List of irredentist claims or disputes
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This is a list of irredentist claims or disputes. Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to claim or reclaim and occupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past. Not all territorial disputes are irredentist, although they are often couched in irredentist rhetoric to justify and legitimise such claims both internationally and within the country.
Prominent irredentist disputes (by area)Edit
Prominent irredentist disputes during the past century have included:
|Armenia||Republic of Artsakh|
|Austria||South Tyrol||A desire to unify South Tyrol with Austria is held by nationalist groups in both Austria and South Tyrol, which is currently part of Italy following Austria's loss in World War One.|
|Chechnya||Parts of:||Chechnya (currently part of the Russian Federation) has occasionally laid claims on a region called Akkia (roughly the Auhovskiy rayon, in Russian), part of neighbouring Dagestan.|
|Ireland||Northern Ireland||The claim was officially dropped in accordance with the Good Friday Agreement.|
|Serbia||Republika Srpska||Currently, there is a movement calling for the unification of Republika Srpska with Serbia. The area is current part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.|
Russian irredentism can be divided into three categories: broad, intermediate, and narrow.
- The broad sense includes all lands that historically made up the Russian Empire and/or the Soviet Union at their maximum extents. It may also extend to neighbouring countries or regions that are populated by peoples over which Russia ruled (e.g. Iranian Azerbaijan in Iran), or peoples which are closely related to them due to linguistic, ethnic or religious ties. Historically, Russia has pursued all of these avenues; examples include the Panslavism movement to put all of the Balkans (where there exists Slavic and Eastern Orthodox majorities) under Russian hegemony; the Third Rome philosophy, which focused on re-claiming the former Byzantine Empire regions (in particular the warm winter port of Constantinople, today Istanbul), and in addition establishing a hegemony over Greater Armenia and the Holy Land (Lebanon, Palestine etc.). Simultaneously, there were ambitions to continue expansion into Persia and even India (see The Great Game). The Russian Empire also planned to force Qing China to cede Xinjiang, Manchuria, Outer Mongolia, and Korea. While the Russo-Japanese War ended most of these prospects, the Soviet Union would eventually create a sphere of influence in this area in the form of the Mongolian People's Republic and the Tuvan People's Republic. Finally, in Russian America, Russia held claims extending from the Aleutian Islands to northern California, but these plans were cancelled after Alaska was sold to the United States in 1867.
- The intermediate sense includes some or all of the independent countries and/or territories that made up the historical Russian borders. These may include Moldova, Ukraine, eastern Poland, Belarus, the Baltic states, and Finland in Europe, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia in the Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. Some narrower definitions include only the pro-Russian breakaway states of Abkhazia (Georgia), South Ossetia (Georgia), and Transnistria (Moldova), as well as Kars Oblast in Turkey and Batum Oblast partly in Turkey also (Ardahan Province) and Adjara in Georgia.
- The narrow sense of Russian irredentism focuses only on regions that are populated by ethnic Russians that are outside the Russian Federation, such as: Narva in Estonia; lands around Daugavpils and Riga in Latvia; Sloboda Ukraine, Novorossiya, and Crimea from Ukraine (the latter of which has de facto joined the Federation); Gagra district in Georgia (also claimed by Abkhazia); and lands between the Russian border and the rivers of Ural and Irtysh in Kazakhstan, as well as parts of Semirechye.
Historical and fringe disputesEdit
Many fringe and opposition groups in various countries maintain their own set of territorial claims, which are given below:
|Albania||Kosovo||Some claim the calls for a Greater Albania is irredentist.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Parts of:
|England||Monmouthshire||The English Democrats Party are irredentist in regards to Monmouthshire (since 1974 part of Wales).|
|Greece||Cyprus||The Megali Idea became a political objective of the Greek government in the early 20th century. It envisaged a Greater Greece nation covered areas of the earlier Greek empire where significant Greek settlements still existed. The idea ended with devastating defeat of the Greek army in Asia Minor in 1922 and the following population exchange between Greece and Turkey.|
||Georgian irredentists claim Tao-Klarjeti|
|Italian claims to Dalmatia after World War I.|
|North Macedonia||Parts of:
||Irredentists from North Macedonia have expressed land claims to the entire region of Macedonia|
- In the 1955 referendum, Saarland, a previous French protectorate territory, voted to reunite with Germany.
- French claimed Alsace-Lorraine before World War I, after which the territory was returned to them.
- Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro claimed various European parts of the Ottoman Empire and Albania (both of which the four divided among themselves) before the First Balkan War, where they took these claims to the battlefield, and won.
|People's Republic of China||Republic of China|
|People's Republic of China||Arunachal Pradesh
|North Korea||South Korea|
|India|| Azad Kashmir
|Pakistan||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Republic of China||People's Republic of China|
|Republic of China|| Tuva
|South Korea||North Korea|
||[Claims for extension of southern and eastern borders as shown on maps circulating on Turkish television as part of ideology of Neo-Ottomanism.|
South and Central AmericaEdit
|Argentina|| Falkland Islands
||Argentina claims land in the South Atlantic and Antartica, including the Falkland Islands|
||Claims among Mexicans to the Southwestern United States, conquered by the United States from Mexico in the Mexican–American War and later purchased (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) for a sum of 15 million dollars; and the Gadsden Purchase for 10 million dollars.|
|Quebec||Labrador||The Quebec government claims that the territory of Labrador belongs to the province of Quebec. Labrador is officially part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.|
|Mauritania|| Western Sahara|
|Morocco|| Western Sahara
- Bell, Bethany (8 December 2012). "South Tyrol's identity crisis: Italian, German, Austrian...?". Bolzano, Italy: BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "South Tyrol heading to unofficial independence referendum in autumn". nationalia.info. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Marchetti, Silvia (31 May 2014). "The South Tyrol identity crisis: to live in Italy, but feel Austrian". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Bosnia: Defying court ban, Republika Srpska goes ahead with 'Statehood Day'". Refworld. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Socor, Vladimir (25 March 2014). "Putin's Crimea Speech: A Manifesto of Greater-Russia Irredentism". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 11 (56). Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Saideman, Stephen (18 March 2014). "Why Crimea is likely the limit of Greater Russia". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Manifesto of the English Democrats: Putting England First" (PDF). bbc.co.uk. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Finefrock, Michael M. (March 1980). "Ataturk, Lloyd George and the Megali Idea: Cause and Consequence of the Greek Plan to Seize Constantinople from the Allies, June-August 1922". The Journal of Modern History. The University of Chicago Press Books. 52 (S1). Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "The Greek Turkish Population Exchange" (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2019.
- "La question du Labrador" [The question Labrador]. Estrien Movement for French (in French). 2 May 2001. Archived from the original on 26 April 2005.