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List of irredentist claims or disputes

This is a list of irredentist claims or disputes. Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to claim or reclaim and occupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past. Not all territorial disputes are irredentist, although they are often couched in irredentist rhetoric to justify and legitimise such claims both internationally and within the country.

Prominent irredentist disputes (by area)Edit

Prominent irredentist disputes during the past century have included:

EuropeEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Armenia   Republic of Artsakh
  Austria   South Tyrol A desire to unify South Tyrol with Austria is held by nationalist groups in both Austria and South Tyrol, which is currently part of Italy following Austria's loss in World War One.[1][2][3]
  Chechnya Parts of:

  Dagestan

Chechnya (currently part of the Russian Federation) has occasionally laid claims on a region called Akkia (roughly the Auhovskiy rayon, in Russian), part of neighbouring Dagestan.
  Russia   South Ossetia
  Georgia   Abkhazia
  South Ossetia
  Ingushetia Parts of:

  North Ossetia – Alania

  Ireland   Northern Ireland The claim was officially dropped in accordance with the Good Friday Agreement.
  Portugal   Olivenza
  Serbia   Republika Srpska Currently, there is a movement calling for the unification of Republika Srpska with Serbia. The area is current part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4]
  Spain   Gibraltar
  Albania   Kosovo

Russian irredentism can be divided into three categories: broad, intermediate, and narrow.

Historical and fringe disputesEdit

Many fringe and opposition groups in various countries maintain their own set of territorial claims, which are given below:

State Claimed area Notes
  Albania Kosovo

Parts of:
Serbia
Montenegro
North Macedonia
Greece

Some claim the calls for a Greater Albania is irredentist.
  Armenia Parts of:

  Georgia
  Azerbaijan
  Turkey
  Iran

  Belarus Parts of:

  Poland
  Lithuania
  Russia

  Bosnia and Herzegovina Parts of:

  Montenegro
  Serbia

  Bulgaria   North Macedonia

Parts of:
  Romania
  Serbia
  Greece
  Turkey
  Albania

  Croatia Parts of:

  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Serbia
  Montenegro

  England   Monmouthshire The English Democrats Party are irredentist in regards to Monmouthshire (since 1974 part of Wales).[7]
  Estonia Parts of:

  Russia

  Finland   Karelia
  Greece   Cyprus

Parts of:
  Turkey
  Albania

The Megali Idea became a political objective of the Greek government in the early 20th century. It envisaged a Greater Greece nation covered areas of the earlier Greek empire where significant Greek settlements still existed. The idea ended with devastating defeat of the Greek army in Asia Minor in 1922 and the following population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[8][9]
  Georgia Parts of:

  Turkey
  Russia
  Azerbaijan
  Armenia

Georgian irredentists claim Tao-Klarjeti
  Germany   Austria
  Luxembourg
  Liechtenstein

Parts of:
  Belgium
  Poland
  Lithuania
  Russia
  Denmark
  France
  Czech Republic
  Hungary
  Slovakia
  Italy
  Slovenia

  Hungary Parts of:

  Slovakia
  Romania
  Serbia
  Ukraine
  Austria

  Italy   Malta
  San Marino

Parts of:
  Albania
  Croatia
  Greece

Italian claims to Dalmatia after World War I.
  North Macedonia Parts of:

  Greece
  Bulgaria
  Albania

Irredentists from North Macedonia have expressed land claims to the entire region of Macedonia
  Norway   Greenland
  Faroe Islands
  Shetland
  Orkney

Parts of:
  Sweden

  Poland Parts of:

  Belarus
  Ukraine
  Lithuania
  Czech Republic

  Romania   Moldova

Parts of:
  Bulgaria
  Ukraine

  Serbia   Kosovo

Parts of:
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Croatia
  North Macedonia
  Montenegro

  Slovenia Parts of:

  Italy
  Austria
  Croatia

  Ukraine Parts of:

  Transnistria
  Romania
  Slovakia
  Poland
  Belarus
  Russia

AsiaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Afghanistan Parts of:

  Pakistan

  Cambodia Parts of:

  Vietnam

  People's Republic of China   Republic of China
  People's Republic of China Arunachal Pradesh

(  India)

  North Korea   South Korea
  India   Azad Kashmir
  Gilgit-Baltistan

Parts of:
  People's Republic of China

.
  Japan Kuril Islands

(  Russia)

  Pakistan   Jammu and Kashmir
  Philippines Parts of:

  Sabah
(  Malaysia)

  Republic of China   People's Republic of China
  Republic of China   Tuva
  Mongolia
  South Korea   North Korea

Middle EastEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Azerbaijan Parts of:

  Iran

  Iraq   Kuwait
  Iraq   Khuzestan

(  Iran)

  Iraqi Kurdistan   Iraq|
  Israel   Palestine
  Lebanon Parts of:

  Israel

  Palestine   Israel
  Jordan
  Syria

(  Israel)

  Syria Hatay

(  Turkey)

  Turkey Parts of:

  Syria   Iraq

[Claims for extension of southern and eastern borders as shown on maps circulating on Turkish television as part of ideology of Neo-Ottomanism.[10]

South and Central AmericaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Argentina   Falkland Islands
Argentina claims land in the South Atlantic and Antartica, including the Falkland Islands
  Bolivia Parts of:

  Chile

  Guanacaste   Puntarenas
  Guatemala   Belize

Parts of:
  Mexico

  Nicaragua Parts of:

  Costa Rica
  Colombia

  Venezuela Parts of:

  Guyana

North AmericaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Mexico Parts of:

  United States

Claims among Mexicans to the Southwestern United States, conquered by the United States from Mexico in the Mexican–American War and later purchased (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) for a sum of 15 million dollars; and the Gadsden Purchase for 10 million dollars.
  Quebec   Labrador The Quebec government claims that the territory of Labrador belongs to the province of Quebec. Labrador is officially part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.[11]

AfricaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Comoros   Mayotte
  Madagascar Parts of:

  France

  Mauritania   Western Sahara
  Azawad

Parts of:
  Mali
  Niger

  Morocco   Western Sahara
  Madeira
  Canary Islands
  Mauritania
  Ceuta
  Melilla

Parts of:
  Algeria
  Mali

  Puntland Parts of:

  Somaliland

  Somaliland Parts of:

  Puntland

  Somalia Parts of:

  Ethiopia
  Kenya

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bell, Bethany (8 December 2012). "South Tyrol's identity crisis: Italian, German, Austrian...?". Bolzano, Italy: BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  2. ^ "South Tyrol heading to unofficial independence referendum in autumn". nationalia.info. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  3. ^ Marchetti, Silvia (31 May 2014). "The South Tyrol identity crisis: to live in Italy, but feel Austrian". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  4. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Bosnia: Defying court ban, Republika Srpska goes ahead with 'Statehood Day'". Refworld. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  5. ^ Socor, Vladimir (25 March 2014). "Putin's Crimea Speech: A Manifesto of Greater-Russia Irredentism". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 11 (56). Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  6. ^ Saideman, Stephen (18 March 2014). "Why Crimea is likely the limit of Greater Russia". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  7. ^ "Manifesto of the English Democrats: Putting England First" (PDF). bbc.co.uk. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  8. ^ Finefrock, Michael M. (March 1980). "Ataturk, Lloyd George and the Megali Idea: Cause and Consequence of the Greek Plan to Seize Constantinople from the Allies, June-August 1922". The Journal of Modern History. The University of Chicago Press Books. 52 (S1). Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  9. ^ "The Greek Turkish Population Exchange" (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  10. ^ https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/10/23/turkeys-religious-nationalists-want-ottoman-borders-iraq-erdogan/
  11. ^ "La question du Labrador" [The question Labrador]. Estrien Movement for French (in French). 2 May 2001. Archived from the original on 26 April 2005.