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List of insurgent groups in Myanmar

Cadets from the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) preparing for military drills at the group's headquarters in Laiza, Kachin State.

This is an incomplete list of insurgent groups in Myanmar (also known as Burma).

Contents

Active combatantsEdit

Name Abbreviation Founded Strength Headquarters Location Affiliations Notes
  Arakan Army (Kachin State) AA (Kachin) 2009 1,500[1]–2,000+[2] Laiza Kachin State,
Rakhine State,
Shan State,
Bangladesh–Myanmar border
Part of the Northern Alliance.
  Arakan Army (Kayin State) AA (Kayin) 2010 100[3]–350+[citation needed] Mobile headquarters Kayin State Armed wing of the Arakan National Council.
Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army ARSA 2013 ~200[4][5] Mobile headquarters Rakhine State,
Bangladesh–Myanmar border
Claimed responsibility for attacks on Burmese border posts along Myanmar's border with Bangladesh in 2016 and 2017.[6] Previously known as Harakah al-Yaqin.
  Kachin Independence Army KIA 1961 10,000–12,000[7] Laiza,
Pajau (until 2005)
Kachin State Military wing of the Kachin Independence Organisation; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).[8] Holds and governs territory in Kachin State.[9]
  Kuki National Army KNA(B) 1988 200+[10] Mobile headquarters Chin State,
Magway Region,
Sagaing Region
Military wing of the Kuki National Organisation.
  Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army MNDAA 1989 2,000[11]–4,000[12] Mobile headquarters Shan State Armed wing of the Kokang Democracy Party; part of the Northern Alliance. Split from the Communist Party of Burma after its dissolution.
  Shanni Nationalities Army SNA 2016 300[citation needed] Mobile headquarters Kachin State Allies with the Shan State Army - South and the government of Myanmar.
  Ta'ang National Liberation Army TNLA 1992 1,500[13]–3,500[14] Mobile headquarters Shan State Member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC);[8] part of the Northern Alliance. Governs the Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone.
  Zomi Revolutionary Army ZRA 1997 3,000[1] Churachandpur Chin State,
IndiaMyanmar border
Armed wing of the Zomi Revolutionary Organisation. Only minor skirmishes in Myanmar.

Ceasefire groupsEdit

Name Abbreviation Founded Ceasefire Strength Headquarters Location Affiliations Notes
  All Burma Students' Democratic Front ABSDF 1988 2015[15] 600[16]–1,000[17] Manerplaw (until 1995)[18] MyanmarThailand border,
IndiaMyanmar border,
China–Myanmar border
  Arakan Liberation Army ALA 1968 2012, 2015[15] 60–100[19] Sittwe Kayin State,
Rakhine State
Close allies with the Karen National Union.
  Chin National Army CNA 1988 2012, 2015[15] 200+[20][17] Hakha Chin State Armed wing of the Chin National Front; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).[8]
  Democratic Karen Buddhist Army - Brigade 5 DKBA-5 2010 2011 1,500+[1][21] Sonesee Myaing Myawaddy Township, Kayin State Formerly part of the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army until 2010.
Karen National Defence Organisation KNDO 1949 2012, 2015[15] Unknown Lay Wah,
Manerplaw (until 1995)[18]
Kayah State,
Kayin State
Affiliate of the Karen National Union.
  Karen National Liberation Army KNLA 1949 2012, 2015[15] 5,000[22][17]–7,000[23] Lay Wah,
Manerplaw (until 1995)[18]
Kayah State,
Kayin State,
Tanintharyi Region
Armed wing of the Karen National Union; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).[8]
  Karenni Army KA/KNPP 1949 2005, 2012 500[17]–1,500[23] Nya Moe[24] Kayah State Armed wing of the Karenni National Progressive Party; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).[8]
KNU/KNLA Peace Council KPC 2007 2015 <200[25] Tokawko Kayah State Not affiliated with the KNU or the KNLA, despite its name.
Mongko Region Defence Army MRDA 1995 1995[26][27] Unknown Mong Ko Shan State,
China–Myanmar border
Split from the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army.
  Mon National Liberation Army MNLA 1958 1995, 2012 800+ (2,000–5,000 reserves)[28] Ye Chaung Phya Mon State,
Tanintharyi Region
Armed wing of the New Mon State Party.
  National Democratic Alliance Army NDAA-ESS 1989 1989, 2011 3,000[29]–4,000[1] Mong La Shan State Split from the Communist Party of Burma after its dissolution.
  Pa-O National Liberation Army PNLA 2009 2012 400+[1][30] Camp Laybwer Shan State,
MyanmarThailand border
Armed wing of the Pa-O National Liberation Organisation.
  Shan State Army - North SSA-N 1971 1989, 2012 8,000[1] Wan Hai Shan State Armed wing of the Shan State Progress Party; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).[8]
  Shan State Army - South SSA-S 1996 2012, 2015 6,000[23]–8,000[1] Loi Tai Leng Shan State,
MyanmarThailand border
Armed wing of the Restoration Council of Shan State; member of the Shan State Congress. Split from the Mong Tai Army in 1995.
  United Wa State Army UWSA 1989 1989, 2011 20,000[31]–25,000[32] Pangkham Shan State Armed wing of the United Wa State Party. Currently governs the Wa Self-Administered Division (Wa State) as a de facto military junta.[33]
  Wa National Army WNA 1969 1997 200[17] Homein Shan State Armed wing of the Wa National Organisation; member of the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC).[8] Signed a peace agreement with the government in August 1997.

