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List of irredentist claims or disputes

Not all territorial disputes are irredentist[clarification needed], although they are often couched in irredentist rhetoric to justify and legitimise such claims both internationally and within the country.

Contents

Prominent irredentist disputes (by area)Edit

Prominent irredentist disputes during the past century have included:

EuropeEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Armenia   Republic of Artsakh Armenian claims to the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan on ethnic and perceived historical grounds. It is de jure part of Azerbaijan, but de facto an Armenian populated independent country where conflict started in 1988 and has the explicit long-term goal of rejoining Armenia. See also: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.
  Austria   South Tyrol A desire to unify South Tyrol with Austria is held by nationalist groups in both Austria and South Tyrol, which is currently part of Italy following Austria's loss in World War One.[1][2][3]
  Chechnya Parts of:

  Dagestan

Chechnya (currently part of the Russian Federation) has occasionally laid claims on a region called Akkia (roughly the Auhovskiy rayon, in Russian), part of neighbouring Dagestan. Prior to the 1944 Chechen deportation to Kazakhstan, the region was part of Chechnya (then an autonomous region within the Soviet Union), which was abolished. It was given to Dagestan, and included all of the modern Novolak district as well as parts of the Kazbek district and the Khasavyurt district (including the city of Khasavyurt itself). Following the repatriation in 1958, Chechen autonomy was not restored in Akkia, and the Chechens were barred from returning there. In spite of this, Chechens have returned to Akkia, and according to the census, in 2002 there were nearly ninety thousand Chechens in Dagestan, primarily in Akkia.
  Russia   South Ossetia In a move towards integration with the Russian Federation, President of South Ossetia Leonid Tibilov proposed in December 2015 a name change to "South Ossetia – Alania" — in analogy with "North Ossetia – Alania", a Russian federal subject. Tibilov furthermore suggested holding a referendum on joining the Russian Federation prior to April 2017, which would lead to a united "Ossetia – Alania".
  Georgia   Abkhazia
  South Ossetia
Georgia claims the partially-recognised states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of its territory.
  Ingushetia Parts of:

  North Ossetia – Alania

Ingush (part of the Russian Federation) claims of the eastern part of the Prigorodny District in North Ossetia as part of Ingushetia on historical and historical-ethnic grounds. See Ossetian–Ingush conflict.
  Ireland   Northern Ireland Irish nationalists, including republicans, and originally the Irish state itself, have long laid claim to Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom.
  Portugal   Olivenza Portuguese claim Olivença also known as Olivenza and surrounding areas of the city, which were ceded to Spain by the Treaty of Badajoz (1801) after the War of the Oranges, and argues its case since Spain broke the treaty by declaring war and invading Portugal in 1807, more arguments arose after the Napoleonic Wars ended, with Article 105, being the final act of Congress of Vienna, stating that the congress "understood the occupation of Olivença to be illegal and recognised Portugal's rights". Spain signed the treaty in 1817, therefore accepting Portugal's claims.
  Serbia   Republika Srpska Currently, there is a movement calling for the unification of Republika Srpska with Serbia. The area is current part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4]
  Spain   Gibraltar Spanish claims Gibraltar which was ceded in perpetuity to Britain in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht, and argues its case at the United Nations claiming its territorial integrity is affected.
  Albania   Kosovo The majority of Albanian population in both countries support the Unification of Albania and Kosovo, altogether with other parts of Balkans inhabited with Albanians, therefore, creating Greater Albania.

Russian irredentism can be divided into three categories: broad, intermediate, and narrow.

Historical and fringe disputesEdit

Many fringe and opposition groups in various countries maintain their own set of territorial claims, which are given below:

State Claimed area Notes
  Albania   Kosovo

Parts of:
  Serbia
  Montenegro
  North Macedonia
  Greece

Albanian irredentists claim Kosovo, & parts of Serbia, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Greece (on grounds of ethnic affiliation, this claims are as old as the proposal of the Vilayet of Albania which was never formed).
  Armenia Parts of:

  Georgia
  Azerbaijan
  Turkey
  Iran

Armenian irredentists have also laid claim (on perceived historical, historical ethnic, modern ethnic and also juridical grounds) to territories up to the Pontic coast of Turkey near Trebizond, and south past Lake Van (sometimes far enough to incorporate the historical Subterranean region of Cilician Armenia, though this claim has now been abandoned for the most part), as well as Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan, Javakh in Georgia, and areas of Northwest Iran near Maku. See United Armenia concept for more information.
  Belarus Parts of:

  Poland
  Lithuania
  Russia

Some Belarusian nationalists claim the region of Podlaskie from Poland, the border region of Lithuania which includes the capital Vilnius, and parts of Smolensk and Bryansk Oblasts from Russia. Historically the listed regions belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a predecessor to the modern Lithuanian state, and the borders were drawn during the short-lived Belarusian Democratic Republic.
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Parts of:

  Montenegro
  Serbia

Bosniak claims to Sandžak[citation needed] and large areas of Montenegro due to a large historical Muslim population.
  Bulgaria   North Macedonia

Parts of:
  Romania
  Serbia
  Greece
  Turkey
  Albania

Bulgarian irredentists have claimed North Macedonia based on the idea that the Macedonians are actually Bulgarians; this was an important factor in Bulgarian foreign policy between Bulgarian independence and World War 2; other claims include Northern Dobruja, Eastern Serbia, Aegean Macedonia, Thrace (Eastern and Western) and parts of Albania (Mala Prespa, Gollobordë and Gora).
  Croatia Parts of:

  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Serbia
  Montenegro

Croatian nationalists claim parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, most recently manifested as the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (1991–1994), or the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina the whole of Syrmia which is a part Serbia's province of Vojvodina and Serbia, Sandžak, Bačka which is part of Serbia's province of Vojvodina, the bay of Boka Kotorska part of Montenegro.
  England   Monmouthshire The English Democrats Party are irredentist in regards to Monmouthshire (since 1974 part of Wales).[7]
  Estonia Parts of:

  Russia

After Estonia was re-occupied in 1944, the Petseri County and parts of Ingria were transferred from the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic to Russia. After Estonia regained its independence, these areas, which are still de jure part of Estonia, have remained occupied. The government has given up claims to these territories, however, the Conservative People's Party of Estonia and some other nationalists still support the claim.
  Finland   Karelia The Soviet Union annexed Petsamo, parts of Finnish Karelia, Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia after World War II. The question of the status of ceded Karelia was revived in Finland after the end of the Cold War.
  Greece   Cyprus

Parts of:
  Turkey
  Albania

Greece's claims on areas of the former Ottoman Empire. After World War I Greece claimed what is now the Aegean coastline of Turkey based on the Greek-majority there and historical rule (Ancient Greece and Byzantine Empire). Other Greek claims under the "Greater Greece" policy (Megali Idea) included southern Albania (Northern Epirus) and Cyprus. Today, border changes are not a key topic of political discussion in Greece.
  Georgia Parts of:

  Turkey
  Russia
  Azerbaijan
  Armenia

Georgian irredentists claim Tao-Klarjeti (a part of Turkey) as historic Georgian territory, due to the fact that the region has a large Georgian population, has been under Georgian rule for long periods of history, and is also a birthplace of the Georgian Royal Dynasty of Bagrations from Ispir. Tao-Klarjeti consists of Ardahan Province, Artvin Province, Rize Province, Uzundere, Oltu, Olur and sometimes the previously mentioned Ispir. Despite the big claim on a noticeable chunk of Turkey, most of the significant Georgian population in Tao-Klarjeti is located in Ardahan and Rize (Georgians and Laz people which are considered Kartvelians as Georgians). Nationalists claim territories in Azerbaijan such as Saingilo/Hereti as its historical territory, due to the fact this territory was part of Georgia and was also populated by a now dying subdivision of Georgian people Ingiloy. Today, most of its territories are called Qakh Rayon, Balakan Rayon and Zaqatala Rayon. Georgia sometimes claims territories in Russia, like Sochi, claiming that it is a historical part of Abkhazia region. Georgia also claims north part of Armenia called Lori. The claims come from the fact that Georgians controlled this territory for a long time period and it was one of the main territories which formed the Kingdom of Georgia. The territory during this time was called Tashir-Dzoraget. All these territories were part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, and Georgian nationalists demand its status quo of 1918 borders.
  Germany Parts of:

  Belgium
  Poland
  Lithuania
  Russia
  Denmark
  France
  Czech Republic
  Austria
  Hungary
  Slovakia
  Italy
  Luxembourg
  Liechtenstein
  Slovenia

