet and Russian military planners organize tanks with first generation of tanks up to 1945, and four generations of main battle tanks[Note 1] while Canadian strategists organize main battle tanks into three generations.[Note 2] The military of the People's Republic of China also recognizes three generations of its own tanks.
In 1983, Rolf Hilmes saw three tank generations and three "intermediate generations", which consisted mainly of upgraded vehicles. The first generation of main battle tanks were based on or influenced by designs of World War II, most notably the T-34 and the Panther tank. The second generation was equipped with NBC protection (only sometimes), IR night vision devices, a stabilized main gun and at least a mechanical fire control system. The third generation is determined by the usage of thermal imagers, digital fire control systems and special (composite) armour.
However, Hilmes acknowledged that tanks cannot be definitively grouped by generations, as each tank-producing country develops and introduces its tanks in tune with its own ideas and needs. He also states that breakdown of postwar tanks by generations is based on timeframe and technical factors, as a basis for further discussion.
The first generation consists of the medium tanks designed and produced directly after World War II that were later redefined as main battle tanks.
|Name||Entered service in||Origin||Number Built||Notes|
|Centurion||1946||United Kingdom||4,423||First "Universal Tank" (MBT) Culmination of the WWII cruiser tanks.|
|T-54||1949||Soviet Union||100,000 (T-54/T55)||USSR's First Generation of MBT.|
|M47 Patton||1952||United States||8,576||A development of the M46 Patton and M26 Pershing tanks.|
|M48 Patton||1953||United States||12,000||A further development of the M47 Patton tank.|
|T-55||1958||Soviet Union||100,000 (T-54/T55)||Improved T-54.|
|Type 59||1959||China||10,000||A further development of the T-54 tank.|
|Sho't||1960||Israel||N/A||Israeli designation of the 105 mm L7 armed Centurion tank.|
|Type 61||1961||Japan||560||Used by the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.|
The second generation had enhanced night-fighting capabilities and in most cases NBC protection. Most western tanks of this generation were armed with the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 tank gun or derivatives of it.
|Name||Entered service in||Origin||Notes|
|T-62||1961||Soviet Union||A further development of the T-55.|
|M60 Patton||1961||United States||A further development of the M48 Patton tank. Later models(M60A2 and M60A3) are considered as the first intermediate generation.|
|Leopard 1||1965||West Germany||A main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965.|
|Panzer 61||1965||Switzerland||A further development of the Panzer 58 tank.|
|MBT-70||1965||United States / West Germany||An American-West German joint project to develop a new main battle tank. Never entered service.|
|T-64||1966||Soviet Union||World's first composite armored tank, later versions of the T-64 may be considered as third generation.|
|AMX 30||1966||France||The AMX 30 served as the principal Main Battle Tank (MBT) for the French Army.|
|FV 4201 Chieftain||1966||United Kingdom||Armed with the British 120 mm Royal Ordnance L11A5 gun.|
|Vickers MBT||1963||United Kingdom||British private venture design for export.|
|Vijayanta||1965||India||Indian license built version of British Vickers MBT|
|Stridsvagn 103||1968||Sweden||Turretless design developed and employed solely by Sweden. Double engine feature; both diesel and gas turbine.|
|Panzer 68||1971||Switzerland||Swiss Main Battle Tank (MBT) based on the Panzer 61.|
|T-72||1973||Soviet Union||Hilmes puts the T-72 in the first intermediate generation.|
|Olifant Mk 1||1974||South Africa||A further development of the Centurion Tank.|
|Type 74||1975||Japan||Hilmes puts the Type 74 in the first intermediate generation.|