Defunct insurgent groupsEdit

Name Abbreviation Founded Disbanded Strength Headquarters Location Affiliations Notes
Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front ARIF 1986[34] 1998 Unknown Mobile headquarters Rakhine State,
Bangladesh–Myanmar border
  Communist Party of Burma CPB 1939 1989 6,000[35] Pangsang Shan State Armed wing disbanded in 1988.
  Democratic Karen Buddhist Army DKBA 1994 2010 <5,000[1] Manerplaw (until 1995) Kayin State Signed a ceasefire agreement shortly after its formation in 1994; disbanded in 2010. Split from the Karen National Union.
God's Army 1997 2006 500 (peak)[36] Mobile headquarters MyanmarThailand border Surrendered to government forces in 2006.
Kachin Defense Army KDA 1961 2010 1,500[37] Kawnghka Shan State Originated as the Kachin Independence Army's 4th brigade.
  Karenni National People's Liberation Front KNPLF 1978 2009 4,000[38] Mobile headquarters Kayah State Split from the Karenni Army. Signed a ceasefire agreement in 1989 and transformed into a BGF in 2009.
  Mong Tai Army MTA 1985 1996 20,000 Homein Shan State,
MyanmarThailand border
Surrendered to government forces in 1996.
Monland Restoration Army MRA 2001 2012 100–300[39][40] Sangkhlaburi Mon State,
Tanintharyi Region
Armed wing of the Hongsawatoi Restoration Party. Surrendered to government forces in 2012.
  Mujahideen None 1947 1961 2,000 Mayu Rakhine State Majority of fighters surrendered to government forces in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
  National Socialist Council of Nagaland NSCN-K 1980 2012 <500[41] Mobile headquarters Sagaing Region NSCN faction in Myanmar (NSCN-K) largely defunct after the creation of the Naga Self-Administered Zone in 2010. Signed a ceasefire agreement with the government and disbanded in 2012.
New Democratic Army - Kachin NDA-K 1989 2009 700 (peak)[42] Pang Wa Shan State Signed a ceasefire agreement with the government in 1989 and transformed into a BGF in 2009.
  Pa-O National Army PNA 1949 1991 Unknown Taunggyi Shan State Armed wing of the Pa-O National Organisation. Disbanded in 1991 and became a political party. Currently governs the Pa-O Self-Administered Zone.
  Red Flag Communist Party RFCP 1948 1978 500[43] Mobile headquarters Shan State Split from the Communist Party of Burma (White flags).
Rohingya Liberation Party RLP 1972 1974 800–2,500[44] Mobile headquarters Rakhine State Insurgents fled across the border into Bangladesh after a massive military operation by the government in July 1974.
Rohingya National Army RNA 1998 2001 Unknown Cox's Bazar Rakhine State,
Bangladesh–Myanmar border
Armed wing of the Arakan Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO).
Rohingya Patriotic Front RPF 1974 1980s 70[44] Mobile headquarters Rakhine State
  Rohingya Solidarity Organisation RSO 1982[45] 1998 Unknown Rakhine State,
Bangladesh–Myanmar border
Allegedly had connections with the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. Mainly active in the 1990s; militarily defunct by 1998.
  Shan State Army SSA 1964 1976 1,500 Mobile headquarters Shan State Formed the basis for the Shan State Army - North and Shan State Army - South. Fought other insurgent groups such as the Communist Party of Burma.
  Shan State National Army SSNA 1995 2005 8,000 (peak)[46] Hsipaw Shan State Merged with the Shan State Army - South in 2005.
  Shan United Revolutionary Army SURA Unknown 1996 Unknown Homein Shan State,
MyanmarThailand border
Majority of insurgents surrendered to government forces in 1996. 800 insurgents under the command of Yawd Serk would go on to form the Shan State Army - South.
  Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors VBSW 1999 2013 Unknown Mobile headquarters MyanmarThailand border Since 2013, no insurgent or terror related activity has been attributed to the VBSW, suggesting that it may be inactive or that it may have been disbanded following political reforms in Myanmar.[47] The group gained notoriety in October 1999 by raiding and holding hostages at the Burmese consulate in Bangkok, Thailand.

