List of government-owned companies

This is a non-exhaustive world-wide list of government-owned companies. The paragraph that follows was paraphrased from a 1996 GAO report which investigated only the 20th-century American experience. The GAO report did not consider the potential use in the international forum of SOEs as extensions of a nation's foreign policy utensils. A government-owned corporation is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government. Their legal status varies from being a part of government to stock companies with a state as a regular stockholder. There is no standard definition of a government-owned corporation (GOC) or state-owned enterprise (SOE), although the two terms can be used interchangeably. The defining characteristics are that they have a distinct legal form and that they are established to operate in commercial affairs. While they may also have public policy objectives, GOCs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely non-financial objectives.[1]

Afghanistan edit

In 2009, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formed the Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) as a "state owned enterprise" subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. By presidential decree, the APPF is mandated to replace all non-diplomatic private security companies by 20 March 2013 to become the sole provider of pay-for-service security contracts within Afghanistan.[2]

Albania edit

Algeria edit

Argentina edit

Australia edit

Austria edit

  • ÖBB (national railway system of Austria, administrator of Liechtenstein's railways)
  • ASFINAG (Autobahn and highway financing, building, maintaining and administration)
  • Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International: Austria nationalised this bank in 2009, and in 2014 its then-Chancellor feared its insolvency might have a similar effect to the Creditanstalt event of 1931.[3]
  • Verbund 51% SOE (electricity generator and provider)
  • Volksbank 43.3% SOE (retail banking group, with additional operations in Hungary, Romania and Malta)
  • ORF: funded from television licence fee revenue, dominant player in the Austrian broadcast media
  • Österreichische Industrieholding (ÖIAG): Austrian industry-holding stock corporation for partially or entirely nationalized companies, as of 2005:

Azerbaijan edit

Bangladesh edit

Belgium edit

The Region of Wallonia owns:

Belize edit

Bolivia edit

Brazil edit

State-owned enterprises are divided into public enterprises (empresa pública) and mixed-economy companies (sociedade de economia mista). The public enterprises are subdivided into two categories: individual – with its own assets and capital owned by the Union – and plural companies – whose assets are owned by multiple government agencies and the Union, which have the majority of the voting interest. Caixa Econômica Federal, Correios, Embrapa and BNDES and are examples of public enterprises. Mixed-economy companies are enterprises with the majority of stocks owned by the government, but that also have stocks owned by the private sector and usually have their shares traded on stock exchanges. Banco do Brasil, Petrobras, Sabesp, and Eletrobras are examples of mixed-economy companies.

Beginning in the 1990s, the central government of Brazil launched a privatization program inspired by the Washington Consensus. State-owned enterprises such as Vale do Rio Doce, Telebrás, CSN, and Usiminas (most of them mixed-economy companies) were transferred to the private sector as part of this policy.

Brazil State Owned Companies Fact Sheet / Download from the website.[4]

Brunei edit

Bulgaria edit

Canada edit

In Canada, state-owned corporations are referred to as Crown corporations, indicating that an organization is established by law, owned by the sovereign (either in right of Canada or a province), and overseen by parliament and cabinet. Examples of federal Crown corporations include:

Ministers of the Crown often control the shares in such public corporations, while parliament both sets out the laws that create and bind Crown corporations and sets their annual budgets.

Foreign SOEs are welcome to invest in Canada: in fall 2013, British Columbia[5][6] and Alberta[7][8][9] signed agreements overseas to promote foreign direct investment in Canada. The Investment Canada Act governs this area federally. Former Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated in 2013 that the "government [needs] to exercise its judgement" over SOEs.[10]

Crown corporations of British Columbia include:

Saskatchewan has maintained the largest number of Crown corporations, including:

In Ontario:

In Quebec:

Privatization, or the selling of Crown corporations to private interests, has become common throughout Canada over the past 30 years. Petro-Canada, Canadian National Railway, and Air Canada are examples of former federal Crown corporations that have been privatized. Privatized provincial Crown corporations include Alberta Government Telephones (which merged with privately owned BC Tel to form Telus), BCRIC, Manitoba Telecom Services, Saskatchewan Oil & Gas Corporation and Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan.

