List of landslides
This list of landslides is a list of notable landslides and mudflows divided into sections by date and type. This list is very incomplete as there is no central catalogue for landslides, although some for individual countries/areas do exist. Volumes of landslides are recorded in the scientific literature using cubic kilometres (km3) for the largest and millions of cubic metres (normally given the non-standard shortening of MCM) for most events.
|21–22 Ma||Southwest Utah, USA||Markagunt gravity slide||37.7N||112.83W||~1700–2000 km3|||
|48 Ma||Heart Mountain, Wyoming||Heart Mountain slide||~2000 km3||Mostly eroded now|||
|Late Pleistocene||British Columbia||Cheekye Fan||~0.15 km3||Collapse of the western flank of Mount Garibaldi|||
|≈ 10,000 BCE||Saidmarreh, Iran||Saidmarreh landslide||33N||47.65E||20 km3|||
|8,000 BCE||Switzerland||Flims Rockslide||9 km3|||
|~2800 BCE||Zion Canyon, Utah, United States||0.286 km3||Landslide created the currently level floor of Zion Canyon inside Zion National Park.|||
|~1920 BCE||Jishi Gorge, Qinghai Province, China||0.040–0.080 km3||Landslide dammed the Yellow River, breach of dam may have caused the Great Flood of Gun-Yu|||
|≈ 200 BCE||North Island, New Zealand||2.2 km3||Dammed Lake Waikaremoana|||
|ca. 1.0 Ma||off northeastern Oahu||Nu'uanu Slide||7,500 km3||Massive debris field: 25,000 km2|||
|Less than 2.6 Ma||off South Africa||Agulhas Slide||20,000 km3||The largest so far described|||
|ca. 170,000 BP||off North Island, New Zealand||Ruatoria debris avalanche||3,000 km3|||
|ca. 8,000 BP||Norwegian Sea||Storegga Slide||64.87||1.3||3,500 km3||Triggered a large tsunami that swept over the Shetland and Orkney Islands|||
|18 Nov 1929||Grand Banks of Newfoundland||1929 Grand Banks earthquake||44.54||−56.01||200 km3||Broke 12 submarine communications cables; the tsunami killed 28 people on the Burin Peninsula.|
Pre-20th-century historic landslidesEdit
|563||Lake Geneva, Switzerland and France||Tauredunum event||46.35||6.86||many||Destroyed villages and struck Geneva town.|
|25 Nov 1248||Mont Granier, France||45.46||5.93||1000+||Destroyed five villages.|
|1425 - 1450||North Bonneville, Washington||Bridge of the Gods (land bridge)||45.66||-121.94||14 km3||Possibly linked to the 1458 Cascadia Earthquake|||
|About 1560||Ozette, Washington||Ozette Indian Village Archeological Site||48.17||-124.73||Partially buried the village at Ozette|||
|2 Sep 1806||Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland||Goldau Rockslide||47.05||8.55||40 MCM||457||Destroyed four villages and caused a tsunami in Lake Lauerz|||
|24 Dec 1839||Lyme Regis, Dorset||The Undercliff||One of a series of slumps|
|1855–1856||British Columbia||Collapse of The Barrier||30 MCM|||
|1881||Qiaojia County, Yunnan, China||Shigaodi Landslide||530 MCM||Formed dam on Jinsha River|||
|19 Sep 1889||Cap Diamant, Quebec||Québec rockslide||46.485||−71.21||>40|||
|29 Apr 1903||Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada||Frank Slide||49.59||−114.39||30 MCM||~70|||
|18 Feb 1911||Usoy, Tajikistan||Usoi Dam||2 km3||54||Triggered by M 7.4 earthquake. The rockslide dammed the Murgab River, impounding 65-km- long Lake Sarez, which presently still exists.|||
|1914||Neuquén and Mendoza, Argentina||Rio Barrancas & Rio Colorado debris flow||2 MCM||190–300||Two small towns were devastated, and numerous ranches and farms destroyed along a 60-km- long valley. Length of flow: 300 km|||
|19 May 1919||Kelud, East Java, Indonesia||Kelut Lahars||5110||Lahars caused 5,110 deaths, and destroyed or damaged 104 villages. Length 185 km.|||
|16 Dec 1920||Haiyuan County, Ningxia, China||1920 Haiyuan earthquake||>100,000||Loess flows and landslides over an area of 50,000 km². Failures in loess caused extreme fissuring, landslide dams, and buried villages.|||
