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List of presidents of Syria

  (Redirected from List of heads of state of Syria)

PresidentsEdit

Meaning
Acting president.
National Bloc
National Party
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Military
Arab Liberation Movement
National Union (United Arab Republic)
People's Party
Syrian Regional Branch
(Ba'ath Party / Syrian Ba'ath Party)

State of Syria, part of the French Mandate (1922–1930)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Subhi Barakat
(1889–1939)
29[1] June 1922 20[2] December 1925 3 years,

173 days

Independent
  François Pierre-Alype
(1853–1932)
9 February 1926 28 April 1926 78 days Independent
2   Ahmad Nami
(1879–1960)
28 April 1926 15 February 1928 1 year,

291 days

Independent
  Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
15 February 1928 14 May 1930 2 years,

89 days

Independent

Syrian Republic, part of the French Mandate (1930–1945)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
14 May 1930 19 November 1931 1 year,

187 days

Independent
  Léon Solomiac
(1873–1960)
19 November 1931 11 June 1932 205 days Independent
3   Muhammad Ali al-Abed
(1867–1939)
11 June 1932 21 December 1936 4 years,

192 days

Independent
4   Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
21 December 1936 7 July 1939 2 years,

198 days

National Bloc
5   Bahij al-Khatib
(1895–1981)
10 July 1939 4 April 1941 1 year,

268 days

Independent
  Khalid al-Azm
(1903–1965)
4 April 1941 16 September 1941 165 days Independent
6   Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
16 September 1941 17 January 1943 1 year,

122 days

Independent Hasani died in office.[3]
  Jamil al-Ulshi
(1883–1951)
17 January 1943 25 March 1943 67 days Independent
7   Ata al-Ayyubi
(1877–1951)
25 March 1943 17 August 1943 145 days Independent
8   Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 August 1943 24 October 1945 2 years,

67 days

National Bloc

Syrian Republic (1945–1958)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
8   Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
24 October 1945 29 March 1949 3 years,

157 days

National Bloc /
National Party
Quwatli was ousted from power on 29 March 1949 by Husni al-Za'im, his Chief of Staff.[4]
9   Husni al-Za'im
(1897–1949)
1949 30 March 1949 14 August 1949 137 days Syrian Social Nationalist Party Za'im was overthrown by a military coup in 1949 led by Adib Shishakli, he was later executed on the orders of the new government.[5]
10   Sami al-Hinnawi
(1898–1950)
14 August 1949 15 August 1949 1 day Military
4   Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
15 August 1949 2 December 1951 2 years,

108 days

National Party
  Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
2 December 1951 3 December 1951 1 day Syrian Social Nationalist Party
11   Fawzi Selu
(1905–1972)
3 December 1951 11 July 1953 1 year,

221 days

Military
12   Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
1953 11 July 1953 25 February 1954 229 days Arab Liberation Movement Shishakli resigned from office because of threats of a coup in 1954.[6] He fled the country, claiming that he did not want the country to fall into a civil war.[6]
  Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
25 February 1954 28 February 1954 3 days Independent
4   Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
28 February 1954 6 September 1955 1 year,

191 days

National Party
8   Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
6 September 1955 22 February 1958 2 years,

168 days

National Party

United Arab Republic (1958–1961)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
13   Gamal Abdel Nasser
(1918–1970)
1958 22 February 1958 29 September 1961 3 years,

220 days

National Union (United Arab Republic)

Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Note(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
29 September 1961 20 November 1961 52 days Independent Kuzbari took office following the 1961 coup d'état, which dissolved the United Arab Republic.
 

Izzat al-Nuss
(1912–1976)[7]

20 November 1961 14 December 1961 24 days Military
14   Nazim al-Kudsi
(1906–1998)
14 December 1961 8 March 1963 1 year,

82 days

People's Party The 1963 coup d'état, an event known as the 8th of March Revolution, toppled Nazim al-Kudsi and brought the National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) to government, although real power lay with the Ba'athist Military Committee, which organized the coup.[8]
15   Lu'ay al-Atassi
(1926–2003)
9 March 1963 27 July 1963 140 days Independent Lu'ay al-Atassi was appointed president by the NCRC because he posed no threat to the Military Committee's power.[9] He resigned after high-ranking non-Ba'athist officers were purged.[10]
16   Amin al-Hafiz
(1921–2009)
27 July 1963 23 February 1966 2 years,

209 days

Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Amin al-Hafiz was overthrown by the Military Committee because of his support for Michel Aflaq and the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[11]
17   Nureddin al-Atassi
(1929–1992)
25 February 1966 18 November 1970 4 years,

267 days

Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Nureddin al-Atassi was overthrown when a falling out occurred between Salah Jadid, the real ruler of Syria from 1966 to 1970, and Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense.[12] Assad initiated a coup in 1970, known as the Corrective Movement.[13]
  Ahmad al-Khatib
(1933–1982)
18 November 1970 22 February 1971 96 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
18   Hafez al-Assad
(1930–2000)
1971
1978
1985
1991
1999
22 February 1971 10 June 2000 29 years,

202 days

Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Assad died in office.[14]
  Abdul Halim Khaddam
(1932–)
10 June 2000 17 July 2000 37 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
19   Bashar al-Assad
(1965–)
2000
2007
2014
17 July 2000 Incumbent 19 years, 138 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)

TimelineEdit

Bashar al-AssadAbdul Halim KhaddamHafez al-AssadAhmad al-KhatibNureddin al-AtassiAmin al-HafizLu'ay al-AtassiNazim al-KudsiIzzat al-NussGamal Abdel NasserMaamun al-KuzbariFawzi SeluAdib ShishakliSami al-HinnawiHusni al-Za'imShukri al-QuwatliAta al-AyyubiJamil al-UlshiKhalid al-AzmBahij al-KhatibHashim al-AtassiMuhammad Ali al-AbidLéon SolomiacTaj al-Din al-HasaniAhmad NamiFrançois Pierre-AlypeSubhi Barakat 

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

General
  1. ^ [1]; [2].
  2. ^ Arrêté No. 35 of 30 December 1925.
  3. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 345.
  4. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 311.
  5. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 610.
  6. ^ a b Moubayed 2006, p. 339.
  7. ^ "Who's who in the Arab World". 1974.
  8. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 133.
  9. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 175.
  10. ^ Rabinovich 1972, p. 72.
  11. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 99–101.
  12. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 142–144.
  13. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 162–163.
  14. ^ Moubayed 2006, pp. 154–155.
Bibliography