|Merkava Mark I||1979||Israel||First Main Battle Tank developed and used by Israel Defense Forces.|
|Ch'onma-ho||1980||Soviet Union / North Korea||Copy of the T-62; later versions include upgrades.|
|OF-40||1981||Italy||Main Battle Tank used by United Arab Emirates.|
|Merkava Mark II||1983||Israel||Improved Merkava Mark I.|
|T-55AM||1985||Soviet Union / Czechoslovakia||T-55 with new engine, FCS computer, BDD composite armor (later active armor or ERA; T-55AMV, T-55AMD), equipped with new APFSDS ammunition (BM-20 or BM-25). Frontal protection of T-55AM with BDD add-on equals first T-72s .|
|Lion of Babylon||1985||Iraq||Licensed copy of the T-72.|
|Type 88||1988||China||Variants include the Type 80, Type 85 and Type 88C.|
|CM-11(M48H)||1990||Taiwan||Variant from M48 Patton.|
|CM-12||1990||Taiwan||Variant from M48 Patton.|
|Type 72Z||1997||Iran||A highly modernized version of the Type 59 and T-54/T-55 tanks with upgrades carried out by the Iranian Defense Industries Organization.|
|Type 96||1997||China||Domestic version of Type 85-IIM later known as Type 96.|
|M60-2000||2001||United States / Turkey||Prototype never entered service.|
|Olifant Mk 2||2003||South Africa||Improved Olifant Mk 1 Tank.|
|Al-Zarrar||2004||China / Pakistan||An upgrade of Pakistan's aging Chinese Type 59 tanks, developed with Ukrainian assistance and manufactured by the Heavy Industries Taxila, featuring a 125 mm smoothbore gun as primary weapon.|
|Ramses II||2005||Egypt||A heavily modernized T-55 main battle tank designed for and used by the Egyptian Armed Forces.|
|Tifon 2a||2010||Ukraine / Peru||Main battle tank based on the Soviet T-54/55 tank, developed and manufactured jointly by the Peruvian company DICSAC (Diseños Casanave Corporation S.A.C. of Peru) and the Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau, Ukraine. Trials/Development only to date.|
|Type 59G(BD) Durjoy||2015||Bangladesh||An upgraded variant of the Chinese Type 59 tank for the Bangladesh Army.|
The third generation of main battle tanks is characterized by composite armour and computerized stabilized fire control systems, which allow firing on the move as well as very high first hit probability on targets up to 2,000 meters away.
|Name||Entered service in||Origin||Notes|
|T-80||1976||Soviet Union||World's first turbine engine equipped tank. Though the Swedish Stridsvagn 103 that entered service in 1960s used a turbine engine alongside a diesel. However, T-80 in Hilmes's book is very different to a T-80 in real world, and early models of the T-80 offer no big differences compared to T-64A in overall performance. So models prior to the T-80B should be regarded as Second generation intermediate.|
|Al-Zarrar||1976||Pakistan||An upgrade of Pakistan's aging Chinese Type 59 tanks, developed with Ukrainian assistance and manufactured by the Heavy Industries Taxila, featuring a 125 mm smoothbore gun as primary weapon.|
|Leopard 2||1979||West Germany||Replaced Leopard 1.|
|MBT-80||N/A||United Kingdom||Prototype, never entered service.|
|M1 Abrams||1980||United States||Replaced M60 Patton.|
|FV4030/4 Challenger 1||1983||United Kingdom||Replaced FV 4201 Chieftain.|
|AMX-40||1983||France||Prototype, never acquired by the French Army.|
|M-84||1984||Yugoslavia||A Yugoslav variant of the Soviet T-72.|
|EE-T1/EE-T2 Osório||1986||Brazil||Prototype, never acquired by the Brazilian Army.|
|M1A1 Abrams||1986||United States||Improved M1 Abrams.|
|TR-85||1986||Romania||Main battle tank based on the TR-77-580, designed for the Romanian Land Forces.|
|K1 88-Tank||1988||South Korea||First Main Battle Tank in use with the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, developed by Hyundai Precision (later Hyundai Rotem).|
|Merkava Mark III||1989||Israel||As of 2016, the Merkava III is by far the most numerous tank in frontline IDF service. Compared to the Merkava II, it has upgrades to the drivetrain, powertrain, armament, and electronic systems. The most prominent addition was the incorporation of the locally developed IMI 120 mm gun.|
