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List of genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. As of 2015, 26 plant species have been genetically modified and approved for commercial release in at least one country. The majority of these species contain genes that make them either tolerant to herbicides or resistant to insects. Other common traits include virus resistance, delayed ripening, modified flower colour or altered composition. In 2014, 28 countries grew GM crops, and 39 countries imported but did not grow them.[1]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Regulations regarding the commercialisation of genetically modified crops are mostly conducted by individual countries. For cultivation, environmental approval determines whether a crop can be legally grown. Separate approval is generally required to use GM crops in food for human consumption or as animal feed.[2][3]

GM crops were first planted commercially on a large scale in 1996, in the US, China, Argentina, Canada, Australia, and Mexico.[1] Some countries have approved but not actually cultivated GM crops, due to public uncertainty or further government restrictions, while at the same time, they may import GM foods for consumption. For example, Japan is a leading GM food importer, and permits but has not grown GM food crops. The European Union regulates importation of GM foods, while individual member states determine cultivation.[4] In the US, separate regulatory agencies handle approval for cultivation (USDA, EPA) and for human consumption (FDA).[5]

Two genetically modified crops have been approved for food use in some countries, but have not obtained approval for cultivation. A GM Melon engineered for delayed senescence was approved in 1999 and a herbicide tolerant GM wheat was approved in 2004.

Genetically modified crops cultivated in 2014Edit

Distribution of GM crops planted in 2014

  GM soybean (50%)
  GM maize (30%)
  GM cotton (14%)
  GM canola (5%)
  Other (1%)

In 2014, 181.5 million hectares of genetically modified crops were planted in 28 countries. Half of all GM crops planted were genetically modified soybeans, either for herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Eleven countries grew modified soybean, with the USA, Brazil and Argentina accounting for 90% of the total hectarage. Of the 111 hectares of soybean grown worldwide in 2014, 82% was genetically modified in some way. Seventeen countries grew a total of 55.2 million hectares of genetically modified maize and fifteen grew 23.9 hectares of genetically modified cotton. Nine million hectares of genetically modified canola was grown with 8 million of those in Canada. Other GM crops grown in 2014 include Alfalfa (862 000 ha), sugar beet (494 000 ha) and papaya (7 475 ha). In Bangladesh a genetically modified eggplant was grown commercially for the first time on 12ha.[6]

The majority of GM crops have been modified to be resistant to selected herbicides, usually a glyphosate or glufosinate based one. In 2014, 154 million hectares were planted with a herbicide resistant crop and 78.8 million hectares had insect resistant. This include 51.4 million hectares planted in thirteen countries that contained both herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. Less than one million hectares contained other traits, which include providing virus resistance, delaying senescence, modifying flower colour and altering the plants composition. Drought tolerant maize was planted for just the second year in the USA on 275 000 hectares.[6]

Herbicide toleranceEdit

Genetically modified crops engineered to resist herbicides are now more available than conventionally bred resistant varieties.[7] They comprised 83% of the total GM crop area, equating to just under 8% of the arable land worldwide.[7] Approval has been granted to grow crops engineered to be resistant to the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,[8] dicamba,[9] glufosinate[10] glyphosate,[11] sulfonylurea,[12] oxynil[13] mesotrione[14] and isoxaflutole[15] Most herbicide resistant GM crops have been engineered for glyphosate tolerance, in the USA 93% of soybeans and most of the GM maize grown is glyphosate tolerant.[16]

GMO Use Countries approved in First approved[17] Notes
Alfalfa Animal feed[18] USA 2005 Approval withdrawn in 2007[19] and then re-approved in 2011[20]
Canola Cooking oil

Margarine

Emulsifiers in packaged foods[18]

Australia 2003
Canada 1995
USA 1995
Cotton Fiber
Cottonseed oil
Animal feed[18]
Except in India, where Cottonseed oil used for human consumption
Argentina 2001
Australia 2002
Brazil 2008
Columbia 2004
Costa Rica 2008
India 2002
Mexico 2000
Paraguay 2013
South Africa 2000
USA 1994
Maize Animal feed

high-fructose corn syrup

corn starch[18]

Argentina 1998
Brazil 2007
Canada 1996
Colombia 2007
Cuba 2011
European Union 1998 Grown in Portugal, Spain, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania[21]
Honduras 2001
Paraguay 2012
Philippines 2002
South Africa 2002
USA 1995
Uruguay 2003
Soybean Animal feed

Soybean oil[18]

Argentina 1996
Bolivia 2005
Brazil 1998
Canada 1995
Chile 2007
Costa Rica 2001
Mexico 1996
Paraguay 2004
South Africa 2001
USA 1993
Uruguay 1996
Sugar Beet Food[22] Canada 2001
USA 1998 Commercialised 2007,[23] production blocked 2010, resumed 2011.[22]

Insect resistanceEdit

Most currently available genes used to engineer insect resistance come from the Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium. Most are in the form of delta endotoxin genes known as cry proteins, while a few use the genes that encode for vegetative insecticidal proteins.[24] Insect resistant crops target various species of coleopteran (beetles)[25] and lepidopteran (moths).[26] The only gene commercially used to provide insect protection that does not originate from B. thuringiensis is the Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). CpTI was first approved for use cotton in 1999 and is currently undergoing trials in rice.[27][28]