Chile edit

  • BancoEstado
  • Casa de Moneda de Chile
  • Cimm (Centro de Investigación Minera y Metalúrgica)
  • Cimm Tecnologías y Servicios S.A.
  • Comercializadora de Trigo S.A.
  • Codelco (Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile)
  • Econssa Chile S.A.
  • CorreosChile
  • EFE
  • Empresa de Servicios Sanitarios Lago Peñuelas S.A.
  • Metro S.A.
  • Enami (Empresa Nacional de Minería)
  • Empresa Nacional del Petróleo
  • Empresa Portuaria Antofagasta
  • Empresa Portuaria Arica
  • Empresa Portuaria Austral
  • Empresa Portuaria Chacabuco
  • Empresa Portuaria Coquimbo
  • Empresa Portuaria Iquique
  • Empresa Portuaria Puerto Montt
  • Empresa Portuaria San Antonio
  • Empresa Portuaria Talcahuano San Vicente
  • Empresa Portuaria Valparaíso
  • Polla Chilena de Beneficencia S.A.
  • Puerto Madero Impresores S.A.
  • Sociedad Agrícola Sacor Ltda.
  • Sasipa (Sociedad Agrícola y Servicios Isla de Pascua Ltda.)
  • Televisión Nacional de Chile
  • Zofri

China edit

After 1949, all business entities in the People's Republic of China were created and owned by the government. In the late 1980s, the government began to reform the state-owned enterprise, and during the 1990s and 2000s, many mid-sized and small sized state-owned enterprises were privatized and went public. There are a number of different corporate forms which result in a mixture of public and private capital. In PRC terminology, a state-owned enterprise refers to a particular corporate form, which is increasingly being replaced by the listed company.[citation needed] Some of the largest state-owned enterprises have been floated on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, but in actuality, the state maintains total control of these corporations, always holding majority interest and voting rights.[citation needed] State-owned enterprises are mostly governed by both local governments' SASAC and, in the central government, the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of the State Council. However, some state-owned enterprise were governed by China Investment Corporation (and its domestic arm Central Huijin Investment), as well as under the governance of Ministry of Education for the university-run enterprises, or some financial institutes that were under the governance of the Ministry of Finance.[citation needed]

As of 2011, 35% of business activity and 43% of profits in the People's Republic of China resulted from companies in which the state owned a majority interest. Critics, such as The New York Times, have alleged that China's state-owned companies are a vehicle for corruption by the families of ruling party leaders who have sometimes amassed fortunes while managing them.[11]

As of October 2019 China had more than 350 individual entries in the Government-owned companies of China category page.

Hong Kong edit

In the postwar years, Hong Kong's colonial government operated under a laissez-faire economic philosophy called positive non-interventionism. Hence Crown corporations did not play as significant a role in the development of the territory as in many other British territories.[citation needed]

The MTR Corporation (MTR) was formed as a Crown corporation, mandated to operate under "prudent commercial principles", in 1975. The Kowloon-Canton Railway, operated under a government department, was corporatised in 1982 to imitate the success of MTR (see Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation). MTR was privatised in 2000 although the Hong Kong Government is still the majority shareholder. KCR was operationally merged with MTR in 2007.[citation needed]

Examples of present-day statutory bodies include the Airport Authority, responsible for running the Hong Kong International Airport, or the Housing Authority, which provides housing to about half of Hong Kong residents.[citation needed]

Colombia edit

Empresas Públicas de Medellín headquarters

Cuba edit

Czech Republic edit

Denmark edit


  • Aarhus Vand A/S
  • Kalundborg Forsyning A/S
  • Middelgrunden offshore electricity generation wind farm
  • Samsø offshore electricity generation wind farm and district heating plants
  • Vandcenter Syd as

Ecuador edit

  • Ecuadorian Naval Shipyards ASTINAVE EP
  • Banking for Rural and Urban Productive Development BANECUADOR BP
  • Development Bank of Ecuador BDE
  • Pacific Bank BDP (currently on sale)
  • Electricity Corporation of Ecuador CELEC EP
  • National Electricity Corporation CNEL EP
  • National Telecommunications Corporation CNT EP (currently on sale)
  • Ecuadorian Railways (defunct)
  • Post Office of Ecuador CDE
  • Regional Electric Company Ambato Centro Norte SA EEASA
  • Electric Company Azogues CA EEA
  • Electric Company CENTROSUR
  • Electric Company Provincial Cotopaxi SA EEPC
  • Galápagos Provincial Electric Company EEPG
  • Quito Electric Company EEQ
  • Southern Regional Electric Company SA EERSSA
  • Riobamba Electric Company SA EERSA
  • National Mining Company ENAMI
  • Public Water Company EPA
  • Public Media EPMPCE (many medias are behind this entity such as TC Television, Gamavision, Ecuadorian Public Radio and Ecuador TV)
  • Ecuadorian Petroleum Fleet Public Company FLOPEC
  • Ecuador Airline TAME EP (defunct)
  • Santa Barbara EP SBEP
  • Ecuadorian Shipping Transport TRANSNAVE
  • Storage Unit UAE

