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Aerial view of Lemon Hill Mansion

This list contains all of the extant historic houses located in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most of the houses are referred to as mansions due to their size and use as the summer country estates of Philadelphia's affluent citizens in the 18th and 19th centuries. During that period, the city's only developed areas were located several miles away to the southeast along the Delaware River, making the current park areas along the Schuylkill River an ideal refuge from epidemics during the summer months.[1][2] The mansions were built between 1719 (Ridgeland) and 1810 (Rockland), in various architectural styles including Colonial Revival, Federal, Georgian, Gothic Revival, Greek Revival, and Palladian, with some in combinations of those styles.

There are 19 extant historic houses of which 16 were constructed within the current boundaries of Fairmount Park, while three of the houses were moved to the park from elsewhere in the city—Cedar Grove Mansion from Frankford, Hatfield House from Nicetown, and Letitia Street House from Old City. All of the 19 houses were designed and used as private residences. The Cliffs Mansion, located in east park, has been left in ruins since a 1986 fire caused by arson. Other historic houses were demolished due to extensive deterioration, vandalism, fire damage or insufficient funds for restoration. Demolished houses are not included in this list.

Three additional historic park buildings were designed like residential houses though they were never intended to be used as private residences: the Ohio House—built by the Ohio delegation for the Centennial Exposition; the Shofuso Japanese House—built in Japan as a museum exhibit for display at MoMA, then relocated to Fairmount Park; and the Smith Memorial Playhouse—designed, and still used, as an indoor play area for children.

This list does not include the historic boathouses on Boathouse Row which were designed as sporting clubhouses rather than residential homes. The historic houses within the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park are also not included though that park was previously within the Fairmount Park system. Since 2010, all park areas and facilities are administered separately after the merger of the Fairmount Park Commission and the Department of Recreation into the new Philadelphia Parks & Recreation department.[3]

The Fairmount Park Conservancy's Historic Preservation Trust, in collaboration with the city of Philadelphia, offers long-term leasing of some historic houses to civic organizations and businesses.[4] The lessees must commit to rehabilitate and maintain the buildings, without altering their historic architectural features, while allowing public access. The trust offers assistance to prospective lessees in assessing feasibility, identifying financial incentives, and managing rehabilitation and maintenance work.[5]

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Note: the general Fairmount Park National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) listing date of February 7, 1972 is entered for all sites with no individual designation record; ~ is entered for Style and Architect when unknown.