|Type 90||1990||Japan||Replaced Type 74.|
|M-91 Vihor||1991||Yugoslavia||Prototype, never entered service.|
|Ch'onma-ho 215/216||1992||North Korea||A further development of Ch'onma-Ho.|
|M1A2 Abrams||1992||United States||Improved M1A1 Abrams.|
|AMX Leclerc||1993||France||Replaced AMX 30.|
|Zulfiqar I/II/III||1993||Iran||Iranian tank derived from T-72 and M60 Patton. Zulfiqar III is the most advanced variant.|
|T-90||1993||Russia||Updated version of the T-72; originally introduced into service on October 1992 as T-72BU, but simultaneously renamed as the T-90|
|PT-91 Twardy||1995||Poland||A development of the T-72M1.|
|C1 Ariete||1995||Italy||Replaced American tanks.|
|TR-85M1 "Bizonul"||1997||Romania||First built in 1985, the modernised TR-85M1 "Bizonul" (the bison) variant was updated in 1996, as an effort to bring it up to date with other NATO countries. The project was a cooperative effort between Aerospatiale-Matra, Sagem, Kolmorgen-Artus, Racal and Romanian factories, such as ROMARM, METRA, I.O.R. and Aerostar|
|Stridsvagn 122||1997||Sweden||Based on the German Leopard 2.|
|M-95 Degman||1997||Croatia||Croatian development of the prototype Yugoslav M-91 Vihor. Only 2 prototype, never entered service.|
|FV4034 Challenger 2||1998||United Kingdom||Armed with the British 120 mm Royal Ordnance L30 gun. A future life upgrade is in the planning phase.|
|T-84||1999||Ukraine||Upgraded Ukrainian version of the T-80 tank.|
|K1A1||2001||South Korea||Upgraded version of the K1 88-Tank.|
|Al-Khalid/MBT-2000||2001||China / Pakistan||Exported by China as VT-1A/MBT-2000|
|Type 98/99||2001||China||Replaced Type 88.|
|Tank EX||2002||India||Prototype, Never entered service.|
|C2 Ariete||2002||Italy||Improved C1 Ariete.|
|M-2002||2002||North Korea||Outside parties codename the tank M-2002 because the tank went through performance trials on February 16, 2002 (therefore being officially confirmed by outside sources), although the tank may have been in existence since 1992.|
|T-72M4 CZ||2003||Czech Republic||Upgraded Czech version of the T-72 tank.|
|Leopard 2E||2003||Germany / Spain||A derivative of the Leopard 2A6, with greater armour protection, developed under a programme of co-production between the defence industries of Spain and Germany.|
|Arjun MBT||2004||India||Replaced Vijayanta.|
|Merkava Mark IV||2004||Israel||Improved Merkava Mark III.|
|M-84AS||2004||Serbia||Upgraded Yugoslav version of the M-84 tank. M-84AS is sometimes referred to as M-84AB1 and M-2001.|
|Type 96A/B||2005||China||Upgraded version of the Type 96.|
|Mobarez||2006||Iran||A domestically upgraded version of the British Chieftain tank by Iran.|
|Challenger 2 CLIP||2006||United Kingdom||Challenger Lethality Improvement Programme (CLIP) was a programme to replace the current Royal Ordnance L30A1 rifled gun with the smoothbore Rheinmetall Rh-120 mm gun currently used in the Leopard 2A6.|
|Sabra||2007||Israel / Turkey||An extensively upgraded M60 Patton tank developed by Israel Military Industries. The Sabra is known as the M60T in Turkish service.|
|T-84 Oplot-M||2009||Ukraine||The newest and most sophisticated version of the T-84 is an upgraded version of the "T-84 Oplot" mounting more advanced armor, new electronic countermeasure systems, and others. One visible feature is the new PNK-6 panoramic tank sight. The T-84 Oplot-T is an export version for Thailand.|
|T-95||2009||Russia||Prototype, Never entered service.|
|T-72B3||2013||Russia||Upgraded Russian version of the T-72. T-72B3M is the most advanced variant.|
|PT-16||2016||Poland||A further development of PT-91 Twardy. Upgrades include improved armor, armament, and mobility.|
|M-84D||2018||Croatia||Upgraded version of the M-84 with improvements to its armor, armament, mobility and electronics. 75 to be upgraded, possibly replacing the 125mm 2A46 gun with a NATO 120mm gun.|
These are third-generation tanks modernized with fourth-generation technology.
