Open main menu

Wikipedia β

List of Christian heresies

  (Redirected from List of heresies in Catholicism)

Heresy is a belief or opinion contrary to orthodox Christian doctrine, or beliefs and teachings. It is: "Anything that denies or mischaracterizes either the person or the works of Jesus Christ."[1] Heresy has been a concern in Christian communities at least since the writing of the Second Epistle of Peter: "even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them" (2 Peter 2:1). While in the first two or three centuries of the early Church heresy and schism were not clearly distinguished and a similar overlapping occurred in medieval scholastic thought, heresy is understood today to mean the denial of revealed truth as taught by the Church.[2] Nineteenth-century theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher defined it as "that which preserved the appearance of Christianity, and yet contradicted its essence".[3]

The Catholic Church makes a distinction between 'material' and 'formal' heresy. Material heresy means in effect "holding erroneous doctrines through no fault of one's own" as occurs with people brought up in non-Catholic communities and "is neither a crime nor a sin" since the individual has never accepted the doctrine.[2] Formal heresy is "the wilful and persistent adherence to an error in matters of faith" on the part of a baptised member of the Catholic Church. As such it is a grave sin and involves ipso facto excommunication. Here "matters of faith" means dogmas which have been proposed by the infallible magisterium of the Church[4] and, in addition to this intellectual error, "pertinacity in the will" in maintaining it in opposition to the teaching of the Church must be present.[5]

While individual branches of the Protestant Church have also used the concept in proceedings against individuals and groups deemed to be heretical by those branches, the lack of a central doctrinal authority has meant that beliefs can often not be unanimously considered heretical from the Protestant perspective. Likewise the Eastern Orthodox Church officially declares a heresy only at an ecumenical council, and currently only accepts the first seven Ecumenical Councils as ecumenical.

Orthodox Christian doctrine, or teachings, were formulated over time in response to many different heresies as they appeared and which posed a threat to Christian communities. The first seven ecumenical councils - the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 - resulted in developing an orthodox consensus and catholic, or unified and universal, Christendom.[6]

Orthodox Christian doctrine formulated the Nicaean Creed in 325 A.D.[7] and further developed that in the First Council of Constantinople 381 A.D. The Nicean Creed, this statement of orthodox faith, coupled with a church catechism or confession, constitutes the body of orthodox belief. Those, who reject or deviate from orthodox faith, are heretics. The term for those heretics, who refuse sound doctrine, is apostate.

The following listing contains those opinions which were either explicitly condemned by Chalcedonian Christianity before 1054 or are of later origin but similar. Details of some modern opinions deemed to be heretical by the Catholic Church are listed in an appendix. All lists are in alphabetical order.


Early ChristianityEdit

Traditionally, orthodoxy and heresy have been viewed in relation to the "orthodoxy" as an authentic lineage of tradition. Other forms of Christianity were viewed as deviant streams of thought and therefore "heterodox", or heretical. This view was dominant until the publication of Walter Bauer's Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum ("Orthodoxy and heresy in ancient Christianity") in 1934. Bauer endeavored to rethink early Christianity historically, independent from the views of the church. He argued that originally unity was based on a common relationship with the same Lord rather than on formally defined doctrines and that a wide variety of views was tolerated. With time, some of these views were seen as inadequate. He went on to attribute the definition of "orthodoxy" to the increasing power and influence of the Church of Rome. In 1959, Henry Chadwick argued that all Christian communities were linked by the foundational events which occurred in Jerusalem and continued to be of defining importance in the forging of doctrinal orthodoxy.[8] Alister MacGrath comments that historically Chadwick's account appears to be much the more plausible.[8]

For convenience the heresies which arose in this period have been divided into three groups: Trinitarian/Christological; Gnostic; and other heresies.

Trinitarian/Christological heresiesEdit

The term Christology has two meanings in theology. It can be used in the narrow sense of the question as to how the divine and human are related in the person of Jesus Christ, or alternatively of the overall study of his life and work.[9] Here it is used in the restricted, narrow sense.

The orthodox teaching concerning the Trinity, as finally developed and formally agreed at Constantinople in 381,[10] is that God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit were all strictly one being in three hypostases, misleadingly translated as "persons".[11] The christological question then arose as to how Jesus Christ could be both divine and human. This was formally resolved after much debate by the Ecumenical Councils of 431, 451 and 680 (Ephesus, Chalcedon & Constantinople III).