Egypt edit

Transportation edit

Media & Communication edit

Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining edit

Contracting & Real Estate edit

Banking & Insurance edit

Pharmaceuticals edit

Holding Company for Pharmaceuticals (Holdipharma)

Manufacturing & Retail edit

Utilities edit

Tourism edit

Holding Company for Tourism and Hotels (HOTAC)

Finland edit

France edit

Gabon edit

Germany edit

Ghana edit

Greenland edit

Hungary edit

India edit

In India, state-owned enterprise is termed a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) or a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE). These companies are owned by the Union Government, or one of the many state or territorial governments, or both. The company equity needs to be majority owned by the government to be a PSU. Below are some Examples.

Indonesia edit

Iran edit

Iraq edit

Ireland edit

Israel edit

Central post office and the headquarters of Israel Postal Company in Jerusalem

Italy edit

Companies owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finances:

Japan edit

State-owned enterprises in Japan are commonly divided into tokushu hōjin (ja:特殊法人, lit. "special legal person") and tokushu gaisha (ja:特殊会社, lit. "special company"). Tokushu hōjin are the Japanese equivalent to statutory corporations; tokushu gaisha are kabushiki gaisha owned wholly or majorly by the government.

Japan Post was reorganized into Japan Post Group in 2007 as a material step of the Japanese postal service privatization. It ceased to be wholly owned by the government on November 4, 2015 when the government listed 11% of its holdings on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Parts of the Japan Railways Group (JR) were formerly owned by the government. J-Power was also state-owned before being privatized.

Tokushu hōjin edit

Tokushu gaisha edit

Kazakhstan edit

Kenya edit

A Kenya Railways GE U26C type locomotive

Parastatals in Kenya, partly from a lack of expertise and endemic corruption, have largely inhibited economic development. In 1979, a presidential commission went as far as saying that they constituted "a serious threat to the economy", and, by 1989, they had still not furthered industrialization or fostered the development of a Black business class.[13]

Several Kenyan SOEs have been privatized since the 1980s, with mixed results.[14][15]

Kuwait edit

South Korea edit

There are many state-owned enterprises in South Korea.

Latvia edit

Libya edit

Lithuania edit

Luxembourg edit

Madagascar edit

Malaysia edit

Mauritius edit

Mexico edit

Namibia edit

Netherlands edit

New Zealand edit

New Zealanders commonly refer to their state-owned enterprises as "SOEs", or as "crown entities". Local government councils and similar authorities also set up locally controlled enterprises, such as water-supply companies and "local-authority trading enterprises" (LATEs) as separate corporations or as business units of the councils concerned.

Government-owned businesses designated as crown entities include:

New Zealand's state-owned enterprises have included:

State-owned enterprises which have undergone privatisation and subsequent renationalisation:

Nigeria edit

North Korea edit

Norway edit

Oman edit

Pakistan edit

Pakistan has a large list of government owned companies called State owned entities (SOEs). These played an important role in the development of the business and industry in Pakistan, but recently they are considered responsible for fiscal difficulties of the government due to corruption and bad governance. These SOEs, roughly 190 in number, operate in a wide range of economic areas including energy, communication, transport, shipping, trading, and banking & finance. Some of the most common examples of crown companies in Pakistan are Pakistan State Oil, Sui Norther Gas Pipelines, Pakistan International Airlines, and Pakistan Steel Mills.

Panama edit

Philippines edit

In the Philippines, state-owned enterprises are known as government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs). They can range from the Social Security System (SSS) and the Philippine Coconut Authority with no counterparts in the private sector, to Land Bank of the Philippines, a wholly government-owned bank that competes with private banks. A number of GOCCs, especially those that were nationalized by president Ferdinand Marcos during his time as the leader of the Fourth Republic of the Philippines, were returned to the private sector by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, as with Philippine Airlines (PAL), Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Philippine National Bank (PNB), and ABS-CBN Corporation (where the frequencies and facilities used by Banahaw Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) were returned to ABS-CBN in 1986 and the ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center were fully recovered by ABS-CBN from People's Television Network (PTV) in 1992), or fully or partially privatized as with National Power Corporation (NPC/NAPOCOR), National Transmission Corporation (TransCo), and Philippine National Construction Corporation (PNCC).