|1920||Veracruz, Mexico||Rio Huitzilapan debris flows||est. 600–870||Debris flows destroyed village of Barranca Grande, and were 40 to 65 m deep. Debris flows extended >40 km. Triggered by M~6.5 earthquake.|||
|1921||Almaty, Kazakhstan||Alma-Ata Debris Flows||~500||A debris flow in the Valley of Alma-Atinka River destroyed the town of Alma-Ata.|||
|26 Mar 1924||Amalfi Coast, Italy||~100||A series of major landslides after 18 hours of heavy rain|||
|23 Jun 1925||Gros Ventre Wilderness, Wyoming||Gros Ventre landslide||43.62||110.55||38 MCM||6 (when the dam failed in 1927)||Blocked the Gros Ventre River, forming a 70-metre-high (230 ft) dam|||
|9 Mar 1929||Arthur's Pass, South Island||The Falling Mountain landslide||−42.89||171.68||66 MCM||Very rapid rock avalanche triggered by the 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake|||
|25 Aug 1933||Diexi, Mao County, Sichuan, China||1933 Diexi earthquake||150 MCM||~3100||The largest landslide formed a 255-metre-high (837 ft) landslide dam on the Min River. This landslide killed all but one of the 577 people in the town of Deixi. The dam then overtopped, causing a flood and 2,500 deaths.|||
|5 Jul 1938||Kwansai, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan||~1000||Many landslides occurred on the slopes of Mount Rokko, 130,000 homes damaged or destroyed by landslides and floods.|||
|13 Dec 1941||Huaraz, Ancash, Peru||Huaraz debris flow||>10 MCM||4,000–6,000||Caused by rupture of a moraine dam impounding a lake, temporarily dammed the Santa River, after 2 days that failed and the flood swept down the valley to the coast.|||
|16 Aug 1945||Mantaro Valley, Peru||Kuntur Sinqa rockslide||5.5 MCM||none from landslide||The rockslide formed a 100-metre-high (330 ft) dam at Rio Mantaro, which failed after 73 days, causing a flood.|||
|19 Dec 1945||Alcalá del Júcar, Albacete, Spain||16||Worst rockfall to hit the municipality in the 20th century|||
|18 Sep 1948||Assam, India||Guwahati landslide||~500||Triggered by heavy rain|||
|10 Jul 1949||Gharm Oblast, Tajikistan||Khait landslide, Yasman valley flowslide||39.17||70.90||75 MCM
~4,000(7,200 for all the landslides)
|Triggered by the 1949 Khait earthquake, largest of several landslides|||
|1953||Wakayama Prefecture, Japan||Arida River landslides||1,046||Multiple slides due to typhoon. Many landslide dams were formed and subsequently failed in the Arid-Kawa valley.|||
|1953||Minamiyamashiro, Sōraku District, Kyoto, Japan||Minamiyamashiro landslides||336 dead or missing||5,122 homes were destroyed or badly damaged by landslides and floods.|||
|12 Jul 1954||Media Luna, Colombia||Santa Elena landslide||>100||Mudflow triggered by heavy rain|||
|26 Oct 1954||Salerno, Amalfi Coast||≈ 300||504 mm rain fell in 16 hours, causing soil slides & debris flows|||
|1958||Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan||Kanogawa landslides||1,094||19,754 homes were destroyed or badly damaged.|||
|8 Jul 1958||Lituya Bay, Alaska, United States||1958 Lituya Bay megatsunami||30 MCM||2||Caused by M 7.5 earthquake, the landslide caused a 524m-high megatsunami in Lituya Bay.|||
|22 May 1960||Riñihue Lake, Chile||Riñihuazo||−39.84||−72.29||≈ 40 MCM||A series of landslides triggered by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, blocked outflow of Riñihue Lake, causing it to rise more than 20 metres, actions taken to lower the water level prevented repeat of a disastrous flood after the great 1575 earthquake.|||
|10 Jan 1962||Ranrahirca, Peru||1962 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche||−9.12||−77.6||13 MCM||4,000 – 5,000||An avalanche of ice and rock triggered by collapse of part of a hanging glacier|||
|9 Oct 1963||Longarone, Italy||Vajont landslide||46.27||12.33||270 MCM||≈ 2,000||Landslide caused by heavy rains and drawdown of the Vajont Dam reservoir. Casualties and damage caused by tsunami generated by landslide into reservoir.|||
