List of longest caves

This list of longest caves includes caves in which the combined length of documented passageways exceeds 100 kilometres (62 mi). In some of these caves, passageways are still being discovered.[1][2][3]

Mammoth Cave, the world's longest known cave system

Geographical distributionEdit

Caves are found around the world. The largest form in areas of karst landforms whose rocks erode easily. Preferable conditions for karst cave formation are adequate precipitation, enough plants and animals to produce ample carbon dioxide, and a landscape of gentle hills which drains slowly.[citation needed] The highest concentrations of long caves in the world are found in the Pennyroyal Plateau of southern Kentucky, United States, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, United States, and in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

ListEdit

# System Length Location coordinates Discovery Associated parks,
protected areas
1 Mammoth Cave 685.6 km (426.0 mi)[1][4][5] near Brownsville, Kentucky, United States 37°11′15″N 86°06′13″W / 37.18758°N 86.10357°W / 37.18758; -86.10357 (Mammoth cave historic entrance) 1791 Mammoth Cave National Park, also a World Heritage Site and International Biosphere Reserve
2 Sistema Ox Bel Ha 435.8 km (270.8 mi)[6][2][7] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 20°09′37″N 87°29′15″W / 20.16028°N 87.48750°W / 20.16028; -87.48750 (Sistema Ox Bel Ha) 1996 southern parts in Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve
3 Sistema Sac Actun / Sistema Dos Ojos 386.1 km (239.9 mi)[3] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 20°14′48″N 87°27′51″W / 20.246556°N 87.464111°W / 20.246556; -87.464111 (Gran Cenote) 1987 none
4 Jewel Cave 345.5 km (214.7 mi)[1][8][9] near Custer, South Dakota, United States 43°43′46″N 103°49′46″W / 43.72944°N 103.82944°W / 43.72944; -103.82944 (Jewel Cave) 1900 Jewel Cave National Monument
5 Shuanghedong Cave Network 311.5 km (193.6 mi)[10]

[11][12][13][14][15]

