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The following list includes commercially or artistically important inorganic pigments of natural and synthetic origin.[1]

Contents

Purple pigmentsEdit

Aluminum pigments

Copper pigments

Cobalt pigments

Manganese pigments

Gold pigments

Blue pigmentsEdit

Aluminum pigments

  • Ultramarine (PB29): a complex naturally occurring pigment of sulfur-containing sodio-silicate (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4)
  • Persian blue: made by grinding up the mineral Lapis lazuli. The most important mineral component of lapis lazuli is lazurite (25% to 40%), a feldspathoid silicate mineral with the formula (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(S,SO4,Cl)1–2.

Cobalt pigments

Copper pigments

  • Egyptian Blue: a synthetic pigment of calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10). Thought to be the first synthetically produced pigment.
  • Han Blue: BaCuSi4O10
  • Azurite: cupric carbonate hydroxide (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)

Iron pigments

  • Prussian Blue (PB27): a synthetic pigment of ferric hexacyanoferrate (Fe7(CN)18). The dye Marking blue is made by mixing Prussian Blue and alcohol.

Manganese pigments

Green pigmentsEdit

Cadmium pigments

  • Cadmium Green: a light green pigment consisting of a mixture of Cadmium Yellow (CdS) and Viridian (Cr2O3)

Chromium pigments

  • Chrome green (PG17): chromic oxide (Cr2O3)
  • Viridian (PG18): a dark green pigment of hydrated chromic oxide (Cr2O3·H2O)

Cobalt pigments

  • Cobalt green: also known as Rinman's green or Zinc green (CoZnO2)

Copper pigments

Other pigments

  • Green earth: also known as terre verte and Verona green (K[(Al,FeIII),(FeII,Mg)](AlSi3,Si4)O10(OH)2)

Yellow pigmentsEdit

Arsenic pigments

  • Orpiment: natural monoclinic arsenic sulfide (As2S3),

Bismuth pigments

Cadmium pigments

Chromium pigments

Cobalt pigments

  • Aureolin (also called Cobalt Yellow) (PY40): Potassium cobaltinitrite (K3Co(NO2)6).

Iron Pigments

  • Yellow Ochre (PY43): a naturally occurring clay of monohydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3.H2O)

Lead pigments

Titanium pigments

Tin Pigments

Zinc Pigments

  • Zinc Yellow (PY36): Zinc chromate (ZnCrO4), a highly toxic substance with anti-corrosive properties which was historically most often used to paint over metals.

Orange pigmentsEdit

Cadmium pigments

Chromium pigments

Red pigmentsEdit

Arsenic pigments

  • Realgar: an arsenic sulfide mineral (As4S4)

Cadmium pigments

Iron oxide pigments

Lead pigments

Mercury pigments

  • Vermilion (PR106): Synthetic and natural pigment: Occurs naturally in mineral cinnabar. Mercuric sulfide (HgS)

Brown pigmentsEdit

Clay earth pigments (naturally formed iron oxides)

  • Raw Umber (PBr7): a natural clay pigment consisting of iron oxide, manganese oxide and aluminum oxide: Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + AlO3. When calcined (heated) it is referred to as Burnt Umber and has more intense colors.
  • Raw Sienna (PBr7): a naturally occurring yellow-brown pigment from limonite clay. Used in art since prehistoric times.

Black pigmentsEdit

Carbon pigments

Iron pigments

  • Mars Black (Iron black) (PBk11) (C.I. No.77499) : Fe3O4

Manganese pigments

Titanium pigments

White pigmentsEdit

Antimony pigments

Barium pigments

Lead pigments

Titanium pigments

Zinc pigments

SafetyEdit

A number of pigments, especially traditional ones, contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium that are highly toxic. The usage of these pigments is now highly restricted in many countries.[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Völz, Hans G.; et al., "Pigments, Inorganic", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_243.pub2.
  2. ^ Müller, Hugo; Müller, Wolfgang; Wehner, Manfred; Liewald, Heike, "Artists' Colors", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_143.pub2
  3. ^ Smith, Andrew E.; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Delaney, Kris; Spaldin, Nicola A.; Sleight, Arthur W.; Subramanian, M. A. (2009). "Mn3+ in Trigonal Bipyramidal Coordination: A New Blue Chromophore". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131: 17084–17086. doi:10.1021/ja9080666.

External linksEdit