List of heads of state of Ghana

This is a list of the heads of state of Ghana, from the independence of Ghana in 1957 to the present day.[1]

From 1957 to 1960 the head of state under the Constitution of 1957 was the Queen of Ghana, Elizabeth II, who was also the Monarch of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.[2] The Queen was represented in Ghana by a Governor-General.[3] Ghana became a republic under the Constitution of 1960 and the Monarch and Governor-General were replaced by an executive President.[4]

Monarch (1957–1960)Edit

The succession to the throne was the same as the succession to the British throne.

No. Portrait Monarch
(Birth–Death)
Reign Royal House Prime Minister
Reign start Reign end Duration
1   Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–)
6 March 1957 1 July 1960 3 years, 117 days Windsor Nkrumah

Governor-GeneralEdit

The Governor-General was the representative of the Monarch in Ghana and exercised most of the powers of the Monarch.[5] The Governor-General was appointed for an indefinite term, serving at the pleasure of the monarch. Since Ghana was granted independence by the Ghana Independence Act 1957, rather than being first established as a semi-autonomous Dominion and later promoted to independence by the Statute of Westminster 1931,[6] the Governor-General was to be always appointed solely on the advice of the Cabinet of Ghana without the involvement of the British government, with the sole exception of Charles Arden-Clarke, the former colonial governor, who served as Governor-General temporarily until he was replaced by William Hare.[7] In the event of a vacancy the Chief Justice served as Officer Administering the Government.[8]

Status
  Denotes Chief Justice acting as Officer Administering the Government
No. Portrait Governor-General
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch Prime Minister
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Sir Charles Arden-Clarke
(1898–1962)
6 March 1957 14 May 1957 69 days Elizabeth II Nkrumah
  Sir Kobina Arku Korsah
(1894–1967)
14 May 1957 13 November 1957 183 days Elizabeth II Nkrumah
2   The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Listowel
(1906–1997)
13 November 1957 1 July 1960 2 years, 231 days Elizabeth II Nkrumah

First Republic (1960–1966)Edit

Under the 1960 Constitution, the first constitution of the Republic of Ghana, the President replaced the Monarch as executive head of state.[9] The President was elected by Parliament for a 5-year term. In the event of a vacancy three Members of the Cabinet served jointly as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes three Members of the Cabinet acting jointly as President
No. Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Kwame Nkrumah
(1909–1972)
1960
1965
1 July 1960 26 February 1966
(deposed.)
5 years, 240 days Convention People's Party

Military rule (1966–1969)Edit

Lieutenant-General Joseph Arthur Ankrah led a coup d'état which overthrew President Nkrumah and his government, all political parties and Parliament were also dissolved.

No. Portrait Head of State
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Military
Took office Left office Time in office
2   Lieutenant-General Joseph Arthur Ankrah
(1915–1992)
24 February 1966 2 April 1969
(resigned.)
3 years, 37 days National Liberation Council
3   Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa
(1936–1979)
2 April 1969 3 September 1969 154 days National Liberation Council

Second Republic (1969–1972)Edit

Status
  Denotes Speaker of Parliament and acting President
Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Prime Minister
Took office Left office Time in office
(3)   Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa
(1936–1979)
3 September 1969 7 August 1970 338 days Military Busia
  Nii Amaa Ollennu
(1906–1986)
7 August 1970 31 August 1970 24 days Independent
4   Edward Akufo-Addo
(1906–1979)
31 August 1970 13 January 1972
(deposed.)
1 year, 135 days Independent

Military rule (1972–1979)Edit

General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong led a coup d'état which overthrew President Akufo-Addo, Prime Minister Abrefa Busia and his government, all political parties and Parliament were also dissolved.[10]

Lieutenant General Fred Akuffo led a coup d'état which overthrew the General Acheampong,[11] then Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings led a coup d'état which overthrown the Supreme Military Council.[12]

No. Portrait Head of State
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Military
Took office Left office Time in office
5   General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong
(1931–1979)
13 January 1972 9 October 1975 6 years, 173 days National Redemption Council
9 October 1975 5 July 1978
(deposed.)
Supreme Military Council
6   Lieutenant-General Fred Akuffo
(1937–1979)
5 July 1978 4 June 1979
(deposed.)
334 days Supreme Military Council
7   Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings
(1947–2020)
4 June 1979 24 September 1979 112 days Armed Forces Revolutionary Council

Third Republic (1979–1981)[13]Edit

Under the 1979 Constitution the President is head of both state and government. The President is elected by Ghanaians and serves a four-year term that expires at the next general election; a President may serve a maximum of two terms.[14] In the event of a vacancy the Vice-President serves as Acting President.[15]

Status
  Denotes Vice-President acting as President
No. Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
8   Hilla Limann
(1934–1998)
1979 24 September 1979 31 December 1981
(deposed.)
2 years, 98 days People's National Party

Military rule (1981–1993)Edit

Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings led a coup d'état which overthrew President Limann and his government, all political parties and Parliament were also dissolved.[16][17]

No. Portrait Head of State
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
(7)   Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings
(1947–2020)
31 December 1981 7 January 1993 11 years, 7 days Provisional National Defence Council

Fourth Republic (1993–present)Edit

Under the current Constitution the President is head of both state and government.[18][19] The President is elected by Ghanaians and serves a four-year term that expires at the next general election; a President may serve a maximum of two terms. In the event of a vacancy, the Vice-President serves the remaining time as the President.[20]