Trinitarian/Christological heresies
Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Adoptionism Belief that Jesus was born as a mere (non-divine) man, was supremely virtuous and that he was adopted later as "Son of God" by the descent of the Spirit on him. Propounded by Theodotus of Byzantium, a leather merchant, in Rome c.190, later revived by Paul of Samosata Theodotus was excommunicated by Pope Victor and Paul was condemned by the Synod of Antioch in 268 Alternative names: Psilanthropism and Dynamic Monarchianism.[12] Later criticized as presupposing Nestorianism (see below)
Apollinarism Belief that Jesus had a human body and lower soul (the seat of the emotions) but a divine mind. Apollinaris further taught that the souls of men were propagated by other souls, as well as their bodies. Proposed by Apollinaris of Laodicea (died 390) Declared to be a heresy in 381 by the First Council of Constantinople
Arabici Belief that the soul perished with the body, and that both would be revived on Judgement Day.[13] Founder unknown, but associated with 3rd-century Christians from Arabia. Reconciled to the main body of the Church after a council in 250 led by Origen.
Arianism Denial of the true divinity of Jesus Christ taking various specific forms, but all agreed that Jesus Christ was created by the Father, that he had a beginning in time, and that the title "Son of God" was a courtesy one.[14] The doctrine is associated with Arius (c. AD 250–336) who lived and taught in Alexandria, Egypt. Arius was first pronounced a heretic at the First Council of Nicea, he was later exonerated as a result of imperial pressure and finally declared a heretic after his death. The heresy was finally resolved in 381 by the First Council of Constantinople. All forms denied that Jesus Christ is "consubstantial with the Father" but proposed either "similar in substance", or "similar", or "dissimilar" as the correct alternative.
Docetism Belief that Jesus' physical body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion; that is, Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not physically die. Tendencies existed in the 1st century, but it was most notably embraced by Gnostics in subsequent centuries. Docetism was rejected by the ecumenical councils and mainstream Christianity, and largely died out during the first millennium AD. Gnostic movements that survived past that time, such as Catharism, incorporated docetism into their beliefs, but such movements were destroyed by the Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229).
Luciferians Strongly anti-Arian sect in Sardinia Founded by Lucifer Calaritanus a bishop of Cagliari Deemed heretical by Jerome in his Altercatio Luciferiani et orthodoxi
Macedonians or Pneumatomachians ("Spirit fighters") While accepting the divinity of Jesus Christ as affirmed at Nicea in 325, they denied that of the Holy Spirit which they saw as a creation of the Son, and a servant of the Father and the Son. Allegedly founded in the 4th century by Bishop Macedonius I of Constantinople, Eustathius of Sebaste was their principal theologian.[15] Opposed by the Cappadocian Fathers and condemned at the First Council of Constantinople. This is what prompted the addition of "And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceedeth from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son is equally worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets", into the Nicene Creed at the second ecumenical council.
Melchisedechians Considered Melchisedech an incarnation of the Logos (divine Word) and identified him with the Holy Ghost. Refuted by Marcus Eremita in his book Eis ton Melchisedek ("Against the Melchisedekites")[16] It is uncertain whether the sect survived beyond the 9th century. They were probably scattered across Anatolia and the Balkans following the destruction of Tephrike.
Monarchianism An overemphasis on the indivisibility of God (the Father) at the expense of the other "persons" of the Trinity leading to either Sabellianism (Modalism) or to Adoptionism. Stressing the "monarchy" of God was in Eastern theology a legitimate way of affirming his oneness, also the Father as the unique source of divinity. It became heretical when pushed to the extremes indicated.
Monophysitism or Eutychianism Belief that Christ's divinity dominates and overwhelms his humanity, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human or the Miaphysite position which holds that the human nature and pre-incarnate divine nature of Christ were united as one divine human nature from the point of the Incarnation onwards. After Nestorianism was rejected at the First Council of Ephesus, Eutyches emerged with diametrically opposite views. Eutyches was excommunicated in 448. Monophysitism and Eutyches were rejected at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Monophysitism is also rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches
Monothelitism Belief that Jesus Christ had two natures but only one will. This is contrary to the orthodox interpretation of Christology, which teaches that Jesus Christ has two wills (human and divine) corresponding to his two natures Originated in Armenia and Syria in AD 633 Monothelitism was officially condemned at the Third Council of Constantinople (the Sixth Ecumenical Council, 680–681). The churches condemned at Constantinople include the Oriental Orthodox Syriac, Armenian, and Coptic churches as well as the Maronite church, although the latter now deny that they ever held the Monothelite view and are presently in full communion with the Bishop of Rome. Christians in England rejected the Monothelite position at the Council of Hatfield in 680.
Nestorianism Belief that Jesus Christ was a natural union between the Flesh and the Word, thus not identical, to the divine Son of God. Advanced by Nestorius (386–450), Patriarch of Constantinople from 428–431. The doctrine was informed by Nestorius' studies under Theodore of Mopsuestia at the School of Antioch. Condemned at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451, leading to the Nestorian Schism. Nestorius rejected the title Theotokos for the Virgin Mary, and proposed Christotokos as more suitable. Many of Nestorius' supporters relocated to Sassanid Persia, where they affiliated with the local Christian community, known as the Church of the East. Over the next decades the Church of the East became increasingly Nestorian in doctrine, leading it to be known alternately as the Nestorian Church.
Patripassianism Belief that the Father and Son are not two distinct persons, and thus God the Father suffered on the cross as Jesus. similar to Sabellianism
Psilanthropism Belief that Jesus is "merely human": either that he never became divine, or that he never existed prior to his incarnation as a man. Rejected by the ecumenical councils, especially in the First Council of Nicaea, which was convened to deal directly with the nature of Christ's divinity. See Adoptionism
Sabellianism Belief that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are three characterizations of one God, rather than three distinct "persons" in one God. First formally stated by Noetus of Smyrna c. 190, refined by Sabellius c. 210 who applied the names merely to different roles of God in the history and economy of salvation. Noetus was condemned by the presbyters of Smyrna. Tertullian wrote Adversus Praxeam against this tendency and Sabellius was condemned by Pope Callistus. Alternative names: Patripassianism, Modalism, Modalistic Monarchianism


Gnosticism refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect god, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. Gnosticism is a rejection (sometimes from an ascetic perspective) and vilification of the human body and of the material world or cosmos. Gnosticism teaches duality in Material (Matter) versus Spiritual or Body (evil) versus Soul (good). Gnosticism teaches that the natural or material world will and should be destroyed (total annihilation) by the true spiritual God in order to free mankind from the reign of the false God or Demiurge.

A common misperception is caused by the fact that, in the past, "Gnostic" had a similar meaning to current usage of the word mystic. There were some Orthodox Christians who as mystics (in the modern sense) taught gnosis (Knowledge of the God or the Good) who could be called gnostics in a positive sense (e.g. Diadochos of Photiki).

Whereas formerly Gnosticism was considered mostly a corruption of Christianity, it now seems clear that traces of Gnostic systems can be discerned some centuries before the Christian Era.[17] Gnosticism may have been earlier than the 1st century, thus predating Jesus Christ.[18] It spread through the Mediterranean and Middle East before and during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, becoming a dualistic heresy to Judaism (see Notzrim), Christianity and Hellenic philosophy in areas controlled by the Roman Empire and Arian Goths (see Huneric), and the Persian Empire. Conversion to Islam and the Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229) greatly reduced the remaining number of Gnostics throughout the Middle Ages, though a few isolated communities continue to exist to the present. Gnostic ideas became influential in the philosophies of various esoteric mystical movements of the late 19th and 20th centuries in Europe and North America, including some that explicitly identify themselves as revivals or even continuations of earlier gnostic groups.