|Name||Entered service in||Origin||Notes|
|T-80um2(obj. 640)||1997||Russia||Modernized version of the T-80. It has a 7 wheel hull and was cancelled in 2001. Technology from the T-80um2 was used for the T-14 Armata.|
|Merkava IVm Windbreaker||2011||Israel|
|Arjun MBT MK 2||2012||India|
|VT-4||2014||China||Developed from Type-90-II (MBT-2000) tank|
|M1A2C Abrams||2017||United States|
|Leopard 2PL||2020||Poland||A modernized version of the Leopard 2A4 tank first acquired by Poland in the 2000s. The modernisation is currently being carried out in cooperation with Rheinmetall and the Polish Armaments Group (pol. Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa PGZ).|
|M1A2D Abrams||2021||United States|
Fourth generation/Next GenerationEdit
Next Generation or Fourth generation tanks are still under development or at early stages of their generation. While the term '(Fourth) Next generation' has no formal basis, these main battle tanks are using the latest technology and designs to compete with the current advanced warfare environment.
|Name||Entered service in||Origin||Notes|
|Type 10||2012||Japan||Next Generation|
|K2 Black Panther||2014||South Korea||Next Generation|
|T-14 Armata||2015||Russia||Next Generation|
|Altay||2017||Turkey / South Korea||Next Generation|
- Future Combat Systems
- Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicles
- ASM Program (Cancelled due to the end of the Cold War)
- Future Force Unit of Action
- List of U.S. military vehicles by model number
- List of main battle tanks by country
- List of armoured fighting vehicles
- List of modern armoured fighting vehicles
- Armoured fighting vehicle classification
- List of armoured trains
- Improvised fighting vehicle
- Infantry fighting vehicle (IFV)
- Armoured fighting vehicle (AFV)
- Armored personal carrier (APC)
- Reconnaissance vehicle
- Military engineering vehicle
- Armoured recovery vehicle
- Armoured vehicle-launched bridge
- Armored bulldozer
- Infantry mobility vehicle
- Medium Mine Protected Vehicle
- Armoured car
- Tank destroyer
- Super-heavy tank
- Heavy tank
- Medium Tank
- Light tank
- Infantry tank
- Cruiser tank
- “The Soviets saw tank generations in this manner: 1920-1945, first generation; 1946-1960, second generation; 1961-1980, third generation; and 1981-present, fourth generation. Since the last really new tank design, the T-80, came out in 1976, they feel that they have not produced a true Fourth Generation Tank Design. In comparison, they count the M1, Challenger, and Leopard 2 as Fourth Generation and the LeClerc as Fifth Generation.”
- “The Canadian Directorate of Land Strategic Concept defines three generations of Main Battle Tanks. The first generation of post World War II Main Battle Tanks includes the U.S. M48/M60, the German Leopard 1 and the British Centurion and Chieftain. The second generation includes most of the 120 mm Main Battle Tanks such as the American M1A1, the German Leopard 2 and the British Challenger. As for the third generation Main Battle Tank, they include the latest ‘digital’ tank such as the French Leclerc and perhaps the American M1A2 and the German Leopard 2A5.”
