List of insurgent groups in Myanmar
This is a list of insurgent groups in Myanmar (also known as Burma). They are known officially as ethnic armed organisations (EAOs) by the government of Myanmar.
|Arakan Army (Kachin State)||AA (Kachin)||2009||1,500–2,000+||Laiza||Kachin State,
|Part of the Northern Alliance.|
|Arakan Army (Kayin State)||AA (Kayin)||2010||100–350+||Mobile headquarters||Kayin State||Armed wing of the Arakan National Council.|
|Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army||ARSA||2013||~200||Mobile headquarters||Rakhine State,
|Claimed responsibility for attacks on Burmese border posts along Myanmar's border with Bangladesh in 2016 and 2017. Previously known as Harakah al-Yaqin.|
|Kachin Independence Army||KIA||1961||10,000–12,000||Laiza,
Pajau (until 2005)
|Kachin State||Military wing of the Kachin Independence Organisation; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).||Holds and governs territory in Kachin State.|
|Kuki National Army||KNA(B)||1988||200+||Mobile headquarters||Chin State,
|Military wing of the Kuki National Organisation.|
|Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army||MNDAA||1989||2,000–4,000||Mobile headquarters||Shan State||Armed wing of the Kokang Democracy Party; part of the Northern Alliance.||Split from the Communist Party of Burma after its dissolution.|
|Shanni Nationalities Army||SNA||2016||300||Mobile headquarters||Kachin State||Allies with the Shan State Army - South and the government of Myanmar.|
|Ta'ang National Liberation Army||TNLA||1992||1,500–3,500||Mobile headquarters||Shan State||Member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC); part of the Northern Alliance.||Governs the Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone.|
|Zomi Revolutionary Army||ZRA||1997||3,000||Churachandpur||Chin State,
|Armed wing of the Zomi Revolutionary Organisation.||Only minor skirmishes in Myanmar.|
|Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front||ARIF||1986||1998||Unknown||Mobile headquarters||Rakhine State,
|Communist Party of Arakan||CPA||1962||2004||Unknown||Mobile headquarters||Rakhine State||Split from the Red Flag Communist Party (RFCP).|
|Communist Party of Burma||CPB||1939||1989||6,000||Pangkham (until 1989)||Shan State||Armed wing dissolved in 1988 by the Burmese government.|
|Democratic Karen Buddhist Army||DKBA||1994||2010||<5,000||Manerplaw (until 1995)||Kayin State||Signed a ceasefire agreement shortly after its formation in 1994; disbanded in 2010. Split from the Karen National Union.|
|God's Army||1997||2006||500||Mobile headquarters||Myanmar–Thailand border||Surrendered to government forces in 2006.|
|Kachin Defense Army||KDA||1961||2010||1,500||Kawnghka||Shan State||Originated as the Kachin Independence Army's 4th brigade.|
|Karenni National People's Liberation Front||KNPLF||1978||2009||4,000||Mobile headquarters||Kayah State||Split from the Karenni Army. Signed a ceasefire agreement in 1989 and transformed into a BGF in 2009.|
|Mongko Region Defence Army||MRDA||1995||2000||Unknown||Mongko||Shan State,
|Split from the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army.|
|Mong Tai Army||MTA||1985||1996||20,000||Homein||Shan State,
|Surrendered to government forces in 1996.|
|Monland Restoration Army||MRA||2001||2012||100–300||Sangkhlaburi||Mon State,
|Armed wing of the Hongsawatoi Restoration Party.||Surrendered to government forces in 2012.|
|Mujahideen||None||1947||1961||2,000||Mayu||Rakhine State||Majority of fighters surrendered to government forces in the late 1950s and early 1960s.|
|New Democratic Army - Kachin||NDA-K||1989||2009||700 (peak)||Pang Wa||Shan State||Signed a ceasefire agreement with the government in 1989 and transformed into a BGF in 2009.|
|Pa-O National Army||PNA||1949||1991||Unknown||Taunggyi||Shan State||Armed wing of the Pa-O National Organisation.||Disbanded in 1991 and became a political party. Currently governs the Pa-O Self-Administered Zone.|
|Red Flag Communist Party||RFCP||1948||1978||500||Mobile headquarters||Shan State||Split from the Communist Party of Burma (White flags).|
|Rohingya Liberation Party||RLP||1972||1974||800–2,500||Mobile headquarters||Rakhine State||Insurgents fled across the border into Bangladesh after a massive military operation by the government in July 1974.|
|Rohingya National Army||RNA||1998||2001||Unknown||Cox's Bazar||Rakhine State,
|Armed wing of the Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO).|
|Rohingya Patriotic Front||RPF||1974||1980s||70||Mobile headquarters||Rakhine State|
|Rohingya Solidarity Organisation||RSO||1982||1998||Unknown||Rakhine State,
|Allegedly had connections with the Taliban and Al-Qaeda.||Mainly active in the 1990s; militarily defunct by 1998.|
|Shan State Army||SSA||1964||1976||1,500||Mobile headquarters||Shan State||Formed the basis for the Shan State Army - North and Shan State Army - South. Fought other insurgent groups such as the Communist Party of Burma.|
|Shan State National Army||SSNA||1995||2005||8,000 (peak)||Hsipaw||Shan State||Merged with the Shan State Army - South in 2005.|
|Shan United Revolutionary Army||SURA||1960||1996||Unknown||Homein||Shan State,
|Majority of insurgents surrendered to government forces in 1996. 800 insurgents under the command of Yawd Serk would go on to form the Shan State Army - South.|
|Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors||VBSW||1999||2013||Unknown||Mobile headquarters||Myanmar–Thailand border||Since 2013, no insurgent or terror related activity has been attributed to the VBSW, suggesting that it may be inactive or that it may have been disbanded following political reforms in Myanmar. The group gained notoriety in October 1999 by raiding and holding hostages at the Burmese consulate in Bangkok, Thailand.|
|Federal Union Army||FUA||2011||Chiang Mai||Armed wing of the United Nationalities Federal Council.|