Gnostic heresies
Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Manichaeism A major dualistic religion stating that good and evil are equally powerful, and that material things are evil. Founded in 210–276 AD by Mani Condemned by Emperor Theodosius I decree in 382 Thrived between the 3rd and 7th centuries and appears to have died out before the 16th century in southern China.
Paulicianism A Gnostic and dualistic sect The founder of the sect is said to have been an Armenian by the name of Constantine,[19] who hailed from Mananalis, a community near Samosata. Repressed by order of Empress Theodora II in 843
Priscillianism A Gnostic and Manichaean sect Founded in the 4th century by Priscillian, derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus. Priscillian was put to death by the emperor Gratian for the crime of magic. Condemned by synod of Zaragoza in 380. Increased during the 5th century despite efforts to stop it. In the 6th century, Priscillianism declined and died out soon after the Synod of Braga in 563.
Naassenes A Gnostic sect from around 100 AD The Naassenes claimed to have been taught their doctrines by Mariamne, a disciple of James the Just.[20] Dealt as heresy by Hippolytus of Rome
Sethian Belief that the snake in the Garden of Eden (Satan) was an agent of the true God and brought knowledge of truth to man via the fall of man Syrian sect drawing their origin from the Ophites Dealt as heresy by Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Philaster Sect is founded around the Apocalypse of Adam.
Ophites Belief that the serpent (Satan) who tempted Adam and Eve was a hero, and that the God who forbade Adam and Eve to eat from the tree of knowledge is the enemy. Dealt as heresy by Hippolytus of Rome
Valentianism A Gnostic and dualistic sect Gnostic sect was founded by Ex-Catholic Bishop Valentinus Considered heresy by Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis

Other Early Church heresiesEdit

Other Christian heresies
Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Antinomianism Any view which holds that Christians are freed by grace from obligations of any moral law. St Paul had to refute a charge of this type made by opponents because of his attitude to the Mosaic Law (Romans 3:8)[21] Some gnostics (e.g. Ophites and Nicolaitans) taught that since matter was opposed to the spirit, the body was unimportant. Similar views were found among some anabaptists in the sixteenth century as a consequence of justification by faith and later among some sects in seventeenth century England. Decree on Justification, chapter XV Council of Trent Few groups[who?] have declared themselves Antinomian, and the term has often been used by one group to criticize another's views.
Audianism Belief that God has human form (anthropomorphism) and that one ought to celebrate Jesus' death during the Jewish Passover (quartodecimanism). Named after the leader of the sect, Audius (or Audaeus), a Syrian who lived in the 4th century. The First Council of Nicaea condemned quartodecimanism in 325. Cyril of Alexandria condemned anthropomorphism at his Adversus Anthropomorphites
Barallot Held all things in common, even wives and children Were also called "compilers" due to their love of sensual pleasures
Circumcellions A militant subset of Donatism* See Donatism Outlawed by Emperor Honorius in 408 Relied on violence.
Donatism* Donatists were rigorists, holding that the church must be a church of saints, not sinners, and that sacraments administered by traditores were invalid. They also regarded martyrdom as the supreme Christian virtue and regarded those that actively sought martyrdom as saints. Named for their second leader Donatus Magnus Condemned by Pope Melchiades Donatists were a force at the time of Saint Augustine of Hippo and disappeared only after the Arab conquest.[22]
Ebionites A Jewish sect that insisted on the necessity of following Jewish law and rites,[23] which they interpreted in light of Jesus' expounding of the Law.[24] They regarded Jesus as the Messiah but not as divine. The term Ebionites derives from the Hebrew אביונים Evionim, meaning "the Poor Ones",[25][26] Justin Martyr considered them heretical at Dialogue with Trypho the Jew chapter xlvii In 375, Epiphanius records the settlement of Ebionites on Cyprus, later Theodoret of Cyrrhus reported that they were no longer present there.[27]
Euchites / Messalians Belief that:
  1. The essence (ousia) of the Trinity could be perceived by the carnal senses.
  2. The Threefold God transformed himself into a single hypostasis (substance) in order to unite with the souls of the perfect.
  3. God has taken different forms in order to reveal himself to the senses.
  4. Only such sensible revelations of God confer perfection upon the Christian.
  5. The state of perfection, freedom from the world and passion, is attained solely by prayer, not through the church or sacraments. ("Euchites" means "Those who pray")
Originating in Mesopotamia, they spread to Asia Minor and Thrace. Bishop Flavian of Antioch condemned them about 376 The group might have continued for several centuries, influencing the Bogomils of Bulgaria, the Bosnian church, the Paterenes and Catharism.[28]
Iconoclasm The belief that icons are idols and should be destroyed.[29] From late in the seventh century onwards some parts of the Greek Church reacted against the veneration of icons. In 726 the Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of all icons and persecuted those who refused. The policy continued under his successors till about 780. Later Leo V launched a second attempt which continued till the death of the emperor Theophilus in 842 Condemned by Nicea II in 787 which regulated the veneration Leo III may have been motivated by the belief that the veneration of icons, particularly in the excessive form it often took, was the chief obstacle to the conversion of Jews and Muslims
Marcionism An Early Christian dualist belief system. Marcion affirmed Jesus Christ as the savior sent by God and Paul as his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the Hebrew God. Marcionists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving God of the New Testament. This belief was in some ways similar to Gnostic Christian theology, but in other ways different. Originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144.[30] Many early apologists, such as Tertullian on his Adversus Marcionem (year 207) condemned Marcionism Marcionism continued in the West for 300 years, although Marcionistic ideas persisted much longer.[31] Marcionism continued in the East for some centuries later.
Montanism The beliefs of Montanism contrasted with orthodox Christianity in the following ways:
  • The belief that the prophecies of the Montanists superseded and fulfilled the doctrines proclaimed by the Apostles.
  • The encouragement of ecstatic prophesying.
  • The view that Christians who fell from grace could not be redeemed.
  • A stronger emphasis on the avoidance of sin and church discipline, emphasizing chastity, including forbidding remarriage.
  • Some of the Montanists were also "Quartodeciman".[32]
Named for its founder Montanus, Montanism originated at Hierapolis. It spread rapidly to other regions in the Roman Empire during the period before Christianity was generally tolerated or legal. The churches of Asia Minor excommunicated Montanists.[33] Around 177, Apollinarius, Bishop of Hierapolis, presided over a synod which condemned the New Prophecy.[34] The leaders of the churches of Lyon and Vienne in Gaul responded to the New Prophecy in 177 Although the orthodox mainstream Christian church prevailed against Montanism within a few generations, labeling it a heresy, the sect persisted in some isolated places into the 8th century.
Pelagianism Belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. Named after Pelagius (354–420/440). The theology was later developed by C(a)elestius and Julian of Eclanum into a complete system.[35] and refuted by Augustine of Hippo (who had for a time (385–395) held similar opinions[36]) but his final position never gained general acceptance in the East. Pelagianism was attacked in the Council of Diospolis[37] and condemned in 418 at the Council of Carthage[38] and the decision confirmed at the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Semipelagianism A rejection of Pelagianism which held that Augustine had gone too far to the other extreme and taught that grace aided free-will rather than replacing it. Such views were advanced by Prosper and Hilary of Aquitaine, John Cassian and Vincent of Lérins in the west. Condemned by the Council of Orange in 529 which slightly weakened some of Augustine's more extreme statements.[39] The label "Semipelagianism" dates from the seventeenth century.

