List of grand duchesses of Russia

This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial House who bore the title velikaia kniaginia (Russian: великая княгиня) or velikaia knazhna (Russian: великая княжна) (usually translated into French and English as grand duchess, but more accurately grand princess). This courtesy title was borne (usually) by daughters and male-line granddaughters of the emperors and empresses of Russia, as well as by wives of grand dukes of Russia, all along with the style of Her Imperial Highness.

Grand duchesses of RussiaEdit

Picture Name Father Born Died Marriage Notes
Anna Petrovna Peter Alexeievich 1708 1728 Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
(m. 1725)
Elizabeth Petrovna
later, Elizabeth, Empress of Russia
Peter Alexeievich 1709 1762 Ascended the throne in 1741.
Natalya Alexeyevna Alexei Petrovich 1714 1728 Died unmarried.
Anna Leopoldovna Karl Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburg 1718 1746 Duke Anton Ulrich of Brunswick
(m. 1739)
Assumed title rather than received it.
Anna Petrovna Peter Feodorovich 1757 1758 Died in infancy.
Alexandra Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1783 1801 Archduke Josef, Palatine of Hungary
(m. 1799)
Elena Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1784 1803 Friedrich Ludwig, Hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(m. 1799)
Maria Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1786 1859 Karl Friedrich, Hereditary Duke of Saxe-Weimar
(m. 1804; d. 1853)
Catherine Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1788 1819 Duke Georg of Oldenburg
(m. 1809; d. 1812)
Wilhelm I, King of Württemberg
(m. 1816)
Olga Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1792 1795 Died in infancy.
Anna Pavlovna Pavel Petrovich 1795 1865 Willem II, King of the Netherlands
(m. 1816; d. 1849)
Maria Alexandrovna Alexander Pavlovich 1799 1800 Died in infancy. 
Elizabeth Alexandrovna Alexander Pavlovich 1806 1808 Died in infancy. 
Maria Nikolaievna Nikolai Pavlovich 1819 1876 Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg
(m. 1839; d. 1852)
Count Grigori Stroganov
(m. 1854)
Olga Nikolaievna Nikolai Pavlovich 1822 1892 Karl, Crown Prince of Württemberg
(m. 1846; d. 1891)
Maria Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1825 1846 Died unmarried.
Alexandra Nikolaievna Nikolai Pavlovich 1825 1844 Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel
(m. 1844)
Elizabeth Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1826 1845 Adolf, Duke of Nassau
(m. 1844)
Catherine Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1827 1894 Duke Georg August of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(m. 1851; d. 1876)
Alexandra Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1831 1832 Died in infancy.
Anna Mikhailovna Mikhail Pavlovich 1834 1836 Died in infancy.
Alexandra Alexandrovna Alexander Nikolaievich 1842 1849 Died in infancy.
Olga Konstantinovna Konstantin Nikolaievich 1851 1926 George I, King of the Hellenes
(m. 1867; d. 1913)
Maria Alexandrovna Alexander Nikolaievich 1853 1920 Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh
(m. 1874; d. 1900)
Vera Konstantinovna Konstantin Nikolaievich 1854 1912 Duke Eugen of Württemberg
(m. 1874; d. 1877)
Anastasia Mikhailovna Mikhail Nikolaievich 1860 1922 Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(m. 1879; d. 1897)
Xenia Alexandrovna Alexander Alexandrovich 1875 1960 Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich
(m. 1894; d. 1933)
Elena Vladimirovna Vladimir Alexandrovich 1882 1957 Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark
(m. 1902; d. 1938)
Olga Alexandrovna Alexander Alexandrovich 1882 1960 Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg
(m. 1901; ann. 1916)
Nikolai Alexandrovich Kulikovsky
(m. 1916; d. 1958)
Maria Pavlovna Pavel Alexandrovich 1890 1950 Prince Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland
(m. 1908; div. 1914)
Prince Sergei Mikhailovich Putyatin
(m. 1917; div. 1923)
Olga Nikolaievna Nikolai Alexandrovich 1895 1918 Died unmarried.
Tatiana Nikolaievna Nikolai Alexandrovich 1897 1918 Died unmarried.
Maria Nikolaevna Nikolai Alexandrovich 1899 1918 Died unmarried.
Anastasia Nikolaievna Nikolai Alexandrovich 1901 1918 Died unmarried.
Maria Kirillovna Kirill Vladimirovich 1907 1951 Karl, 6th Prince of Leiningen
(m. 1925; d. 1946)
Born as Princess of Russia and Grand Duchess after her father's headship of the House of Romanov.
Kira Kirillovna Kirill Vladimirovich 1909 1967 Ludwig Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia
(m. 1938)
Born as Princess of Russia and Grand Duchess after her father's headship of the House of Romanov.
Maria Vladimirovna Vladimir Kirillovich 1953 Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia
(m. 1976; div. 1985)
Born as Grand Duchess of Russia and later Crown Princess of Russia and Head of the House of Romanov after the death of her father.