|27 Mar 1964||Seward, Alaska, United States||1964 Alaska earthquake||211 MCM at Seward, 9.6 MCM at Turnagain Heights||106 from tsunami caused by Seward landslide||M 9.2 earthquake caused submarine landslide at Seward, and large landslides in Anchorage|||
|9 Jan 1965||British Columbia||Hope Slide||49.40||121.26||48 MCM||4||Triggered by a small earthquake|||
|28 Mar 1965||El Cobre, Chile||El Cobre landslide||>200||Shaking from a magnitude 7.1 earthquake caused failure of two tailings dams at the El Soldado copper mine, the resulting flow destroyed the town of El Cobre.|||
|1965||Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan, China||Pufu Landslide||450 MCM||Created a dam on the Pufuguo Stream, which later failed|||
|21 Oct 1966||Aberfan, Wales||Aberfan disaster||51.69||3.35||144||Collapse of an unstable colliery spoil-tip built over a series of springs, was triggered by heavy rain, killing nearly half the children at the village school.|
|18 Feb 1967||Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro||−22.97||−43.20||110||Worst single event in a series of landslides caused by very heavy rain in the area around Rio de Janeiro in the summers of 1966 and 1967. A high-velocity debris avalanche struck three buildings, two of them apartment buildings. The preceding rainfall fell at up to 100 mm per hour.|||
|18 Mar 1967||Caraguatatuba, Brazil||−23.85||−46.63||7.6 MCM||120||Followed heavy rain, 420 mm /24 h|||
|9 Jul 1967||Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan||34.25||132.57||159||Heavy rain from Typhoon Billie caused flooding and many landslides, destroying 352 buildings and damaging 551 roads|||
|18 Aug 1968||Hida River, Gero, Japan||35.45||137.05||740 MCM (official estimated)||104||Triggered by a rainstorm, this debris flow swept two buses off the road, where they were stopped because of an earlier landslide|||
|3–5 Oct 1968||Darjeeling, India||'thousands'||Floods caused by rainfall of 500–1,000 mm, triggered many landslides, a 60-kilometre-long (37 mi) highway was cut in 92 places|||
|19–20 Aug 1969||Nelson County, Virginia, United States||150 (includes deaths from flooding)||Remnants of Hurricane Camille gave at least 710 mm of rain in about 8 hours, triggering numerous debris flows|||
|31 May 1970||Yungay, Peru||1970 Nevado Huascarán debris avalanche||−9.12||−77.6||50–100 MCM||>22,000||Triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake, the mass travelled 14.5 km at an average velocity of about 300 km/h and buried Yungay|||
|18 Mar 1971||Chungar, Peru||Chungar avalanche and tsunami||−11.12||−76.53||0.1 MCM||400–600||A rock avalanche from a limestone outcrop fell into Yanawayin Lake causing a wave that devastated a mining camp|||
|4 May 1971||Saint-Jean-Vianney, Quebec, Canada||Saint-Jean-Vianney landslide||48.47||−71.22||6.9 MCM||31||This slide occurred in quick clay following heavy rain, destroying 41 homes|||
|6 Jul 1972||Amakusa, Japan||Amakusa disaster||115||Multiple slope failures caused by heavy rainfall|||
|12–13 Jul 1972||Obara, Shikoku, Japan||Obara landslides||64||218 mm of rain in 5 hours triggered many landslides|||
|Apr 1974||Junín Region, Peru||Mayunmarca Landslide||1.0 to 1.6 km3||450||Rockslide dammed Río Mantaro. Slide velocity estimated at 120–140 km/hr|||
|22 Jul 1975||Mount Meager massif, British Columbia, Canada||Devastation Glacier landslide||0.013 km3||4||Triggered by the collapse of a glacially debuttressed slope, descended Devastation Creek.|||
|30 Nov 1977||Tuve, Gothenburg, Sweden||Tuve landslide||57.75||11.94||3–4 MCM||9||The most severe landslide in the modern history of Sweden, triggered by heavy rain|||
|29 Apr 1978||Rissa, Norway||Rissa landslide||63.55||9.94||5–6 MCM||1||Quick clay flowed suddenly into Botn lake, causing a small tsunami on the opposite shore|||