 * Donatism is often spoken of as a "schism" rather than a "heresy".[40][41][42]

Medieval heresiesEdit

Medieval heresies
Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Bogomils A Gnostic dualistic sect that was both Adoptionist and Manichaean. Their beliefs were a synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the Bulgarian Slavonic Church reform movement. Emerged in Bulgaria between 927 and 970 and spread into the Byzantine Empire, Serbia, Bosnia, Italy and France.
Catharism Catharism had its roots in the Paulician movement in Armenia and the Bogomils of Bulgaria, with a strong dualist influence against the physical world, regarded as evil, thus denied that Jesus could become incarnate and still be the son of God. First appeared in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. Catharism had its roots in the Paulicians and the Bogomils with whom the Paulicians merged. Condemned by papal bull Ad abolendam After several decades of harassment and re-proselytizing, and the systematic destruction of their scripture, the sect was exhausted and could find no more adepts. The last known Cathar prefect in the Languedoc, Guillaume Bélibaste, was executed in 1321.
Free Spirit Mixed mystical beliefs with Christianity. Its practitioners believed that it was possible to reach perfection on earth through a life of austerity and spiritualism. They believed that they could communicate directly with God and did not need the Christian church for intercession. Condemned at the Council of Basel in 1431 Small groups living mostly in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic, during the 14th and 15th centuries.
Fraticelli (Spiritual Franciscans) Extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status. Appeared in the 14th and 15th centuries, principally in Italy Declared heretical by the Church in 1296 by Boniface VIII.
Henricians According to Peter of Cluny, Henry's teaching is summed up as follows:
  • Rejection of the doctrinal and disciplinary authority of the church;
  • Recognition of the Gospel freely interpreted as the sole rule of faith;
  • Refusal to recognize any form of worship or liturgy; and
  • Condemnation of
    • the baptism of infants,
    • the Eucharist,
    • the sacrifice of the Mass,
    • the communion of saints, and
    • prayers for the dead.
Henry of Lausanne lived in France in the first half of the 12th century. His preaching began around 1116 and he died imprisoned around 1148. In a letter written at the end of 1146, St Bernard calls upon the people of Toulouse to extirpate the last remnants of the heresy. In 1151 some Henricians still remained in Languedoc, for Matthew Paris relates that a young girl, who gave herself out to be miraculously inspired by the Virgin Mary, was reputed to have converted a great number of the disciples of Henry of Lausanne.
Triclavianism Belief that three, rather than four nails were used to crucify Christ and that a Roman soldier pierced him with a spear on the left, rather than right side. Attributed to Albigenses and Waldenses Supposedly condemned by Pope Innocent III, but most likely never actually considered a heresy by said Pope.[43]
Waldensians (Waldenses or Vaudois) A spiritual movement of the later Middle Ages Begun by Peter Waldo, a wealthy merchant who decided to give up all his worldly possessions and began to preach on the streets of Lyon in 1177.[44] Condemned by papal bull Ad abolendam Waldensians endured near annihilation in the 17th century. Descendants of this movement still exist. Over time, the denomination joined the Genevan or Reformed branch of Protestantism.

Sects declared to be heretical by the Roman Catholic ChurchEdit


Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Protestantism[45] Protestant groups display a wide variety of different doctrines. However, the early Reformers all stressed the five solae (1) Sola scriptura ("by Scripture alone"); the conviction that only the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments should be used to form doctrine, in contradistinction to the Roman Catholic view that both Scripture and the magisterium of the Church set dogma. (2) Sola fide ("by faith alone"); the conviction that believers are justified by faith in Christ alone, rather than in Christ and good works. (3) Sola Gratia ("by grace alone"); the conviction that believers are saved by God's grace alone, and not by human works. (4) Solus Christus ("by Christ alone"); the conviction that the work of salvation is entirely the work of God through the mediatorial work of Christ alone. (5) Soli Deo Gloria ("for God's glory alone"); the conviction that the work of salvation is entirely for God's glory alone. [46][47]

Some believe the great diversity of Protestant doctrines stems from the doctrine of private judgment, which denies the infallible authority of the Roman Catholic Church and claims that each individual is to interpret Scripture for himself.[48] However, the early Reformers warned against private interpretation, emphasizing, instead, the connection and continuity with the ancient church, and its dogma.

Began with Martin Luther's 95 Theses in 1517, and later developed by other Protestant Reformers. Condemned by the Council of Trent, held in Trento, Italy from 1545 to 1563.[49] There are approximately 20–30,000 Christian denominations, with 270 new ones being formed each year. Virtually all are Protestant.[50]

Counter-Reformation movementsEdit

Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Febronianism An 18th-century German movement directed towards the nationalizing of Catholicism, the restriction of the power of the papacy in favor of that of the episcopate, and the reunion of the dissident churches with Catholic Christendom Practice and ideology condemned by pope Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors, Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Immortale Dei, and the First Vatican Council Compare with Erastianism
Gallicanism The belief that civil authority – often the State's authority – over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Pope Practice and ideology condemned by Pope Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors, Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Immortale Dei, and the First Vatican Council Compare with Erastianism
Jansenism A branch of Catholic thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent (1545–1563). It emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination. Originating in the writings of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Otto Jansen, Jansenism formed a distinct movement within the Roman Catholic Church from the 16th to 18th centuries. Condemned by Innocent X's bull Cum occasione on 31 May 1653.
Josephinism The domestic policies of Joseph II of Austria, attempting to impose a liberal ideology on the Church. Practice and ideology condemned by Pope Pius IX's Syllabus of Errors, Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Immortale Dei, and the First Vatican Council Compare with Erastianism

19th centuryEdit

19th century heresies
Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Jehovah's Witnesses Religious movement which expects the imminent return of Jesus. Jehovah's witnesses believe in a one-person God. No Trinity. Jesus is the first thing God created (as Michael the Archangel).[51] It follows the teachings of [[Charles Taze Russell. The Watch Tower Society was started by Charles Taze Russell. He is well-known to have been a Freemason. In his book – The Temple of God pg. 120 he says: Charles T Russel, a Freemason.

“I am very glad to have this particular opportunity of saying a word about some of the things in which we agree with our Masonic friends, because we are speaking in a building dedicated to Masonry, and we also are Masons. I am a Freemason.” Charles Taze Russell.