Image Name Years
(*circa)
Park
district
Location[6] Adjacent
neighborhood[7]
NRHP[8][9] Style Architect Notes Refs
A563, Belmont Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Belmont Mansion 1742–45* west park, central 2000 Belmont Mansion Dr
39°59′27″N 75°12′47″W / 39.9909°N 75.2131°W / 39.9909; -75.2131 (Belmont Mansion)
Wynnefield 1972-02-07 Palladian William Peters (owner) museum; events[n 1] [10]
A598, Boelson Cottage, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2018.jpg
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Boelson Cottage 1678–84 west park, central 2110 Martin Luther King Jr. Dr
39°59′23″N 75°12′11″W / 39.9896°N 75.2030°W / 39.9896; -75.2030 (Boelson Cottage)
Wynnefield 1972-02-07 Dutch, Swedish ~ offices[n 2] [11][12]
A566, Cedar Grove Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Cedar Grove Mansion 1748–50 west park, south 1 Cedar Grove Dr
39°58′45″N 75°12′16″W / 39.9792°N 75.2044°W / 39.9792; -75.2044 (Cedar Grove Mansion)
Parkside 1972-02-07 Federal ~ tours[n 3] [13][14]
A567, Chamounix Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Chamounix Mansion 1802, 1853* west park, north 3250 Chamounix Dr
40°00′14″N 75°11′47″W / 40.0038°N 75.1963°W / 40.0038; -75.1963 (Chamounix Mansion)
Wynnefield Heights 1972-04-26[15] Federal ~ youth hostel[n 4] [16]
A564, The Cliffs Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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The Cliffs Mansion 1753 east park, south 3400 Reservoir Dr
39°58′46″N 75°11′39″W / 39.9794°N 75.1941°W / 39.9794; -75.1941 (The Cliffs Mansion)
Brewerytown 1972-03-16[17] Georgian ~ ruins[n 5] [1][18]
A585, Hatfield House, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Hatfield House 1760*, 1838*, 1850* east park, south 3201 W Girard Ave
39°58′33″N 75°11′18″W / 39.9759°N 75.18833°W / 39.9759; -75.18833 (Hatfield House)
Brewerytown 1972-03-16[19] Colonial Revival, Greek Revival ~ access unknown[n 6] [20]
A569, Laurel Hill Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Laurel Hill Mansion 1767*, 1800*, 1846 east park, north 7201 Edgeley Dr
39°59′29″N 75°11′42″W / 39.9914°N 75.19497°W / 39.9914; -75.19497 (Laurel Hill Mansion)
Strawberry Mansion 1972-03-24[21] Georgian, Federal ~ tours; events[n 7] [22]
A586, Lemon Hill Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Lemon Hill Mansion 1800* east park, south 1 Lemon Hill Dr
39°58′15″N 75°11′14″W / 39.9707°N 75.1872°W / 39.9707; -75.1872 (Lemon Hill Mansion)
Fairmount 1972-02-07 Federal Henry Pratt (owner) tours[n 8] [23][24]
A601, Letitia Street House, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2018.jpg
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Letitia Street House 1713* west park, south 3401 Girard Ave
39°58′31″N 75°11′49″W / 39.9754°N 75.196946°W / 39.9754; -75.196946 (Letitia Street House)
Parkside 1972-02-07 Georgian ~ access unknown[n 9] [25][26][27]
A599, The Lilacs House, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2018.jpg
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The Lilacs House 1711*, 1832 west park, north 3600 Greenland Dr
39°59′55″N 75°11′47″W / 39.9987°N 75.1965°W / 39.9987; -75.1965 (Lilacs House)
Wynnefield Heights 1972-02-07 ~ ~ access unknown[n 10] [11]
A572, Mount Pleasant Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Mount Pleasant Mansion 1761–65*[28] east park, central 3800 Mount Pleasant Dr
39°59′00″N 75°11′59″W / 39.9834°N 75.1998°W / 39.9834; -75.1998 (Mount Pleasant Mansion)