German nationalists claim westernmost and northern parts of Poland (including Stettin, Gdańsk, Poznań and Wrocław), southern part of Denmark (South Jutland County), eastern Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy), eastern France (parts of Alsace-Lorraine), Memel in Lithuania, and Kaliningrad Oblast, Russian Federation (including Kaliningrad), former parts of the German Empire. Some also claim the Sudetenland from the Czech Republic, Sopron from Hungary, Bratislava from Slovakia, northern parts of Slovenia and South Tyrol from Italy, all areas which are former or current German-speaking regions, as well as unification with German-speaking Austria, Luxembourg and/or Liechtenstein.
  Hungary Parts of:

  Slovakia
  Romania
  Serbia
  Ukraine
  Austria

Hungarian claims to parts of the neighbouring countries inhabited by the ethnic Hungarians (including parts of Slovakia, Romania, Serbia, Ukraine, etc.). The claim is based on historic criteria for some regions (such as Transylvania, where Hungarians are a majority in two out of sixteen counties), and ethnic for other regions. The former Kingdom of Hungary lost 2/3 of its territories as a result of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920. Nowadays, irredentists are split between a group which wishes to reclaim all former regions of Hungary, and those only desiring ethnic Hungarian regions that are contiguous to current-day Hungary.
  Italy Parts of:
  Albania
  Croatia
  Greece
  Malta
  San Marino
Italian claims to Dalmatia after World War I. The whole establishment of Italy originally, however, itself involved much irredentism, as it unified areas belonging to various states one-by-one with the growing proto-Italian state. Gabriele D'Annunzio's occupation of Rijeka (Italian: Fiume) in 1919–1921 — proclaimed as the Italian Regency of Carnaro – was the original irredentist dispute (when the term was first popularized).

Nice, Savoy and Corsica from France.

  North Macedonia Parts of:

  Greece
  Bulgaria
  Albania

Irredentists from North Macedonia have expressed land claims to the entire region of Macedonia out of which only 40% lies within the Republic of North Macedonia, the rest being in Greece, Bulgaria and Albania, on the purported ethnic, historical and geographic grounds.
  Norway   Greenland
  Faroe Islands
  Shetland
  Orkney

Parts of:
  Sweden

Norwegian nationalists claim Norway's former homeland of Bohuslän, Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre and Särna from Sweden, former possessions of Greenland and Faroe Islands from Denmark, and former possessions of Shetland and Orkney from Scotland. (See: Norwegian irredentist claims and Greater Norway)
  Poland Parts of:

  Belarus
  Ukraine
  Lithuania
  Czech Republic

Polish nationalists claim westernmost parts of Belarus (including Grodno and Brześć), Ukraine (including Lwów, Stanisławów and Tarnopol), eastern Lithuania (including the capital Vilnius) and Zaolzie, now part of the Czech Republic. All these regions were part of the interwar Poland.
  Romania Parts of:

  Bulgaria
  Ukraine

The Greater Romanian goal was achieved in 1918, but Northern Bukovina and Southern Dobrudja were lost again in 1940. The goal of Romanian irredentism is the re-establishment of Greater Romania as advocated by the Greater Romania Party, thus claiming territories from Ukraine and Bulgaria[citation needed].
  Serbia   Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Croatia
  North Macedonia
  Montenegro
  Kosovo
Greater Serbian claims to large areas of Bosnia, Kosovo, Croatia, North Macedonia and Montenegro, on grounds of ethnic affiliation; still promulgated by the Serbian Radical Party.
  Slovenia Parts of:

  Italy
  Austria
  Croatia

Slovenian nationalists claim the Italian city of Trieste and the easternmost parts of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia county, as there is a significant Slovenian minority; Croatia's part of the southern bank of the Dragonja river in Istria and the whole of the Piran bay, with the corresponding sea. Austria's northern Styria with the city of Graz, and upper Carniola with the cities of Klagenfrut and Villach.
  Ukraine Parts of:

  Transnistria
  Romania
  Slovakia
  Poland
  Belarus
  Russia

Some Ukrainian nationalists claim a multitude of bordering regions where there was or is mixed population. The Transnistria strip of land, presently a non-recognised breakaway republic from Moldova; parts of southern Bukovina and Maramureş from Romania; the Rusyn-populated Prešov Region from Slovakia; the historic Lemkivshchyna province, now part of Poland; the upper San River valley; land to the left-bank of the Bug River (Chełm and Podlaskie), all from Poland; the Polesian lands in Belarus, including the city of Brest; parts of Bryansk Oblast, including the city of Starodub; parts of Belgorod, Voronezh and Kursk Oblasts (historically part of Sloboda Ukraine); parts of Rostov Oblast including the cities of Shakhty and Taganrog; the historic region of Kuban and parts of Stavropol Kray (Ukrainian nationalists see Kuban Cossacks as Ukrainians), all from Russia.

AsiaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Afghanistan Parts of:

  Pakistan

Afghanistan's claims to all Pashtun areas of Pakistan.
  Cambodia Parts of:

  Vietnam

Cambodia has claimed parts of the Mekong Delta that lie in present-day Vietnam on the basis that the area, which was formerly part of the Khmer Empire, was artificially carved up by the French during the Colonial Period and given to South Vietnam upon French withdrawal. The area still is home to at least one million ethnic Khmers (the Khmer Krom) who claim to be persecuted by the Vietnamese.
  People's Republic of China   Republic of China The People's Republic of China claims to the territories under the control of the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
  People's Republic of China Arunachal Pradesh

(  India)

The People's Republic of China's claims over Arunachal Pradesh under Indian administration (claimed by the PRC as part of Tibet).
  North Korea   South Korea The Democratic People's Republic of Korea claims to the territories under the control of the government of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).
  India   Azad Kashmir
  Gilgit-Baltistan

Parts of:
  People's Republic of China

India's claims to Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan currently administered by Pakistan. India also claims Aksai Chin and Shaksgam Valley, which are currently administered by China.
  Japan Kuril Islands

(  Russia)

Japan's Kuril Islands dispute with the former Soviet Union (now Russia), most recently over the loss of the southern four islands in the Kuril Islands chain in the closing days of World War II under the Treaty of San Francisco.
  Pakistan   Jammu and Kashmir Pakistani claims to all of Jammu and Kashmir (on grounds of ethnic and religious affiliation of the people of the Kashmir Valley) versus Indian rule (the 1947 partition of India led to the accession of Kashmir to India). Pakistan does not claim the portions of the original Kashmir that are now governed by China.
  Philippines Parts of:

  Sabah
(  Malaysia)

The Philippines has a territorial claim on eastern Sabah (formerly known as North Borneo), which is now a state of Malaysia. It claims on the eastern part of the territory was through the heritage of the Sultanate of Sulu.
  Republic of China   People's Republic of China The Republic of China's claims to mainland China ruled by the People's Republic of China, and most of the PRC's territorial claims.
  Republic of China   Tuva
  Mongolia
The Republic of China's claims to Tannu Uriankhai, now roughly corresponds to Tuva, a republic of Russia; and Outer Mongolia (i.e. the independent country of Mongolia).
  South Korea   North Korea The Republic of Korea's claims to North Korea ruled by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Middle EastEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Azerbaijan Parts of:

  Iran

Azeri claims on parts of Northwestern Iran, based on ethno-linguistic grounds.
  Iraq   Kuwait Iraqi claims to Kuwait (esp. since the emirate's independence from Britain in 1961) before the Gulf War.
  Iraq   Khuzestan

(  Iran)

The Iran-Iraq border dispute, includes Khuzestan populated by Iranian Arabs.[citation needed]
  Iraqi Kurdistan   Iraq The government of Iraqi Kurdistan seeks to incorporate part or all of several neighbouring provinces.
  Israel   Palestine Some Israeli political factions claim Israeli sovereignty over the entire West Bank (also known as Judea and Samaria) and under partial military occupation since 1967. Under Israeli military administration since Operation Defensive Shield.
  Lebanon Parts of:

  Israel

Lebanese claims of the Shebaa Farms, an area (formerly part of Syria) annexed by Israel.
  Palestine   Israel
  Jordan
Palestinian: Hamas and other Palestinian factions claim the entire territory of the state of Israel.
During Black September and its aftermath, Palestinian factions claimed Jordan as part of the Palestinian homeland.
  Syria Golan Heights

(  Israel)

Syrian claim for the remaining portion of the Golan Heights, occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab–Israeli war and de facto annexed by it in 1980. The de facto annexation is not recognized by the international community, except for the United States.
  Syria Hatay

(  Turkey)

Syrian claims to Turkey's Hatay Province. The Syrian Social Nationalist Party and Levantine nationalists furthermore claims southeastern parts of Turkey, Israel, State of Palestine, Jordan, Cyprus, Iraq, northern parts of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, southwestern parts of Iran, Lebanon and Egypt's Sinai Peninsula as Greater Syria.