In the early days of the Watch Tower Society, many of the Witnesses meetings were held in Lodges or Halls. One of the names of the Masonic meeting place is – ‘Masonic Hall’. For example, the ‘Freemasons Hall’ in London is the headquarters of the United Grand Lodge of England. It is on account of this that the J.W.’s meeting places are called (Kingdom) ‘Halls’.[52]

The Gruppo di Ricerca e Informazione Socio Religiosa of the Milan Roman Catholic Dioceses declared in a convention in May 2011 that the doctrine of Jehovah's Witnesses is incompatible with Roman Catholic dogma.
Mormonism Religious movement that believes in a "Godhead" of separate and distinct beings: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as well as a Heavenly Mother. Further, it is believed that all humans as children of God can become exalted, or in other words, "As man now is God once was: As God now is, man may be." Joseph Smith founded the movement in Western New York in the 1820s, and published The Book of Mormon, which he claimed to have translated from writing on golden plates in a reformed Egyptian language. The origins of Joseph Smith's religion is Freemasonry. The Masons persecuted him, which is why he fled West.[53] "Mormons would say that they are the only true Christians. Depends on what one uses to define Christianity

- sociologically – indistinguishable from Evangelical Protestants – conservative morality and politics

- theologically – a completely new religion, based off of Christianity, but bearing little resemblance to it.

No major Christian group accepts the validity of Mormon baptisms – a former Mormon would need to be re -baptized.[54]

See also:

Compare with Islam

Sects declared to be heretical by traditional Roman CatholicsEdit

Novus Ordo, or Vatican II, Roman CatholicismEdit

Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Vatican II Brought an end to Traditional Roman Catholicism by reversing several prior positions of the Church. Modernism was embraced. Ecumenicalism with non Christian religions, which reject Jesus Christ, was encouraged. The Roman Catholic Mass was changed. The Roman Missale was changed to the Novus Ordo by a Freemason and Archbishop Annibale Bugnini. Church architecture was changed. Androgeneous angels appeared in the stained glass windows. Between 1962-1965, Pope John XXIII permitted "the smoke of Satan" to enter the church.

Vatican II Good Friday Prayer prays for Jews " ... to grow in faithfulness to his covenant."

Traditional Good Friday Prayer prays for Jews "... to be converted."

Council of Florence Florence[55] teaches, “It firmly believes, professes and preaches that all those who are outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans but also Jews or heretic and schismatics, cannot share in eternal life and will go into the everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, unless they are joined to the Catholic Church before the end of their lives.”

See [56], See What We Have Lost - the Church before_after Vatican II

Vatican II reversed the 1570 decree of Pope Pius V, who mandated that the Latin Mass was to be held in perpetuity.[57]

See Exposing the Errors, Heresies and Evils of the Vatican II Church, What's Wrong with the New Mass?, and What We Have Lost - the Church before_after Vatican II.
The Neocatechumenal Way The Neocatechumenal Way is a subculture within some parishes in the Roman Catholic Church. It presents itself as a community for adult faith formation via recreating the early church experience. 1964, Francis Kiko Argüello and ex-nun Carmen Hernández, Palomeras Altas in Vallecas, Madrid. Cult Education Institute.[58] The Neocatechumenal Way infiltrates, subverts, and divides a parish community, and embraces teachings and practices that contradict traditional Catholic teachings.

20th Century MovementsEdit

Heresy Description Origin Official condemnation Other
Pentecostalism A Made in America heresy, which claims that the speaking in tongues (no subject-verb-object constructs) - not a distinct foreign language previously unknown to the believer - is evidence of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. 1900, Charles Fox Parham, Topeka, Kansas; and 1906, William Seymour, Azusa Street Los Angeles. The Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religion states, “Pentecostal movement began in the United States in 1901 in Topeka Kansas, under the leadership of C.F. Parham.” Parham was a member of the Freemasons … on his return journey from Jerusalem (1928) he brought a gavel and presented it to the Baxter Springs Masonic Lodge. The Lodge was either Baxter Lodge No. 71 Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, or Baxter Chapter No. 78, Royal Arch Masons.”[59] William M. Branham (April 6, 1909 – December 24, 1965) may have been the early spark that began the modern Charismatic movement. Mainline Christianity completely rejected Branham. Pentecostal beliefs began penetrating the mainline Protestant denominations from 1960 onward and the Catholic Church from 1967.[60] John MacArthur, Charismatic Chaos.[61] and Strange Fire[62] (the book and the conference).[63] Force fitting an experience and emotion onto the text of Scripture, which actually contradicts the experience. See Acts 2:1–31. The word "tongues" means foreign human languages, which is what those in Acts of the Apostles spoke. The tongues of Pentacostalism resembles the pagan ecstatic speech of the classical world - ecstatic, inarticulate, and emotional - and the condemned tongues, or ecstatic speech, of the heretic Montanus. Pentecostal snake handlers and strychnine drinkers in Appalachia, and contradictions in core theological beliefs and practices among Pentecostals suggests that confusion rather than unity is their common bond.
Dispensationalism Dispensationalism is the bedrock of Christian Zionism and the 20th Century doctrine of the pre-millenial Rapture, which is more or less an essential element in the Evangelical belief system. Developed in England amidst the backdrop of the Oxford Movement, which developed into Anglo-Catholicism. 1832 John Nelson Darby and the Plymouth Brethren, Ethelbert W. Bullinger, Harry A. Ironside, Lewis Sperry Chafer Systematic Theology, 8 vols., (Dallas: Dallas Seminary Press, 1948), Dallas Theological Seminary and Moody Bible Institute, Clarence Larkin, C.I. Scofield and his peculiar notes in his 1909 edition of the King James Bible aka the Scofield Bible, Jerry Fallwell, Pat Robertson, Jack Van Impe, and Hal Lindsey. John H. Gerstner, Wrongly Dividing the Word of Truth: A Critique of Dispensationalism (Brentwood TN: Wolgemuth & Hyatt, 1991)[64] Protestant Reformed Churches in America,[65] John Alley “Dispensationalism - the Heresy that Caused the Current Cultural Defeat of the Western Church,”[66] and Kevin Williams 9 Reasons Why Dispensationalism Is Dangerous - Kevin Williams (Rom 11:17-24).[67] See Against Dispensationalism, Exposing the Founder, John Nelson Darby. A Response by Hank Hanegraaff].

Replacement Theology is a term used by Dispensationalists to discredit those, who reject Dispensationalism and the Two Covenant approach to Israel and the Church.