Strawberry Mansion 1966-10-15[29] Georgian Thomas Nevell, apprentice of Edmund Woolley NHL; tours[n 11] [30]
A573, Ohio House, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Ohio House 1876 west park, central 1700 Belmont Ave
39°59′06″N 75°12′58″W / 39.9850°N 75.2162°W / 39.9850; -75.2162 (Ohio House)
Wynnefield 1972-02-07 Gothic Revival ~ cafe[n 12] [31][32][33]
A587, Ormiston Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Ormiston Mansion 1798 east park, central 2000 Reservoir Dr
39°59′19″N 75°11′47″W / 39.9887°N 75.1963°W / 39.9887; -75.1963 (Ormiston Mansion)
Strawberry Mansion 1972-02-07 Georgian Edward Burd (owner) occasional tours/events[n 13] [34]
A576, Ridgeland Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Ridgeland Mansion 1719, 1752–62* west park, north 4100 Chamounix Dr
39°59′33″N 75°12′37″W / 39.9926°N 75.2102°W / 39.9926; -75.2102 (Ridgeland Mansion)
Wynnefield Heights 1972-02-07 Federal ~ events[n 14] [35][36][37]
A577, Rockland Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Rockland Mansion 1810* east park, central 3810 Mount Pleasant Dr
39°59′09″N 75°11′59″W / 39.9858°N 75.1998°W / 39.9858; -75.1998 (Rockland Mansion)
Strawberry Mansion 1972-02-07 Federal ~ offices[n 15] [38][39]
A588, Porters House, Sedgeley Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Sedgeley Porter's House 1799–1802 east park, south 3250 Sedgeley Dr
39°58′28″N 75°11′20″W / 39.9745°N 75.1889°W / 39.9745; -75.1889 (Sedgeley Porter's House)
Fairmount 1972-02-07 Gothic Revival Benjamin Henry Latrobe Outward Bound[n 16] [40]
A579, Shofuso Japanese House and Garden, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Shofuso Japanese House 1953 west park, south 4301 Lansdowne Dr
39°58′53″N 75°12′46″W / 39.9814°N 75.2129°W / 39.9814; -75.2129 (Shofuso Japanese House)
Parkside 1972-02-07 Shoin-zukuri Junzō Yoshimura tours[n 17] [41]
A589, Smith Memorial Playhouse, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Smith Memorial Playhouse 1897–99 east park, central 3500 Reservoir Dr
39°58′54″N 75°11′44″W / 39.9817°N 75.1956°W / 39.9817; -75.1956 (Smith Memorial Playhouse)
Strawberry Mansion ~ ~ James H. Windrim indoor play area[n 18] [42][43][44]
THE SOLITUDE, PHILADELPHIA, PA.jpg
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The Solitude Mansion 1784–85 west park, south 3400 W Girard Ave
39°58′21″N 75°11′44″W / 39.9726°N 75.1955°W / 39.9726; -75.1955 (The Solitude Mansion)
Parkside 1972-02-07 Federal John Penn (owner) in the zoo[n 19] [45][46][47]
A581, Strawberry Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Strawberry Mansion 1783–89*, 1828* east park, north 2450 Strawberry Mansion Dr
39°59′39″N 75°11′26″W / 39.9943°N 75.1906°W / 39.9943; -75.1906 (Strawberry Mansion)
Strawberry Mansion 1972-02-07 Federal, Greek Revival ~ tours; events[n 20] [48]
A582, Sweetbriar Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Sweetbriar Mansion 1797 west park, south 3801 Lansdowne Dr
39°58′37″N 75°12′03″W / 39.9770°N 75.2009°W / 39.9770; -75.2009 (Sweetbriar Mansion)
Parkside 1972-02-07 Federal ~ closed[n 21] [2][50]
A583, Woodford Mansion, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 2017.jpg
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Woodford Mansion 1756–58, 1771–72*, 1790* east park, north 3400 Woodford Dr
39°59′36″N 75°11′16″W / 39.9932°N 75.1877°W / 39.9932; -75.1877 (Woodford Mansion)
Strawberry Mansion 1967-12-24[51] Georgian, Palladian ~ NHL; tours[n 22] [52]