Military coalitionsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Armed ethnic groups | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  2. ^ ""I Want to Stress That We Are Not the Enemy"". Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  3. ^ "AA (Karen Region) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  4. ^ Olarn, Kocha; Griffiths, James (11 January 2018). "Myanmar military admits role in killing Rohingya found in mass grave". CNN. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  5. ^ "'Beyond comprehension': Myanmar admits killing Rohingya". www.aljazeera.com. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  6. ^ "Islamist fears rise in Rohingya-linked violence". Bangkok Post. Post Publishing PCL. Retrieved 5 November 2016. 
  7. ^ "Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Peace Process Overview | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  9. ^ "Burma attack breaks Kachin truce near China border". BBC. 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2014. The rebels are seeking greater autonomy within Burma for ethnic Kachins who have had de facto control over a part of northern Burma for more than 50 years. 
  10. ^ "Kuki National Organization | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  11. ^ "MNDAA | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  12. ^ "47 Govt Troops Killed, Tens of Thousands Flee Heavy Fighting in Shan State". irrawaddy.org. 
  13. ^ "PSLF/TNLA | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  14. ^ Larsen, Niels (23 April 2015). "On Patrol With Myanmar Rebels Fighting Both the Army and Drug Addiction - VICE News". VICE News (Crime and Drugs). 
  15. ^ a b c d e 15 October 2015. "Myanmar Signs Historic Cease-Fire Deal With Eight Ethnic Armies". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  16. ^ "All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  17. ^ a b c d e I. Rotberg, Robert (1998). Burma: Prospects for a Democratic Future. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815791690. 
  18. ^ a b c "The Politics of Pressure: The 1990's and the Fall of Manerplaw". www.ibiblio.org. The Museum of Karen History and Culture. Retrieved 19 April 2018. 
  19. ^ "Arakan Liberation Party (ALP) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  20. ^ "Chin National Front (CNF) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  21. ^ "Peace may prove elusive as divisions sap strength of karen national union | Bangkok Post: news". www.bangkokpost.com. Bangkok Post. 14 October 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2018. 
  22. ^ "Asia Times - News and analysis from throughout Southeast Asia". 
  23. ^ a b c Burma center for Ethnic Studies, Jan. 2012, "Briefing Paper No. 1" http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/BCES-BP-01-ceasefires(en).pdf
  24. ^ Murray, Lucy. "Karenni rebels dig in for last stand". Asia Times. 
  25. ^ "Karen Peace Council (KPC) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 
  26. ^ Steinberg, David I. (2001). Burma: The State of Myanmar. Georgetown University Press. p. 195. ISBN 1589012852. Retrieved 10 March 2018. 
  27. ^ Colletta, Nat J.; Lim, Teck Ghee; Kelles-Viitanen, Anita (2001). Social Cohesion and Conflict Prevention in Asia: Managing Diversity Through Development. World Bank Publications. p. 310. ISBN 9780821348741. Retrieved 10 March 2018. 
  28. ^ "New Mon State Party (NMSP) | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 
  29. ^ "NDAA | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  30. ^ "PNLO | Myanmar Peace Monitor". www.mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  31. ^ Johnson, Tim (29 August 2009). China Urges Burma to Bridle Ethnic Militia Uprising at Border. The Washington Post.
  32. ^ Davis, Anthony. "Wa army fielding new Chinese artillery, ATGMs". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  33. ^ Luke Gerdes (8 February 2009). "Constructing Terror: How Issues of Construct Validity Undermine the Utility of Terror Databases and Statistical Analyses of Terrorism". All Academic Research. Retrieved 18 August 2014. The best such example comes from the United Wa State Army (UWSA), an armed ethnic organisation that has established de facto control over a portion of Northeastern Burma. 
  34. ^ "Bangladesh Extremist Islamist Consolidation". by Bertil Lintner. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  35. ^ Richard Michael Gibson (2011). The Secret Army: Chiang Kai-shek and the Drug Warlords of the Golden Triangle. John Wiley and Sons. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-470-83018-5. 
  36. ^ Mydans, Seth (1 April 2000). "Burmese Rebel Chief More Boy Than Warrior". NY Times. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  37. ^ "Burmanet » Kachin News Group: KDA transformed to militia groups by Burma junta". www.burmanet.org. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  38. ^ "Karenni National People's Liberation Front". 
  39. ^ "Ceasefire celebration noticeably absent". Independent Mon News Agency. Independent Mon news Agency. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  40. ^ The Irrawaddi - Precarious Peace in Monland
  41. ^ "NSCN-K | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  42. ^ "New Democratic Army - Kachin". Mizzima News. 
  43. ^ Schmid, Alex Peter, A.J. Jongman, and Michael Stohl. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, and Literature. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2005. p. 514
  44. ^ a b Pho Kan Kaung (May 1992). The Danger of Rohingya. Myet Khin Thit Magazine No. 25. pp. 87–103. 
  45. ^ "Rohingya Solidarity Organization | Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  46. ^ Chronology for Shans in Burma
  47. ^ "Vigorous Burmese Student Warriors". Tracking Terrorism. 
  48. ^ "Stakeholders: UNFC | Myanmar Peace Monitor". mmpeacemonitor.org. Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 

External linksEdit

  • Myanmar Peace MonitorNGO based in Chaing Mai, Thailand that monitors Myanmar's ongoing peace process.
  • Pyidaungsu Institute – Political institute based in Chaing Mai, Thailand focused on achieving political stability and peace in Myanmar.