Guizhou, China 28°14′31″N 107°16′34″E / 28.24199°N 107.27608°E / 28.24199; 107.27608 (Shuanghe Dongqun) 1988 Suiyang Shuanghedong National Geopark
6 Optymistychna Cave 264.5 km (164.4 mi)[1][16] near Korolivka, Ukraine 48°44′20″N 25°59′22″E / 48.738830378°N 25.989496042°E / 48.738830378; 25.989496042 (Grotte Optimiste) 1966 Dnistrovskyy Canion
7 Wind Cave 260.2 km (161.7 mi)[1][17] near Hot Springs, South Dakota, United States 43°33′29″N 103°28′46″W / 43.55804°N 103.47955°W / 43.55804; -103.47955 (Wind Cave) 1881 Wind Cave National Park
8 Lechuguilla Cave 242.0 km (150.4 mi)[1][18] near Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States 32°10′12″N 104°28′59″W / 32.170000°N 104.483000°W / 32.170000; -104.483000 (Grotte de Lechuguilla) 1900 Carlsbad Caverns National Park
9 Clearwater Cave System 238.0 km (147.9 mi)[19][20] near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia 4°03′55″N 114°49′54″E / 4.06529°N 114.83176°E / 4.06529; 114.83176 (Clearwater Cave) 1978 Gunung Mulu National Park, also a World Heritage Site
10 Fisher Ridge Cave System 212.1 km (131.8 mi)[1] near Brownsville, Kentucky, United States 37°11′30″N 85°58′48″W / 37.191736°N 85.980122°W / 37.191736; -85.980122 1981 partly within Mammoth Cave National Park
11 Hölloch 208.0 km (129.2 mi)[21][22] Muotathal, Switzerland 46°58′36″N 8°47′18″E / 46.976670°N 8.788330°E / 46.976670; 8.788330 1875 none
12 Sistema del Alto Tejuelo 181.6 km (112.8 mi)[23] Cantabria, Spain 43°15′11″N 3°40′51″W / 43.2530670°N 3.6807990°W / 43.2530670; -3.6807990 1965 none
13 Siebenhengste-Hohgant-Höhle 164.5 km (102.2 mi)[24][25] Switzerland 46°47′02″N 7°54′04″E / 46.783822°N 7.901231°E / 46.783822; 7.901231 1966 none
14 Schönberg-Höhlensystem [de] 153.1 km (95.13 mi)[26] Austria 47°42′06″N 13°46′20″E / 47.701528°N 13.772333°E / 47.701528; 13.772333 1976 none
15 Sistema del Mortillano [es] 146.5 km (91.03 mi)[27] Cantabria, Spain 43°13′51″N 3°33′43″W / 43.23082°N 3.56197°W / 43.23082; -3.56197 1960 none
16 Priest's Grotto 142.1 km (88.30 mi)[1][28] Ukraine 48°45′52″N 25°57′57″E / 48.7644444°N 25.9658330555°E / 48.7644444; 25.9658330555 1940 none
17 Steinbrücken Cave 136 km (84.51 mi)[26] Austria 47°39′43″N 13°48′11″E / 47.661940°N 13.803060°E / 47.661940; 13.803060 1929 none
18 Bullita Cave 120.4 km (74.81 mi)[1] Australia 16°03′48″S 130°23′00″E / 16.063330°S 130.383330°E / -16.063330; 130.383330 1990 Gregory National Park
19 Réseau Félix Trombe [fr] 117.2 km (72.82 mi)[29] France 42°58′21″N 0°51′59″E / 42.972500°N 0.866390°E / 42.972500; 0.866390 1908 none
20 Sistema del Gandara 116.7 km (72.51 mi)[30][31] Cantabria, Spain 43°11′34″N 3°34′46″W / 43.1927260°N 3.5794850°W / 43.1927260; -3.5794850 2005 none
21 Toca da Boa Vista 114 km (70.84 mi)[32] Brazil 10°09′45″S 40°51′35″W / 10.162500°S 40.859722°W / -10.162500; -40.859722 (Toca da Boa Vista) 1987 none
22 Hirlatzhöhle [de] 113.5 km (70.53 mi)[26] Austria 47°32′43″N 13°37′57″E / 47.545194°N 13.632389°E / 47.545194; 13.632389 1949 none
23 Marosakabe cave system 113 km (70.21 mi)[33] Madagascar 16°27′07″S 45°20′08″E / 16.45189°S 45.33543°E / -16.45189; 45.33543 (Zohy Tsongom'omby) 2006 Tsingy de Namoroka Strict Nature Reserve
24 Ojo Guareña 110 km (68.35 mi)[1][34] Spain 43°02′02″N 3°37′50″W / 43.03376°N 3.63059°W / 43.03376; -3.63059 1956 none
25 Sistema K'oox Baal 103.7 km (64.44 mi)[3][35] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 20°22′21″N 87°25′02″W / 20.372622°N 87.417239°W / 20.372622; -87.417239 (K'oox Baal) 1987 none
Map all coordinates in "List of longest caves" using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gulden, Bob (2021-10-04). "Worlds longest caves". Geo2 Committee on Long and Deep Caves. National Speleological Society (NSS). Retrieved 2021-10-08.
  2. ^ a b "List of Long Underwater Caves in Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society. 2018-07-30. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
  3. ^ a b c "Dry Caves and Sumps of Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society. 2023-01-10. Retrieved 2023-02-04.
  4. ^ "Exploration in the World's Longest Cave" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-03..
  5. ^ Emily Deletter (September 13, 2022). "Mammoth Cave discovers 6 more miles, still the longest cave system in the world". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
  6. ^ "CINDAQ 2022 Annual report". CINDAQ. El Centro Investigador del Sistema Acuífero de Quintana Roo A.C.(CINDAQ). January 26, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  7. ^ Bill Mixon. Mexico news (PDF). AMCS Activities Newsletter. Vol. 34. p. 22. Retrieved 2014-06-01..
  8. ^ "Jewel Cave Cave Exploration". National Park Service (NPS). August 13, 2021. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  9. ^ "Jewel Cave Reaches 200 Miles". National Park Service (NPS). December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  10. ^ "Grottes et karsts de Chine-Sur les traces de Xu Xiake-Shuanghedongqun - 双河洞". Retrieved 2021-05-20..
  11. ^ Keju, Wang; Jun, Yang (2018-03-27). "Asia's longest cave has many wonders". China Daily. Archived from the original on 2018-10-22.
  12. ^ Hong'e, Mo, ed. (2018-03-25). "Shuanghe Cave in SW China's Guizhou named longest cave in Asia". China News Service. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11.
  13. ^ Xuequan, Mu, ed. (2018-03-24). "Guizhou's Shuanghe Cave named longest cave in Asia". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2018-11-11.
  14. ^ "贵州绥阳双河洞探测长度超238公里 成亚洲第一长洞".
  15. ^ "贵州双河溶洞长度已达238公里".
  16. ^ "optymistychna is the longest cave in ukraine". ukrainegoodnews.com. 2014-06-04.
  17. ^ "150 miles and counting: Wind Cave celebrates significant milestone". National Park Service (NPS). October 18, 2018. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  18. ^ "Lechuguilla Cave". National Park Service (NPS). July 17, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  19. ^ Eavis, Rob (April–May 2016). "What a Rollercoaster". Descent (249): 24–29.
  20. ^ "The Clearwater Cave System". mulucaves.org. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
  21. ^ Arbeitsgemeinschaft Höllochforschung AGH. "Forschungsobjekte der AGH". hoellochforschung.ch (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  22. ^ "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Hoellochforschung AGH" (in German). Archived from the original on 2019-01-19. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  23. ^ David García. "Alto del Tejuelo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-01-09.
  24. ^ Anonyme. "Grandes cavités suisses" (in French). Retrieved 2020-02-20..
  25. ^ Philipp Häuselmann (2016). Le karst Siebenhengste-Hohgant-Schrattenfluh : essai d'une synthèse (PDF). Stalactite (in German and French). Vol. 66. pp. 28–41. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  26. ^ a b c Theo Pfarr, Robert Seebacher & Lukas Plan (2019-09-12). "Die tiefsten Höhlen Österreichs" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 2020-02-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  27. ^ "Mortillano !!!! 146,5 Km.!!!!" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-13..
  28. ^ "Найдовші печери України (від 1000 м.)" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-03-27..
  29. ^ "Le réseau Félix Trombe Henne Morte" (in French). Retrieved 2016-03-15.
  30. ^ "Classement des plus grandes cavités" (in French). Retrieved 2018-12-03..
  31. ^ "Le réseau de la Gandara" (in French). Retrieved 2020-05-05..
  32. ^ Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia. "As maiores cavernas do Brasil" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-12-08..
  33. ^ "Expédition Malagasy 2018" (in French). Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  34. ^ Ana I. Ortega and M. Martín. "Complejo Kárstico de Ojo Guareña. Endokarst" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  35. ^ Zdeněk Motyčka. K'oox baall, the fourth-longest underwater cave system in the world (PDF). AMCS Activities Newsletter. Vol. 37. pp. 149–155. Retrieved 2014-05-01..