- "Ethnic armed organisations' conference commences". President's Office of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Armed ethnic groups | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- ""I Want to Stress That We Are Not the Enemy"". Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "AA (Karen Region) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Olarn, Kocha; Griffiths, James (11 January 2018). "Myanmar military admits role in killing Rohingya found in mass grave". CNN. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "'Beyond comprehension': Myanmar admits killing Rohingya". www.aljazeera.com. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Islamist fears rise in Rohingya-linked violence". Bangkok Post. Post Publishing PCL. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- "Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Peace Process Overview | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Burma attack breaks Kachin truce near China border". BBC. 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
The rebels are seeking greater autonomy within Burma for ethnic Kachins who have had de facto control over a part of northern Burma for more than 50 years.
- "Kuki National Organization | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "MNDAA | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "47 Govt Troops Killed, Tens of Thousands Flee Heavy Fighting in Shan State". irrawaddy.org.
- "PSLF/TNLA | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Larsen, Niels (23 April 2015). "On Patrol With Myanmar Rebels Fighting Both the Army and Drug Addiction - VICE News". VICE News (Crime and Drugs).
- 15 October 2015. "Myanmar Signs Historic Cease-Fire Deal With Eight Ethnic Armies". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- "All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- I. Rotberg, Robert (1998). Burma: Prospects for a Democratic Future. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815791690.
- "The Politics of Pressure: The 1990's and the Fall of Manerplaw". www.ibiblio.org. The Museum of Karen History and Culture. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Arakan Liberation Party (ALP) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Chin National Front (CNF) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Peace may prove elusive as divisions sap strength of karen national union | Bangkok Post: news". www.bangkokpost.com. Bangkok Post. 14 October 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Asia Times - News and analysis from throughout Southeast Asia".
- Burma center for Ethnic Studies, Jan. 2012, "Briefing Paper No. 1" http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/BCES-BP-01-ceasefires(en).pdf
- Murray, Lucy. "Karenni rebels dig in for last stand". Asia Times.
- "Karen Peace Council (KPC) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "New Mon State Party (NMSP) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "NDAA | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "NSCN-K | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "NSCN(K) faction revokes decision to abrogate ceasefire agreement". The Economic Times. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "PNLO | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Johnson, Tim (29 August 2009). China Urges Burma to Bridle Ethnic Militia Uprising at Border. The Washington Post.
- Davis, Anthony. "Wa army fielding new Chinese artillery, ATGMs". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
- Luke Gerdes (8 February 2009). "Constructing Terror: How Issues of Construct Validity Undermine the Utility of Terror Databases and Statistical Analyses of Terrorism". All Academic Research. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
The best such example comes from the United Wa State Army (UWSA), an armed ethnic organisation that has established de facto control over a portion of Northeastern Burma.
- "Bangladesh Extremist Islamist Consolidation". by Bertil Lintner. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Richard Michael Gibson (2011). The Secret Army: Chiang Kai-shek and the Drug Warlords of the Golden Triangle. John Wiley and Sons. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-470-83018-5.
- Mydans, Seth (1 April 2000). "Burmese Rebel Chief More Boy Than Warrior". NY Times. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Burmanet » Kachin News Group: KDA transformed to militia groups by Burma junta". www.burmanet.org. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Karenni National People's Liberation Front".
- Steinberg, David I. (2001). Burma: The State of Myanmar. Georgetown University Press. p. 195. ISBN 1589012852. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Colletta, Nat J.; Lim, Teck Ghee; Kelles-Viitanen, Anita (2001). Social Cohesion and Conflict Prevention in Asia: Managing Diversity Through Development. World Bank Publications. p. 310. ISBN 9780821348741. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Ceasefire celebration noticeably absent". Independent Mon News Agency. Independent Mon news Agency. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- The Irrawaddi - Precarious Peace in Monland
- "New Democratic Army - Kachin". Mizzima News.
- Schmid, Alex Peter, A.J. Jongman, and Michael Stohl. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, and Literature. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2005. p. 514
- Pho Kan Kaung (May 1992). The Danger of Rohingya. Myet Khin Thit Magazine No. 25. pp. 87–103.
- "Rohingya Solidarity Organization | Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Chronology for Shans in Burma
- "Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors". Tracking Terrorism.
- "Stakeholders: UNFC | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018.