- Note to the Pancerni website source - Translation of most important parts of 1st, 2nd, 2.5 and 3rd generation MBTs characteristics: "The first generation MBTs are tanks made immediately after WWII. The second generation MBTs have better sights in comparison to the first generation MBTs. Also second generation MBTs were the first ones to use laser sights and APFSDS rounds. The third generation consists of tanks armed with high caliber and velocity guns like M1A1 Abrams. Third generation tanks also use composite armour as well as armour made out of highly resistant sintered ceramic materials. Third generation tanks also have full stabilization system for the main gun. There tanks between second and third generations, like Soviet T-72 which has powerful gun which would classify it as a third generation MBT but at the same time the stabilization system is much too primitive for it to a third generation MBT. It also lacks engine power to be a third generation MBT and has ammunition with less quality."
- —Sewell 1988, note 1.
- —Lamontagne 2003, pp 7–8.
- Hilmes, Rolf (1983). Kampfpanzer der Die Entwickelungen der Nachkriegszeit (in German). Verlag Soldat und Technik. ISBN 3-524-89001-6, p. 7.
- Hilmes 1983, p. 8.
- Hilmes 1983, p. 10.
- Czołgi (in Polish), Pancerni.net, p. 2, archived from the original on 2009-02-21, retrieved 2008-07-03[unreliable source?]
- "Centurion (A41) – Main Battle Tank – History, Specs and Pictures – Military Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery". Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Nagy, István (1996). "A harckocsi és harcjármű fegyverzet fejlesztésének lehetőségei" (PDF). Katonai Logisztika. 3.: 18–30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2017-07-31.
- "CZK - T-55AM2". forum.valka.cz. 25 December 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017.
- Warford, James M. (2002). ""Ilich's Eyebrows": Soviet BDD Tank Armor and Its Impact on the Battlefield" (PDF). ARMOR. 3: 30–31. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2017-07-31.
- Czołgi (in Polish), Pancerni.net, p. 3, archived from the original on 2008-07-03, retrieved 2008-07-03[unreliable source?]
- Hilmes 1983, p. 27.
- "K1A1 Main Battle Tank, South Korea". Army-Technology. Archived from the original on 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-03-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Tank T-72M4 CZ" (in Czech). Army of the Czech Republic official website. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- "T-90MS Tagil Main battle tank". Military-Today.com. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- Keller, John (4 February 2014). "General Dynamics gets contract to build 12 advanced main battle tanks with digital vetronics". Military & Aerospace Electronics. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Aware" (PDF). SMDC. USASMDC/ARSTRAT Public Affairs Office. 16 August 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "Competition Tank Asian countries: China Satellite Compass may be supported 99A". Military of China, force comment. August 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012.
- "The world's top 10 main battle tanks". Army technology. 28 November 2013. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "K2 Black Panther Main Battle Tank, South Korea". Army technology. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "Turkey launches tank test center - BUSINESS". Hürriyet Daily News | LEADING NEWS SOURCE FOR TURKEY AND THE REGION. Archived from the original on 2016-12-26. Retrieved 2016-12-25.
- "ALTAY". Archived from the original on 2016-12-26. Retrieved 2016-12-25.
- Lamontagne, J.G. Pierre (2003). "Are the Days of the Main Battle Tank Over?" (PDF). Toronto, Ontario, Canadian Forces College. Cite journal requires
- Sewell, Stephen ‘Cookie’ (1998). "Why Three tanks? in Armor vol 108, no 4, p 21" (PDF). Fort Knox, KY US Army Armor Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-28. Cite journal requires
- Hunnicutt, R. P. (1984). Patton: A History of the American Main Battle Tank. ISBN 0-89141-230-1.
- Hilmes, Rolf (1983). Kampfpanzer der Die Entwickelungen der Nachkriegszeit (in German). ISBN 3-524-89001-6.