The ideological groundwork was laid by Counter Reformationists. Jesuit Luis Alcazar of Seville, in 1614 wrote Vestigatio Arcani Sensus in Apocalypsi, founder of Præterism, applied all the beast prophecies to Antiochus Epiphanes, who lived long before the popes began to rule in Rome. Jesuit Francisco Rivera (b.1537-d.1591) and Jesuit scholar, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine of Rome (b.1542-d.1621), founders of Futurism, applied all the beast, or antichrist, prophecies to the distant future and a singular man in order to deflect Protestant fingers to point away from the history of the Papacy. See Dispensationalism ~ "Jesuit Futurism" ~ Left Behind Theology.

Prosperity Theology Belief that financial blessing is the will of God for Christians, and that faith, positive speech, and donations to Christian ministries will increase one's material wealth. Based on non-traditional interpretations of the Bible, often with emphasis on the Book of Malachi, it views the Bible as a contract between God and humans: if humans have faith in God, he will deliver his promises of security and prosperity. 1880s Phineas Quimby, New Thought movement (mind science), John Alexander Dowie, and Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science. 1880s Charles Fillmore, New Thought teacher, emphasized material success and coined the phrase "positive thinking." Ernest Holmes, founder of Religious Science; Norman Vincent Peale, a Freemason; and Robert Schuller.

1890s E. W. Kenyon, a Baptist minister and adherent of the Higher Life movement. 1900s F. F. Bosworth, John G. Lake, Albert C. Grier, Pentecostal evangelists and prosperity gospel teachers. 1940s Oral Roberts and T. L. Osborn, prosperity gospel. 1950s A. A. Allen 1960s Reverend Ike, prosperity preacher. 1970s Kenneth Hagin, Word of Faith prosperity teacher. 1980s Jim Bakker, Robert Tilton, and Benny Hinn 1982 Joel Osteen, non denominational prosperity teacher 1986 Creflo Dollar, prosperity gospel.

The Importance of Rejecting the Prosperity Gospel by Dr. Andrew Spencer, January 28, 2014,[68] Five Key Economic Reasons Why Prosperity Gospel Should Be Rejected, By Dr. Andrew Spencer | Tue 19 December 2017[69]
Charismatic Movement Rebranded Pentecostals,[70] often non credal, inter- and non-denominational. Promotes the five fold ministry: apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers. Pentecostal beliefs began penetrating the mainline Protestant denominations from 1960 onward and the Catholic Church from February 1967 at Duquesne University, a private Catholic university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. See Charismatic Movement -- Vatican Promotion. [71] Lonnie Frisbee was among one of the leaders, Jesus Movement ... also known as Jesus Freak Movement. 2007 Emmy-nominated film Frisbee: The Life and Death of a Hippie Preacher[72] explain how Frisbee became the charismatic spark igniting the rise of Chuck Smith‘s Calvary Chapel and the Vineyard Movement. Among Protestants, the movement began around 1960. Among Roman Catholics, it originated in February 1967.[73] This inter- and non-denominational, and often non credal phenomenon, ties to together the worst in televised evangelism with the Vatican, which rejected traditional Roman Catholicism with the phenomena of Vatican II. John MacArthur, Charismatic Chaos[74] and Strange Fire[75] (the book and the conference)[76]. Today, Calvinist or Reformed theology embraces cessationism, and as such denounces the Charismatic Movement's theology of new ongoing revelation and chaotic practices. Also, see False Revival Coming? - Part 1: Holy Laughter or Strong Delusion? by Warren B. Smith.[77] Lonnie Frisbee died of AIDS. He was a homosexual by night, and preacher by day. See Lonnie Frisbee: Catalyst for Revival: The New Move of the Holy Spirit, from Hippies to Homosexuals Paperback – October 14, 2015

by Rev. Lee Allen Howard.[78]