South and Central AmericaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Argentina   Falkland Islands

(  United Kingdom)

Argentina's claims to the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory. In 1982, Argentina unsuccessfully attempted to annex the Islands militarily.
  Bolivia Parts of:

  Chile
  Brazil

Bolivian claims to coastal regions of Chile annexed after the War of the Pacific. More recently, president Evo Morales expressed disgust with the secession of Acre (1902), which later become a Brazilian state, saying that the Brazilians provoked the unrest and later paid Bolivia only "a horse's price" for the priceless land.[8]
  Guanacaste   Puntarenas Guanacastecan claims to the Nicoya Peninsula, currently under neighbour Costa Rican province of Puntarenas's administration.
  Guatemala   Belize

Parts of:
  Mexico

Guatemalan claims to Belize and parts of Mexico, the later nullified in 1995.
  Nicaragua Parts of:

  Costa Rica
  Colombia

Nicaraguan claims to Guanacaste and the Colombian Islands of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
  Venezuela Parts of:

  Guyana

Venezuelan claims to most of Guyana west of the Essequibo River, as Guayana Esequiba.

North AmericaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Mexico Parts of:

  United States

Claims among Mexicans to the Southwestern United States, conquered by the United States from Mexico in the Mexican–American War and later purchased (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo) for a sum of 15 million dollars; and the Gadsden Purchase for 10 million dollars.
  Quebec   Labrador The Quebec government claims that the territory of Labrador belongs to the province of Quebec. Labrador is officially part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.[9]

AfricaEdit

State Claimed area Notes
  Comoros   Mayotte The Comoros claim Mayotte from France after 2009 referendum.
  Madagascar Parts of:

  France

Madagascar claims the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean after France gave them independence in 1960.
  Mauritania   Western Sahara
  Azawad

Parts of:
  Mali
  Niger

Mauritania claims the Western Sahara and the Azawad region of Mali before France gave them independence in 1960.
  Morocco   Western Sahara
  Madeira
  Canary Islands
  Mauritania
  Ceuta
  Melilla

Parts of:
  Algeria
  Mali

Morocco's claims, initiated in 1963 by King Hassan II, to a claimed "Greater Morocco" (an area comprising Morocco, parts of southwest Algeria, Western Sahara, Mauritania, the northwest of Mali, Madeira and the Canary Islands as well as the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla). This led to a border war with Algeria and the Moroccan military annexation of Western Sahara in 1976 and 1979.
  Puntland Parts of:

  Somaliland

Within Somalia, the self-declared Puntland and Somaliland conflict over Sanaag and Sool, based on the Puntland desire to unite areas of the Darod clan.
  Somaliland Parts of:

  Puntland

  Somalia Parts of:

  Ethiopia
  Kenya

Somalia lays claim to the Northeastern Region of Kenya and the Ogaden Region of Ethiopia, based on historically being part of Somali lands and currently being inhabited by Somalis.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bell, Bethany (8 December 2012). "South Tyrol's identity crisis: Italian, German, Austrian...?". Bolzano, Italy: BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  2. ^ "South Tyrol heading to unofficial independence referendum in autumn". nationalia.info. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  3. ^ Marchetti, Silvia (31 May 2014). "The South Tyrol identity crisis: to live in Italy, but feel Austrian". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  4. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Bosnia: Defying court ban, Republika Srpska goes ahead with 'Statehood Day'". Refworld. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  5. ^ Socor, Vladimir (25 March 2014). "Putin's Crimea Speech: A Manifesto of Greater-Russia Irredentism". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 11 (56). Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  6. ^ Saideman, Stephen (18 March 2014). "Why Crimea is likely the limit of Greater Russia". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  7. ^ "Manifesto of the English Democrats: Putting England First" (PDF). bbc.co.uk. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  8. ^ Monteiro Coelho da Costa, Antonio Luiz (23 May 2006). "O Acre por um cavalo?" [An acre for a horse?] (in Portuguese). Terra Magazine (Brazil). Archived from the original on 11 February 2012.
  9. ^ "La question du Labrador" [The question Labrador]. Estrien Movement for French (in French). 2 May 2001. Archived from the original on 26 April 2005.