Poland edit

Portugal edit

Puerto Rico edit

Romania edit

The state of Romania owns a minority stake in:

Russia edit

Saudi Arabia edit

Serbia edit

Seychelles edit

Singapore edit

Government-linked corporations play a substantial role in Singapore's domestic economy. These GLCs are partially or fully owned by a state-owned investment company, Temasek Holdings. As of November 2011, the top six Singapore-listed GLCs accounted for about 17% of total capitalization of the Singapore Exchange (SGX). Notable GLCs include Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering, and Mediacorp.[18]

Slovakia edit

Slovenia edit

Slovenia is an ex-Yugoslavian republic. As such, its economy was largely state-owned prior to dissolution of that federation. The state still owns many enterprises, such as the banks, which in turn own such businesses as supermarkets and newspapers.[19]

South Africa edit

Spain edit

Spain has thousands of public companies owned by the central, regional and local administrations. This is a short list of some of the most relevant at national level:

Sri Lanka edit

Sweden edit

There are two types. Government-owned companies are legally normal companies but mainly or fully national owned. They are expected to be funded by their sales. A big customer might be the government or a government agency. The other type is government agencies which might also do activities competing with private owned companies. They usually are funded by tax money but can also sell services. The government has tried to avoid having agencies doing commercial activities, by separating out areas that compete with private companies into government-owned companies, for example within road construction. The reason is both to avoid unfair competition, and a wish to have market economy instead of plan economy as much as possible. Based on the tradition of avoiding "ministerial rule", the government has avoided interfering with the business of the companies, and allowed them to go international.

Switzerland edit

Syria edit

Taiwan edit

Tanzania edit

The Government of Tanzania owns a number of commercial enterprises in the country via the Treasury Registrar. It wholly owns the following corporations unless indicated otherwise:[21]

Thailand edit

Trinidad and Tobago edit

Tunisia edit

Turkey edit

United Arab Emirates edit

United Kingdom edit

United States edit

Uruguay edit

Venezuela edit

Vietnam edit

Zambia edit

Zimbabwe edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Post Office and Civil Service, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate - GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS - Profiles of Existing Government Corporations (PDF). United States General Accounting Office. December 1995. pp. 1–16. GAO/GGD-96-14
  2. ^ "Afghan Public Protection Force-معینیت محافظت عامه".
  3. ^ Groendahl, Boris (17 February 2014). "Faymann Evokes 1931 Austria Creditanstalt Crash on Hypo Alpe". Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  4. ^ "Ministério da Economia" (PDF).
  5. ^ Office of the Premier, International Trade, and Minister Responsible for the Asia Pacific Strategy and Multiculturalism. "Premier Clark announces Jobs and Trade Mission to Asia". Retrieved 12 September 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Bailey, Ian (7 October 2013). "B.C. minister says Malaysian investment vindicates province's bets on LNG sector". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Redford's trip to China highlights petrochemical potential",, 17 Sep 2013.
  8. ^ "Alberta Premier Alison Redford says China's investors want more details on rules". Calgary Sun. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  9. ^ "CHINA: Canada's Alberta province signs framework agreement to expand energy ties amid waning Chinese interest". EnergyAsia. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  10. ^ "Foreign investment doesn't need 'absolute clarity: Harper". 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  11. ^ Bradsher, Keith (November 9, 2012). "China's Grip on Economy Will Test New Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  12. ^ "عن الهيئة | الهيئة الوطنية للإعلام". Retrieved 2023-12-10.
  13. ^ Himbara, David (1993). "Myths and Realities of Kenyan Capitalism". Journal of Modern African Studies. 31 (1): 93–107. doi:10.1017/s0022278x00011824. JSTOR 161345. S2CID 154463580.
  14. ^ "Productivity performance in Kenya" (PDF): 43. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ "Conflicting Information Over Kenya Airways' Layoffs". 3 October 2012. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ Putt, Sarah (15 April 2013). "Kordia sells Orcon to private investors". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  17. ^ PRIVATISATION DEBATE SHOULD BE RIGOROUS | Roger Kerr, New Zealand Business Roundtable Executive Director. (2011-01-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  18. ^ Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (June 2012). "2012 Investment Climate Statement - Singapore". United States Department of State. Retrieved 10 March 2014. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  19. ^ a b c d "Saved a state bailout, Slovenes question hefty banking bill". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  20. ^ "Revamped Airbus lives up to the European dream". 5 January 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  21. ^ "Treasury Registrar". Ministry of Finance (Tanzania). Retrieved 11 October 2014.

Bibliography edit

External links edit