Messianic Judaism Judaizers, who reject traditional and mainline Christianity as expressed by Roman Catholics and Protestants. Commonality is a shared belief in political Zionism and Jewish roots. Beliefs and practices differ considerably among them with those in the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations embracing every new wind of doctrine, signs and wonders, etc. Manny Brottman, Sid Roth, Dan Juster, Dr. Michael Brown. According to Stan Telchin, "95 percent of the attendees at Messianic synagogues are Gentiles and only 5 percent are Jews. ... Many Jewish people who I have brought to such synagogues have told me they felt as though they were looking at a caricature—an imitation and not the real thing.” Messianic Judaism is built on an edifice of semantics. Pastors are called rabbis. Churches are called synagogues or shuls. Crosses are removed. Control the vocabulary, teach others to mime that vocabulary, and morph the theology and world view. Self proclaimed rabbis, who never studied at a yeshiva. Qualifications - a circumcised foreskin. Male children often circumcised by real rabbis, who are brought in for the mitzvah - the observance of the commandment to circumcise. The Pentecostal Messianics are ensnared by signs and wonders. See "False Revival Coming? - Part 1: Holy Laughter or Strong Delusion?" by Warren B. Smith.[79]See also Michael Brown is More Dangerous to Christianity than a Jihadi: We Release Emails with Brown[80]See also The Toronto Phenomenon (Part 1 of 2) By Arnold Fruchtenbaum of Ariel Ministries.[81] The Toronto Phenomenon (Part 2 of 2) By Arnold Fruchtenbaum of Ariel Ministries.[82] Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (UMJC), the Messianic Jewish Movement International, and Jews for Jesus. See brief film: "Messianic" Judaism: A Growing Deception.
Hebrew Roots Movement Judaizers, picking up where Messianic Judaism leaves off. Rejects the writing of the Apostle Paul. Dean and Susan Wheelock trademarked the name Hebrew Roots® in 1994. The Berean Call,[83] Hebrew Roots Movement critique by Watchman Fellowship, [84] and The ‘Jewish Roots’ Movement and Its Mistakes by Andrew Selley.[85] See Hebrew Roots Heresy and Divine Curse of the Hebrew Roots Movement - Replacing Jesus with the Old Testament Jewish Torah.
Christian Zionism A theological substitution of a secular political ideology that appropriates the terms from Judaism and the Bible and in place of the teachings of Jesus Christ concerning the Kingdom of God. Embraced by Messianic Jews, Evangelicals, and Dispensationalists. The Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism is a joint statement issued by a number of Palestinian Christian churches dated 22 August 2006. It rejects Christian Zionism, concluding that it is a "false teaching that corrupts the biblical message of love, justice, and reconciliation." Adherents partner with Christian Friends of Israel[86], the American Israel Political Affairs Committee[87], and similar foreign lobbying orgainzations to influence and shapes U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East, and favor a Greater Israel.[88]See Catholic Response: Christian Zionism part 1: Tracing the Lines of a Warmongering Heresy and Christian Zionism part 2: Why Christian Zionism Is a Problem. See Bible Answer Man Response: Hank Hanegraaff: A Gospel Response to Christian Zionism.
The Emergent Church Post modernism. Value in uncertainty in Scripture. Weak on theology. Denial of the clarity of Scripture and on key moral issues. Give people what they they want. Adapts to the culture rather than confronts the culture to transform it. 1989, Mike Riddell and Mark Pierson in New Zealand. 1992 Jonny Baker, Ian Mobsby, Kevin, Ana and Brian Draper, and Sue Wallace in the United Kingdom. Others include Rick Warren, Mark Driscoll, Ed Stetzer, Dan Kimball, Donald Miller, Neil Cole, Michael Frost, Alan Hirsch, Brian McLaren, Rob Bell, and Doug Pagitt. John MacArthur "What's So Dangerous About the Emerging Church?"[89] See The Purpose Driven Deception - Exposing Rick Warren's World Agenda. The Vatican rejected the philosophical basis of modernism in 1910.[90] For Roman Catholicism, Pope Pius X denounced modernism in Europe and America. And, the formulation of Fundamentalism in America- defining the essentials of the Protestant faith such as the inerrancy of Scripture - was a response to modernism. See Doc Film: The Roots of the Emergent Church Movement (Full Documentary).
Rastafari movement The Rastafari movement is an African-based spiritual ideology that arose in the 1930s in Jamaica. It is sometimes described as a religion but is considered by many adherents to be a "Way of Life". Its adherents worship Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia (ruled 1930–1974), some as Jesus in his Second Advent, or as God the Father. For Rastas, smoking cannabis or ganja is a spiritual act, often accompanied by Bible study. Haile Selassie I denied that he was divine, and sent an archbishop to Jamaica in an attempt to convert Rastafarians to the Ethiopian Orthodox faith.[91]
Americanism A group of related heresies which were defined as the endorsement of freedom of the press, liberalism, individualism, and separation of church and state, and as an insistence upon individual initiative, which could be incompatible with the principle of Catholicism of obedience to authority. Condemned by Pope Leo XIII on his letter Testem benevolentiae nostrae in 1899
Anglo-Israelism Holds that English and to a lesser extent white peoples are the descendants of the ancient Israelites. Forms the Basis of the Christian Identity Movement.
Community of the Lady of All Nations The movement believes that its 90-year-old founder Marie Paule Giguère is a reincarnation of the Virgin Mary Founded by Marie Paule Giguère in Quebec in 1971. Her followers were excommunicated as heretics by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on 11 July 2007[92] Also known as Army of Mary
Individualism Holds that all people have the right to choose their future, course of lifestyle, religion, ideologies and above all decide their own fate. This goes against the Catholic teachings of choosing martyrdom over self-defense and survival. This makes followers to rather be themselves than submit to all authority, religious or secular.
Modernism Evolution of dogma in time and space Alfred Loisy, George Tyrell, Ernesto Buonaiuti Condemned by Popes Leo XIII and Pius X in a series of encyclicals between 1893 and 1910[93]
Positive Christianity A term adopted by Nazi leaders to refer to a model of Christianity consistent with Nazism. With the fall of the Nazi regime in 1945, Positive Christianity as a movement fell into obscurity. It continues to be espoused by some Christian Identity groups,[94] but has been rejected by mainstream Christian churches.
Reincarnationism Belief that certain people are or can be reincarnations of biblical figures, such as Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary. Doctrinal Note of the Catholic Bishops of Canada concerning the Army of Mary[95] and Tribus circiter on the Mariavites.
Santa Muerte Worship or veneration of Santa Muerte. Considered blasphemous by the Vatican[96]
Hyper-grace Gospel or "Radical Grace"[97] A neo-Antinomian belief that is based on Grace alone and no need for the Old Testament Law or values. Belief that all sins were forgiven and was imputed in Christ and when a Christian sins he is still justified and holy based on Christ's righteousness. They believe also that once a Christian is saved, he is forever saved and his sins do not count against him. These "radical grace" teachers lead us toward the paradigm of universal restoration in the way in which they offer sweeping statements of grace without the necessary qualifications.[98] Thus, according to this view, the Old Testament is not that important to read except for metaphors, types and symbols regarding the coming of Christ. The New Testament is all about grace and does away with the Old Testament Law![99] Signs of the Hyper-grace movement is that the preachers never preach against sin, confessions of sins are not necessary, the Old Testament is entirely ignored, tithing is denounced, motivational messages and the prosperity gospel are mostly preached, New Testament doctrine of fasting is denounced. In their zeal to exalt God’s grace, hyper-grace teachers often make extreme statements that lead believers to think that they are not responsible for their sins. Hyper-grace teachers commonly claim that the words of Jesus no longer apply to us. Instead, they argue, Jesus' teaching was for the Jews under the Law before the new covenant was inaugurated, whereas Paul brought the message of grace.[100]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Bob Dewaay in Bill Johnson's & Mike Bickle's false teachings