|8 Aug 1979||Abbotsford, Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand||1979 Abbotsford landslip||−45.897||170.435||5 MCM||0||Heavy rain triggered a landslide on an unstable slope, made worse by sand quarrying at the base of the slope, destroying 69 houses|||
|18 May 1980||Mount St. Helens, Washington, United States||1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens||46.200278||−122.186667||2.9 km3||57||The largest landslide in recorded history. Unplugged the volcanic vent, triggering the eruption. Deaths were from both the landslide and the eruption.|||
|Apr 1983||Thistle, Utah, United States||Thistle, Utah landslide||40.00||-111.50||~15 MCM||0||Costliest landslide in United States history; damage estimated at $200–400 million (1983 dollars). Landslide formed lake over 160 feet (49 m) deep before draining.|||
|5 Oct 1985||Portugués Urbano district, Ponce, Puerto Rico||Mameyes landslide||129||120 houses destroyed, greatest death toll in North American history from a single landslide.|||
|13 Nov 1985||Armero, Tolima Department, Colombia||Armero tragedy||−5.03||−74.88||23,000||A minor eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano caused melting of its ice cap. This released a series of lahars, volcanic mudflows, that traveled at speeds of up to 50 km/h down the slopes of the volcano. These lahars swiftly moved into valleys, merging to form larger flows, one of which destroyed the town of Armero.|||
|28 Jul 1987||Valtellina, Lombardy, Italian Alps||Val Pola landslide||34 MCM||29||Triggered by rapid erosion at the base of a mountain slope, created a wave that travelled 2.7 km upstream|||
|3–5 Jun 1993||Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England||Holbeck Hall Hotel landslide||~0.5 MCM||0||Classic rotational failure along sea cliffs, resulting court case set important precedent in English law|||
|21 Oct 1993||Pantai Remis, Perak, Malaysia||Pantai Remis landslide||0||Slope failure of an open pit tin mine near the sea resulted in forming a new cove measuring approximately 0.5 by 0.5 km.|
|4 Mar 1995||La Conchita, California, United States||La Conchita Landslide of 1995||1.3 MCM||0|||
|30 Jul 1997||Thredbo, New South Wales, Australia||1997 Thredbo landslide||18||A leaking water pipe caused a slope failure that destroyed a ski lodge|||
|1998–1999||Kelso, Washington, United States||Aldercrest-Banyon Landslide||0||Slow-moving landslide which resulted in the condemnation of 137 houses, and $40 million in damage.|||
|14–16 Dec 1999||Vargas, Venezuela||Vargas tragedy||30,000||Caused by a heavy storm that deposited 911 mm of rain in a few days|||
|12 Jul 2000||Mumbai, India||2000 Mumbai landslide||19.09||72.90||78||Caused by land erosion following heavy rains and flooding|||
21st century landslidesEdit
|9 Nov 2001||Amboori, Kerala, India||40||Supposedly worst landslide in Kerala state's history.|||
|26 Mar 2004||Mount Bawakaraeng, South Sulawesi, Indonesia||200–300 MCM||32||Landslide caused by collapse of caldera wall|||
|10 Jan 2005||La Conchita, California, United States||2005 La Conchita landslide||200,000 m3||10||Remobilization of colluvium from 1995 slide into a debris flow.|||
|17 Feb 2006||Southern Leyte, Philippines||2006 Southern Leyte mudslide||15 MCM||1,126||Rock-debris avalanche triggered by ten-day period of heavy rain|||
|11 Jun 2007||Chittagong, Bangladesh||2007 Chittagong mudslides||123||Series of landslides caused by illegal hillside cutting and monsoon rains|||
|6 Sep 2008||Cairo, Egypt||2008 Cairo landslide||119||Rockfall from cliffs, individual boulders up to 70 tonnes|||
|9 Aug 2009||Siaolin Village, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||Siaolin mudslide||30–45 MCM||439–600||Resulted from Typhoon Morakot.|||