Status
  Denotes Vice-President acting as President
No. Portrait President
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
(7)   Jerry Rawlings
(1947–2020)
1992
1996
7 January 1993 7 January 2001 8 years National Democratic Congress
9   John Kufuor
(1938–)
2000
2004
7 January 2001 7 January 2009 8 years New Patriotic Party
10   John Atta Mills
(1944–2012)
2008 7 January 2009 24 July 2012
(died in office.)
3 years, 199 days National Democratic Congress
11   John Mahama
(1958–)
2012 24 July 2012 7 January 2017 4 years, 167 days National Democratic Congress
12   Nana Akufo-Addo
(1944–)
2016
2020
7 January 2017 Incumbent 4 years, 165 days New Patriotic Party

DemographicsEdit

Head of Government Ethnicity Religious affiliation
Kwame Nkrumah Nzema (Akan) Roman Catholic (later Nondenominational Christian)[21]
Joseph Ankrah Ga Methodist
Akwasi Afrifa Ashanti (Akan) Anglican
Nii Amaa Ollennu Ga Presbyterian
Edward Akufo-Addo Akuapem (Akan) Presbyterian
Kofi Abrefa Busia Bono (Akan) Methodist
Ignatius Kutu Acheampong Ashanti (Akan) Roman Catholic
Fred Akuffo Akuapem (Akan) Presbyterian
Hilla Limann Sissala Roman Catholic
Jerry John Rawlings Scottish/Anlo Ewe Roman Catholic
John Agyekum Kufuor Ashanti (Akan) Roman Catholic
John Atta Mills Fante (Akan) Methodist
John Dramani Mahama Gonja Assemblies of God (raised Presbyterian)
Nana Akufo-Addo Akuapem/Akyem (Akan) Anglican (raised Presbyterian)

StandardsEdit

Living former heads of stateEdit

[22]

Image Name Term/Reign Office Date of birth
  Elizabeth II 1957–1960 Queen of Ghana (1926-04-21) 21 April 1926 (age 95)
  John Kufuor 2001–2009 President of Ghana (1938-12-08) 8 December 1938 (age 82)
  John Dramani Mahama 2012–2017 President of Ghana (1958-11-29) 29 November 1958 (age 62)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Independence, Coups, and the Republic, 1957–Present", The Ghana Reader, Duke University Press, pp. 299–300, 2016, doi:10.1215/9780822374961-060, ISBN 978-0-8223-7496-1
  2. ^ "Magnum Photos". pro.magnumphotos.com. Retrieved 2020-05-26.
  3. ^ "Magnum Photos". pro.magnumphotos.com. Retrieved 2020-05-26.
  4. ^ "Ghana - INDEPENDENT GHANA". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2020-05-26.
  5. ^ Vandrei, Martha (2018-07-19). "That ubiquitous monarch". Oxford Scholarship Online. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198816720.003.0007.
  6. ^ Ibingira, Grace Stuart (2019-04-30), "Ghana", African Upheavals Since Independence, Routledge, pp. 51–59, doi:10.4324/9780429052002-4, ISBN 978-0-429-05200-2
  7. ^ "Lewis, Sir Allen (Montgomery), (26 Oct. 1909–18 Feb. 1993), Governor-General of St Lucia, 1982–87 (first Governor-General, 1979–80; Governor, 1974–79)", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u173811
  8. ^ Prempeh, H. Kwasi (2013-07-30). "Constitutional autochthony and the invention and survival of "absolute presidentialism" in postcolonial Africa". Order from Transfer: 209–234. doi:10.4337/9781781952115.00020. ISBN 9781781952115.
  9. ^ Todd E, Pettys (2018-02-09). "Part Two The Iowa Constitution and Commentary, Art.IV Executive Department". The Iowa State Constitution. doi:10.1093/law/9780190490836.003.0007.
  10. ^ "Busia, Dr Kofi Abrefa, (11 July 1913–28 Aug. 1978), Prime Minister of Ghana, 1969–72", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, 2007-12-01, doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u152838
  11. ^ Rich, Jeremy (2011-12-08), "Akuffo, Fred", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.48197, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1
  12. ^ Shillington, Kevin. (1992). Ghana and the Rawlings factor. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-56845-1. OCLC 28182404.
  13. ^ Nketia, J.H. Kwabena (2001). "Ghana, Republic of". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.11009. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ Yankson-Mensah, Marian. (2020). Transitional justice in Ghana an appraisal of the National Reconciliation Commission. T.M.C. Asser Press. ISBN 978-94-6265-379-5. OCLC 1151190908.
  15. ^ Nketia, J.H. Kwabena (2001). "Ghana, Republic of". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.11009. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ Gyimah-Boadi, E. (1993). Ghana under the PNDC rule. CODESRIA. ISBN 2-86978-018-4. OCLC 475366719.
  17. ^ Isaacs, Anita (1993), "Development and Reform under Military Rule", Military Rule and Transition in Ecuador, 1972–92, Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 35–65, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-08922-2_3, ISBN 978-1-349-08924-6
  18. ^ Nketia, J.H. Kwabena (2001). "Ghana, Republic of". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.11009. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ "Ghana - Constitution & Politics". doi:10.1163/2213-2996_flg_com_081034. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ "Ghana - Constitution & Politics". doi:10.1163/2213-2996_flg_com_081034. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ Miller, Jon (2014-05-22). Missionary Zeal and Institutional Control: Organizational Contradictions in the Basel Mission on the Gold Coast 1828-1917. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-136-87625-7.
  22. ^ Ghana. Information Services Department. (1991). Ghana and the Non-aligned Movement. Information Services Dept. OCLC 27080222.

External linksEdit