  2. ^ a b Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). "Heresy". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ MacGrath, Alister E. Christian Theology Blackwell: 2001, p.153
  4. ^ Ott, Ludwig. Manual de Teología Dogmática Herder, Barcelona:1968, p.31
  5. ^ Prümmer, Dominic M. Handbook of Moral Theology Mercier Press: 1963, Sect. 201
  6. ^ Diehl, Charles (1923). "1: Leo III and the Isaurian Dynasty (717-802)". In Tanner, J. R.; Previté-Orton, C. W.; Brooke, Z. N. The Cambridge Medieval History. IV: The Eastern Roman Empire (717-1453). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9785872870395. Retrieved 2016-02-01. ... Tarasius ... skilfully put forward the project of an Ecumenical Council which should restore peace and unity to the Christian world. The Empress [...] summoned the prelates of Christendom to Constantinople for the spring of 786. ... Finally the Council was convoked at Nicaea in Bithynia; it was opened in the presence of the papal legates on 24 September 787. This was the seventh Ecumenical Council.
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b MacGrath, Alister E. Christian Theology Blackwell:2001, p.152
  9. ^ MacGrath, Alister E. Christian Theology Blackwell:2001, p.345
  10. ^ Hanson, R. P. C. "The Doctrine of the Trinity as achieved in 381". In Studies in Christian Antiquity, T & T Clark, Edinburgh 1985, pp. 234f
  11. ^ Hanson, R. P. C. "The Doctrine of the Trinity as achieved in 381". In Studies in Christian Antiquity, T & T Clark, Edinburgh 1985, p. 244
  12. ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black: 1965, p.115f
  13. ^ "Church Fathers: Church History, Book VI (Eusebius)". p. Chapter 37. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  14. ^ Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black: 1965, p.227f
  15. ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Creeds Longmans:1960, pp.339f
  16. ^ P.G., lxv, 1117.
  17. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Gnosticism". Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  18. ^ Bart D. Ehrman Lost Christianities. Oxford University press, 2003, p.188-202
  19. ^ Constantine-Silvanus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed 2 September 2008.
  20. ^ Hippolytus Philosophumena 5, 2
  21. ^ Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). "Antinomianism". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  22. ^ "Donatism". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  23. ^ Kaufmann Kohler, "Ebionites", in: Isidore Singer & Cyrus Alder (ed.), Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901–1906.
  24. ^ Francois P. Viljoen (2006). "Jesus' Teaching on the Torah in the Sermon on the Mount". Neotestamenica 40.1, pp. 135–155. "Jesus' Teaching on the Torah in the Sermon on the Mount" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  25. ^ G. Uhlhorn, "Ebionites", in: A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd ed. (edited by Philip Schaff), p. 684–685 (vol. 2).
  26. ^ The word is still in use in that sense in contemporary Israeli Hebrew
  27. ^ Henry Wace and William Piercy (1911). A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  28. ^ S. Runciman, The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy (Cambridge, 1947)
  29. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church art. Iconoclasm
  30. ^ (115 years and 6 months from the Crucifixion, according to Tertullian's reckoning in Adversus Marcionem, xv)
  31. ^ Janos, N. A. Berdyaev (Berdiaev); translated by Fr Stephen. "Marcionism". Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  32. ^ Trevett 1996:202
  33. ^ Tabbernee, Prophets and Gravestones, 25.
  34. ^ Tabbernee, Prophets and Gravestones, 21–23.
  35. ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines, p.360f.
  36. ^ Frend, W.H.C. Saints and Sinners in the Early Church, p.126)
  37. ^ Transcript From The Council of Diospolis (Lydda) Against Pelagius, 415AD
  38. ^ Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion by William L Reese, Humanities Press 1980 p.421
  39. ^ Kelly, J. N. D. Early Christian Doctrines, p.370f
  40. ^ Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church Pelican:1967, p.123
  41. ^ Frend, W. H. C. Saints and Sinners in the Early Church Darton, Longman & Todd:1985, p.102
  42. ^ "Donatism". Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 1974.
  43. ^ Bompiani, Sofia (1899). A Short History of the Italian Waldenses: Who Have Inhabited the Valleys of the Cottian Alps from Ancient Times to the Present. Barnes. p. 38. 
  44. ^ Mennonite Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, pp. 874–876
  45. ^ "The Great Heresies | Catholic Answers". Retrieved 28 October 2016. 
  46. ^ "A Brief Introduction to sola scriptura". Lutheran Theology: An Online Journal. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 28 October 2016. 
  47. ^ Schreiner, Thomas R. (2015). "Justification by Works and Sola Fide" (PDF). The Southern Baptist Journal of Theology. 19 (4). 
  48. ^ Hynson, Leon (2005). "The Right of Private Judgement". The Ausbury Theological Journal. 60 (1). 
  49. ^ Buckley, Theodore Alois (1851). The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. London: George Routledge and Co. ISBN 978-1298542946. 
  50. ^ Ward, Carol (1989). The Christian Sourcebook: A Comprehensive Guide to All Things Christian. New York: Ballantine Book. ISBN 9780345357861. 
  51. ^ Rose book of Bible charts, maps, and timelines
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^ Granquist, Mark (10 April 2018). "THE NEW (AND OLD) RELIGIONS AROUND US" (PDF). Luther Seminary EDU. 
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ Quo Primum Promulgating the Tridentine Liturgy Pope Pius V - 1570,
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^ The New International Dictionary, "Introduction: The Charismatic Movement."
  61. ^,204,203,200_QL40_&dpSrc=srch
  62. ^,204,203,200_QL40_&dpSrc=srch
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^ The Cross and the Switchblade by David Wilkerson and They Speak with Other Tongues by John Sherrill.
  71. ^ The New International Dictionary, "Introduction: The Charismatic Movement."
  72. ^
  73. ^ As by a New Pentecost: The Dramatic Beginning of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal by Patti Gallagher Mansfield.
  74. ^,204,203,200_QL40_&dpSrc=srch
  75. ^,204,203,200_QL40_&dpSrc=srch
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^ The oath against modernism was issued by Pope Pius X on 1 September 1910 in a motu proprio entitled Sacrorum antistitum
  91. ^ "Ethiopians in D.C. Region Mourn Archbishop's Death". 
  92. ^ CNN, Six Arkansas nuns excommunicated for heresy
  93. ^ Modernism (Roman Catholicism)#Official Church response
  94. ^ "Positive Christianity - Part 1 by Pastor Mark Downey of Kinsman Redeemer Ministries". Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  95. ^ Doctrinal Note of the Catholic Bishops of Canada concerning the Army of Mary The Army of Mary, through their misguided interpretation of Catholic teaching, would in effect not only rob Mary of her unique, irreplaceable role in salvation history, but their so-called "reincarnation" of Mary all but renders superfluous Mary's on-going intercession in heavenly glory. The Mary of the Gospel and Catholic tradition is in heaven, not on earth. It is the teaching of the Catholic Church that Mary's life is both unique and historical, and as such cannot be repeated, reproduced, or otherwise "reincarnated" ... The presumed private revelation upon which the Army of Mary bases its claim to legitimacy does in fact introduce new and erroneous doctrines about the Virgin Mary and her role in the economy of salvation history. It significantly adds to Christ's definitive Revelation. It would have its followers believe, for example, that their "Immaculate" is co-eternal with the Triune God, and that although she was once the historical mother of Jesus, she is now "reincarnated" and "dwells" in the very person of the recipient of these presumed private revelations.
  96. ^ Ramirez, Margaret. "'Saint Death' comes to Chicago". Retrieved 2017-01-04. 
  97. ^ "The "Grace Teachers" Lead Us Toward A Global Understanding of Salvation". 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2017-07-31. 
  98. ^ "The "Grace Teachers" Lead Us Toward A Global Understanding of Salvation". 1 October 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2017. 
  99. ^ Mattera, Joseph. "8 Signs of 'Hypergrace' Churches". Charisma News. Retrieved 31 July 2017. 
  100. ^ "Hyper-Grace Horror Stories". Fire School of Ministry – Charlotte. Retrieved 31 July 2017.