After 1917 no such daughter was born into the deposed imperial house who would have been entitled to the title grand duchess - i.e., had been a male-line granddaughter of a reigning emperor; although such would have been technically possible, as there lived sons of reigning emperors and their daughters would have been so entitled

Grand Duchesses of Russia by marriageEdit

Picture Name Husband Date of marriage Born Died Notes
Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg Alexei Petrovich 25 October 1711 29 August 1694 13 November 1715  
Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst
Catherine Alexeievna
Peter Feodorovich 1 September 1745 2 May 1729 17 November 1796 Known to history as 'Catherine the Great'; became Empress Consort when her husband succeeded as Peter III in 1762 and became Empress Regnant 9 July 1762 on deposing her husband.
Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
Natalia Alexeievna
Pavel Petrovich 10 October 1773 25 June 1755 26 April 1776
Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Maria Feodorovna
Pavel Petrovich 7 October 1776 25 October 1759 5 November 1828 Became Empress when her husband succeeded as Paul I in 1796.
Louise of Baden
Elizabeth Alexeievna
Alexander Pavlovich 9 October 1793 24 January 1779 16 May 1826 Became Empress when her husband succeeded as Alexander I in 1801.
Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Anna Feodorovna
Konstantin Pavlovich 26 February 1796 23 September 1781 15 August 1860 Annulled 1820.  
Charlotte of Prussia
Alexandra Feodorovna
Nikolai Pavlovich 13 July 1817 13 July 1798 1 November 1860 Became Empress when her husband succeeded as Nicholas I in 1825.
Charlotte of Württemberg
Elena Pavlovna
Mikhail Pavlovich 19 February 1824 9 January 1807 2 February 1873  
Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
Maria Alexandrovna
Alexander Nikolaievich 28 April 1841 8 August 1824 3 June 1880 Became Empress when her husband succeeded as Alexander II in 1855.
Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg
Alexandra Iosifovna
Konstantin Nikolaievich 11 September 1848 8 July 1830 6 July 1911  
Alexandra of Oldenburg
Alexandra Petrovna
Nikolai Nikolaievich 6 February 1856 2 June 1838 25 April 1900  
Cecilie of Baden
Olga Feodorovna
Mikhail Nikolaievich 28 August 1857 20 September 1839 12 April 1891  
Dagmar of Denmark
Maria Feodorovna
Alexander Alexandrovich 9 November 1866 26 November 1847 13 October 1928 Became Empress when her husband succeeded as Alexander III in 1881.
Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Maria Pavlovna
Vladimir Alexandrovich 28 August 1874 14 May 1854 6 September 1920  
Elisabeth of Saxe-Altenburg
Elizabeth Mavrikievna
Konstantin Konstantinovich 27 April 1884 25 January 1865 24 March 1927  
Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine
Elizabeth Feodorovna
Sergei Alexandrovich 15 June 1884 1 November 1864 17 or 18 July 1918  
Alexandra of Greece and Denmark
Alexandra Georgievna
Pavel Alexandrovich 17 June 1889 30 August 1870 24 September 1891  
Milica of Montenegro
Militza Nikolaevna
Peter Nikolaievich 26 July 1889 26 July 1866 5 September 1951  
Maria of Greece and Denmark
Maria Georgievna
George Mikhailovich 12 May 1900 3 March 1876 14 December 1940  
Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Victoria Feodorovna
Kirill Vladimirovich 8 October 1905 25 November 1876 2 March 1936  
Anastasia of Montenegro
Anastasia Nikolaievna
Nikolai Nikolaievich 29 April 1907 4 January 1868 25 January 1929  
Leonida Bagration of Mukhrani
Leonida Georgievna
Vladimir Kirillovich 13 August 1948 6 October 1914 23 May 2010 Wife and mother of the heads of the House of Romanov in exile.
Imperial Standard of the grand duchesses

Although male grand dukes of Russia (sons or male-line grandsons of reigning emperors) existed after 1917, when the imperial house was deposed, none of them contracted an equal marriage after that date; so the title grand duchess was not gained by marriage thereafter — though it would have been technically possible.

Note that a grand duke or grand duchess as a translation is not necessarily associated with a grand duchy; see the relevant articles for more information.

A Russian grand duchess was styled as Her Imperial Highness. With the exception of Charlotte-Christine, women marrying into the Imperial family converted to Russian Orthodoxy (except for the Montenegrin and Greek princesses, who were already Orthodox). They also took Russian names — of the 17 converts: four took patronyms using their fathers' names, eight took Fyodorovna (after the Feodorovskaya Icon of the Mother of God), three took Alexeievna, one Alexandrovna (her husband's name) and one Pavlovna (her husband's patronym, the late Paul I); eight also changed their own given name.

See alsoEdit