|4 Jan 2010||Attabad, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan||Hunza Valley landslide||30 MCM||20||Formed Attabad Lake by damming Hunza River, blocked Karakoram Highway|||
|20 Feb 2010||Madeira Island, Portugal||2010 Madeira floods and mudslides||42|||
|1 Mar 2010||Bududa District, Uganda||2010 Ugandan landslide||100–300|||
|10 May 2010||Saint-Jude, Quebec||4|||
|23 May 2010||Jiang Zhidong Jiangxi, China||2010 Jiangxi derailment||0||The landslide was caused by previous days of heavy rain and flooding in the region.|||
|6 Aug 2010||Mount Meager, British Columbia, Canada||Meager landslide||48.5 MCM||0||Comparable in volume to the 1965 Hope Slide|||
|8 Aug 2010||Gansu, China||2010 Gansu mudslide||1,287|||
|8 Oct 2011||Iron County, Utah, United States||37.63°N||112.94°W||4 MCY||0||Covered 1,300 feet of Utah State Route 14.|||
|10 Apr 2013||Salt Lake City, Utah, United States||Bingham Canyon Mine landslide||40.523°N||112.151°W||55 MCM||0||Possibly the largest historic, non-volcanic, terrestrial landslide in North America.|||
|16 Jun 2013||Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India||2013 North India floods||5,700|
|13 Dec 2013||Rockville, Utah, United States||Several hundred tons||2||Single boulder crushed a two-storey home with residents inside.|||
|22 Mar 2014||Oso, Washington, United States||2014 Oso mudslide||48.283°N||121.847°W||10 MCM (early estimate)||43||49 structures destroyed or affected|||
|2 May 2014||Argo District, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan||2014 Badakhshan mudslides||350–500 reported||4,000 people displaced|||
As of 4 May 2014
|25 May 2014||Mesa County, Colorado, United States||2014 West Salt Creek landslide||39°10′07″N||107°50′54″W||3|
|30 Jul 2014||Malin, Ambegaon taluka, Pune district, Maharashtra, India||2014 Malin landslide||19°9′40″N||73°41′18″E||136||100+ missing|||
|2 Aug 2014||Sunkoshi, Sindhupalchok District, Nepal||2014 Sunkoshi blockage||5.5 MCM||156+|||
|20 Aug 2014||Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan||2014 Hiroshima landslides||74||Deadliest landslides in Japan in 42 years|||
|29 Oct 2014||Badulla District, Sri Lanka||2014 Badulla landslide||16+||192 missing and presumed dead|||
|13 Dec 2014||Jemblung village, Java, Indonesia||2014 Indonesia landslide||93||23 missing|||
|23 Apr 2015||Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan||2015 Badakhshan landslides||52|
|28 Apr 2015||Salvador, Bahia, Brazil||2015 Bahia landslide||14|
|18 May 2015||Salgar, Antioquia Department Colombia||2015 Colombian landslide||83||30+ missing|||
As of 20 May 2015[update]
|1 October 2015||El Cambray Dos, Guatemala Department, Guatemala||2015 Guatemala landslide||280||70 missing.|
|13 November 2015||Lidong Village, Zhejiang, China||38|||
|2 April 2017||Mocoa, Colombia||2017 Mocoa landslide||1°9′00″N||76°38′51″W||329+||70 missing, third-deadliest weather-related disaster in Colombian history.|||
|12 June 2017||Rangamati, Chittagong and Bandarban, Bangladesh||2017 Bangladesh landslides||22°38′00″N||92°12′00″E||152||Worst landslides in Bangladesh's history.|||
|24 June 2017||Xinmo village, Mao County, Sichuan Province, southwestern China||2017 Xinmo landslide||32º4'N||103º39'W||Depletion volume: 4.26 MCM
Accumulation volume: 13.25 MCM
|10 people killed and 73 missing||Probably triggered by the failure of a rock mass previously weakened by the Mw 7.3 Diexi earthquake in 1933 and weathered, after a rainy season.|||
|14 August 2017||Freetown, Sierra Leone||2017 Sierra Leone mudslides||8°29′N,||13°14′W||1,141+||Triggered by a particularly wet rainy season|||
|9 January 2018||California, United States||2018 South California landslides||20||Occurred several months after a series of major wildfires devastated nearby areas, causing deforestation and increasing the risk of a landslide.|||
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