See alsoEdit

  Media related to Houses in Fairmount Park at Wikimedia Commons

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Belmont: reopened in 2007 as The Underground Railroad Museum at Belmont Mansion after extensive renovations
  2. ^ Boelson Cottage: a.k.a. John Boelson House, among many alternatives; oldest extant house in the park; renovated 1989–90
  3. ^ Cedar Grove: moved from Frankford, 1926–28; administered by the Philadelphia Museum of Art
  4. ^ Chamounix: nearly doubled in size, c.1853; appropriated by the state for public use, 1867; nearly demolished after a fire; operated as a youth hostel since 1964
  5. ^ The Cliffs: home of Joshua Fisher, the great-grandfather of Joseph Wharton; left as a ruins since a 1986 fire caused by arson; covered by graffiti
  6. ^ Hatfield: enlarged and remodeled, 1838; porches added, 1850; moved from Hunting Park Ave near Pulaski Ave in Nicetown, 1930
  7. ^ Laurel Hill: once owned by Philip Syng Physick, whose daughter inherited it and named it the Randolph House; renamed Laurel Hill Mansion in 1976; additions in c.1800, 1846; maintained by the nonprofit Women for Greater Philadelphia
  8. ^ Lemon Hill: Henry Pratt's summer home on land acquired from Robert Morris, including gardens and a greenhouse with lemon trees; maintained as a house museum by the Colonial Dames of America and the Friends of Lemon Hill
  9. ^ Letitia Street House: moved from Letitia St. in Old City, 1883; was promoted as a home of William Penn until the claim was disproved; restored by the city and leased by the Centennial Parkside Community Development Corporation
  10. ^ The Lilacs House: a.k.a. The Lilacs, and Lilac House; named for the many lilac bushes found there; farmhouse of Morten Garret; built in two main sections: a southern section c.1711, and a northern section in 1832; a halfway house for juveniles in the 1990s; currently leased by Outward Bound
  11. ^ Mount Pleasant: built for a Scottish privateer; later owners included Benedict Arnold and Jonathan Williams, a grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin; administered by the Philadelphia Museum of Art; being renovated
  12. ^ Ohio House: a.k.a. Ohio State Building; built from various Ohio sandstones for the Centennial Exposition—the only extant state exhibit; has functioned as a cafe, event venue and offices
  13. ^ Ormiston: named for the Scottish estate of the owner's grandfather, Colonel James Burd; maintained by the Royal Heritage Society of the Delaware Valley; ongoing restoration
  14. ^ Ridgeland: possibly the oldest extant mansion-sized house in the park; maintained by the Cancer Support Community of Greater Philadelphia (lessee) and the Fairmount Park Conservancy's Historic Preservation Trust
  15. ^ Rockland: restored and maintained by Psychoanalytic Center of Philadelphia (lessee) and the Fairmount Park Conservancy's Historic Preservation Trust
  16. ^ Sedgeley Porter's House: expanded from both ends at an unknown date using different color and pattern of stonework; maintained by Outward Bound (lessee) and the Fairmount Park Conservancy's Historic Preservation Trust
  17. ^ Shofuso: house was built in Japan, exhibited in New York, then moved to Fairmount Park in 1958; maintained by the Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia
  18. ^ Smith Memorial Playhouse: maintained by a nonprofit called Smith Memorial Playgrounds since 2004 when the original Smith trust's interest became insufficient for daily operations; used as a public indoor play area for young children
  19. ^ The Solitude: home of John Penn, a grandson of William Penn; located inside the Philadelphia Zoo; maintained by the zoo
  20. ^ Strawberry: William Lewis's Summerville Mansion; Greek Revival wings added by Joseph Hemphill, c.1828; name changed when strawberries were sold by renting farmers, 1846–67; maintained by a nonprofit called The Committee of 1926
  21. ^ Sweetbriar: built for Samuel Breck; named for the roses that grew there; restored by the Junior League, 1932; restored by the city, 1976; maintained by the Modern Club, 1939–2014; currently closed, awaiting a new lessee tenant[49]
  22. ^ Woodford: home of William Coleman, a close friend of Benjamin Franklin; 2nd floor added c.1771–72; kitchen wing added c.1790; other owners included David Franks and Isaac Wharton, a son of Joseph (b.1707); maintained by the Naomi Wood Trust

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "The Cliffs: Fairmount Park Ruins with a Link to Joseph Wharton". (archive) by Steven Ujifusa. phillyhistory.org. City of Philadelphia. November 9, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2017. "The Cliffs was...an informal retreat where the Fishers escaped the city's miserable, disease-ridden summers."
  2. ^ a b "History Of Sweetbriar Mansion". (archive) fairmountparkhistoricsites.org. The Fairmount Park Council for Historic Sites. Retrieved November 5, 2017. "Samuel Breck...built Sweetbriar Mansion in 1797 to escape the Yellow Fever epidemic."
  3. ^ "Parks & Recreation Department History". (archive) phila.gov. The City of Philadelphia. Retrieved November 5, 2017. "The Fairmount Park Commission, created in 1867, and the Philadelphia Department of Recreation, created in 1951...officially merged on July 1, 2010."
  4. ^ "History of the Fairmount Park Conservancy and the Fairmount Park Historic Preservation Trust". (archive) myphillypark.org. Fairmount Park Conservancy. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
  5. ^ "Leasing Program". (archive) fairmountparktrust.org. Fairmount Park Historic Preservation Trust. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  6. ^ "Philadelphia Register of Historic Places". (archive) phila.gov. Philadelphia Historical Commission. August 25, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  7. ^ "The Political and Community Service Boundaries of Philadelphia"(archive). page 45. philaplanning.org. Philadelphia City Planning Commission. June 2004. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  8. ^ "National Register Information System – Fairmount Park (#72001151)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  9. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form". (archive) by George B. Tatum of the Philadelphia Historical Commission. dot7.state.pa.us. National Park Service document via the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Cultural Resources Geographic Information System, the Department of Transportation website and the records of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. January 11, 1972. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  10. ^ "Belmont Mansion history". (archive) belmontmansion.org. American Women's Heritage Society. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  11. ^ a b "Fairmount Park Trail Master Plan". issuu.com. Andropogon Associates, Ltd (for the Fairmount Park Commission). December 31, 2000. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  12. ^ "Boelsen Cottage, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania". (archive) loc.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved November 5, 2017. "Note: this National Park Service source lists many name alternatives and differs in three ways from the Fairmount Park Commission's report (the primary source listed in this column and probably the more accurate one): by spelling of last name (Boelsen, rather than Boelson), year of construction (c.1800, rather than 1678–84), and use of the house (possible servant's quarters for Belmont Mansion, instead of the personal home of its owner)."
  13. ^ "Historic Houses - Cedar Grove". (archive) philamuseum.org. Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  14. ^ "Cedar Grove - Written Historical and Descriptive Data Photographs". (archive) loc.gov. Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  15. ^ "National Register Information System – Chamounix Mansion (#72001146)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  16. ^ "A brief history of Chamounix Mansion". (archive) philahostel.org. Hostelling International. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  17. ^ "National Register Information System – The Cliffs (#72001147)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  18. ^ "Colonial Ruins On The 12th Hole". (archive) by Bradley Maule. hiddencityphila.org. Hidden City Philadelphia. September 3, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  19. ^ "National Register Information System – Hatfield House (#72001157)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  20. ^ "Hatfield House Project Chronology". (archive) philadelphiabuildings.org. The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  21. ^ "National Register Information System – Randolph House (original name) (#72001169)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  22. ^ "Property History and Architecture of House". (archive) laurelhillmansion.org. Women for Greater Philadelphia Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  23. ^ "200 Years of Splendor in Fairmount Park" (archive). lemonhill.org. Colonial Dames of America and the Friends of Lemon Hill. June 14, 2005. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  24. ^ "Lemon Hill & Its Gardens". (archive) by Martha Halpern. antiquesandfineart.com. Antiques and Fine Art. June 2005. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  25. ^ "Milestones in Philadelphia Historic Preservation: Letitia Street House". (archive) page 3. preservationalliance.com. Preservation Alliance for Greater Philadelphia. Preservation Matters (newsletter). Winter 2010 edition. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  26. ^ "Philly’s oldest historic buildings, mapped". (archive) by Melissa Romero. philly.curbed.com. May 31, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  27. ^ "Letitia House to become Centennial Parkside CDC’s headquarters". (archive) by Catalina Jaramillo. November 15, 2016. planphilly.com. WHYY News. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  28. ^ Note: the NRHP record lists 1761–62 while the Art Museum webpage states 1762–65
  29. ^ "National Register Information System – Mount Pleasant Mansion (#66000685)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  30. ^ "Historic Houses - Mount Pleasant". (archive) philamuseum.org. Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  31. ^ "Ohio House". (archive) fairmountparktrust.org. Fairmount Park Historic Preservation Trust. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  32. ^ "The Ohio House - The Fairmount Park Historic District - Philadelphia, PA". (archive) waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. August 5, 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  33. ^ "The Centennial Exposition : described and illustrated". by J.S. Ingram. archive.org. pages 637-38. Hubbard Brothers, Philadelphia. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  34. ^ "History of Ormiston". (archive) ormistonrhs.org. Royal Heritage Society of the Delaware Valley. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  35. ^ "Leasing Success Story: Ridgeland". (archive) fairmountparktrust.org. Fairmount Park Historic Preservation Trust. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  36. ^ "Ridgeland Rentals". (archive) cancersupportphiladelphia.org. Cancer Support Community of Greater Philadelphia. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  37. ^ "Ridgeland (Mount Prospect)". (archive) loc.gov. Historic American Buildings Survey. Library of Congress. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
  38. ^ "Rockland, Mount Pleasant Drive, Fairmount Park". (archive) Library of Congress. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  39. ^ "Rockland Mansion and Fairmount Park". (archive) pcph.memberclicks.net. Psychoanalytic Center of Philadelphia. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  40. ^ "Sedgeley (Porter's House)" (archive). fairmountpark.org. Philadelphia Parks & Recreation. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  41. ^ "Shofuso Japanese House and Garden". (archive) japanesehouse.org. Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  42. ^ "Smith’s History". (archive) smithplayground.org. Smith Memorial Playground & Playhouse Inc.. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  43. ^ "Preservation is Child's Play at Smith Memorial Playground & Playhouse". (archive) by Nick Totten. savingplaces.org. National Trust for Historic Preservation. October 27, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  44. ^ "Smith Memorial Playgrounds in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (PA)". (archive) nonprofitfacts.com. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  45. ^ "The Solitude House" (archive). philadelphiazoo.org. Philadelphia Zoo. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  46. ^ "John Penn" (archive). philadelphiazoo.org. Philadelphia Zoo. Retrieved November 5, 2017. "John may have been his own architect; preliminary plans for the house were sketched in his hand."
  47. ^ "Solitude, also known as: John Penn House; Philadelphia Zoological Gardens Offices (1874)" (archive). philadelphiabuildings.org. The Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Project, the Athenaeum of Philadelphia website. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  48. ^ "Historic Strawberry Mansion Timeline". (archive) historicstrawberrymansion.org. The Committee of 1926. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  49. ^ Emily Babay (October 19, 2015). "The mansions of Fairmount Park: Historic houses have rich pasts and new uses". philly.com. Philadelphia Media Network (Digital), LLC. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  50. ^ "Who built Sweetbriar Mansion in 1797?". (archive) hsp.org. Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  51. ^ "National Register Information System – Woodford Mansion (#67000021)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  52. ^ "Woodford Mansion". (archive) woodfordmansion.org. The Naomi Wood Trust. Retrieved November 5, 2017.

External linksEdit