GMO Use Countries approved in First approved[17] Notes
Cotton Fiber
Cottonseed oil
Animal feed[18]
Argentina 1998
Australia 2003
Brazil 2005
Burkina Faso 2009
China 1997
Colombia 2003
Costa Rica 2008
India 2002 Largest producer of Bt cotton[29]
Mexico 1996
Myanmar 2006[N 1]
Pakistan 2010[N 1]
Paraguay 2007
South Africa 1997
Sudan 2012
USA 1995
Eggplant Food Bangladesh 2013 12 ha planted on 120 farms in 2014[30]
Maize Animal feed

high-fructose corn syrup

corn starch[18]

Argentina 1998
Brazil 2005
Columbia 2003
Mexico 1996 Centre of origin for maize[31]
Paraguay 2007
Philippines 2002
South Africa 1997
Uruguay 2003
USA 1995
Poplar Tree China 1998 543 ha of bt poplar planted in 2014[32]

Stacked traitsEdit

Many varieties of GM crops contain more than one resistance gene. This could be in the form of multiple insect resistant genes, multiple herbicide tolerance genes or a combination of the herbicide and insect resistant genes. Smartstax is a brand of GM maize that has eight different genes added to it, making it resistant to two types of herbicides and toxic to six different species of insects.[33]

Other modified traitsEdit

While most crops are engineered to resist insects or tolerate herbicides some crops have been developed for other traits. Flowers have been engineered to display colours that they cannot do so naturally (in particular the blue color in roses). A few crops, like the genetically modified papaya, are engineered to resist viruses. Other modifications alter the plants composition, with the aim of making it more nutritious, longer lasting or more industrially useful. Recently crops engineered to tolerate drought have been commercialised.

GMO Use Trait Countries approved in First approved[17] Notes
Canola Cooking oil

Margarine

Emulsifiers in packaged foods[18]

High laurate canola Canada 1996
USA 1994
Phytase production USA 1998
Carnation Ornamental Delayed senescence Australia 1995
Norway 1998
Modified flower colour Australia 1995
Columbia 2000 In 2014 4 ha were grown in greenhouses for export[34]
European Union 1998 Two events expired 2008, another approved 2007
Japan 2004
Malaysia 2012 For ornamental purposes
Norway 1997
Maize Animal feed

high-fructose corn syrup

corn starch[18]

Increased lysine Canada 2006
USA 2006
Drought tolerance Canada 2010
USA 2011
Papaya Food[18] Virus resistance China 2006
USA 1996 Mostly grown in Hawaii[18]
Petunia Ornamental Modified flower colour 1998[N 1]
Potato Food[18] Virus resistance Canada 1999
USA 1997
Industrial[35] Modified starch USA 2014
Rose Ornamental Modified flower colour Australia 2009 Surrendered renewal
Colombia 2010[N 2] Greenhouse cultivation for export only.
Japan 2008
USA 2011
Soybean Animal feed

Soybean oil[18]

Increased oleic acid production Argentina 2015
Canada 2000
USA 1997
Stearidonic acid production Canada 2011
USA 2011
Squash Food[18] Virus resistance USA 1994
Sugar Cane Food Drought tolerance Indonesia 2013 Environmental certificate only
Tobacco Cigarettes Nicotine reduction USA 2002

Genetically modified crops that are no longer cultivatedEdit

GMO Use Trait Countries approved in First approved[17] Notes
Potato Food[18] Insect resistance Canada 1995 Withdrawn from market 2001[36]
USA 1994
Industrial[35] Modified starch European Union 2010 Development stopped 2012[37]
Rice Food Insect resistance Iran 2004 Grown on 4000 ha in 2005[38]
Tobacco Cigarettes Herbicide resistance China 1992[39] Not grown since 1995 due to strong opposition from tobacco importers.[39][40]
Tomato Food Delayed softening USA 1992 Production stopped 1997[41]

First GM food (see Flavr Savr)

Approved genetically modified crops that have not yet been cultivatedEdit

GMO Use Trait Countries approved in First approved[17] Notes
Apple Food[18] Delayed browning Canada 2015
USA 2015
Bean Viral disease resistance Brazil 2011
Chicory Animal feed Herbicide tolerance USA 1997
Eucalyptus Tree Altered growth Brazil 2015
Flax Linseed Oil Herbicide tolerance USA 1999 Canada gained approval in 1996, but it was rescinded in 2001[42]
Grass Animal feed Herbicide tolerance USA 2003
Plum Food Virus resistance USA 2007
Potato Food[18] Reduced acrylamide

Blackspot bruise tolerance

Late blight resistance

USA 2015
Virus resistance Canada 1999
USA 1997
Industrial[35] Modified starch USA 2014
Sweet pepper Food Virus resistance China 1998

Genetically modified crops by countryEdit

Country GM food Ha grown in 2014[43]
Argentina Cotton 530 000
Maize 3 000 000
Soybean 20 800 000
Australia Canola 342 000
Carnation
Cotton 200 000
Bangladesh Eggplant 12
Brazil Cotton 600 000
Maize 12 500 000
Soybean 29 100 000
Bolivia Soybean 1 000 000
Burkina Faso Cotton 454,124[N 3]
Canada Canola 8 000 000
Maize 1 400 000
Soybean 2 200 000
Sugar beet 15 000
Chile Canola 2 000
Maize 7 000
Soybean 1 000
China Cotton 3 900 000
Papaya 8 475
Poplar 543
Sweet pepper
Tomato
Colombia Cotton 18 000
Maize 81 000
Costa Rica Cotton 36.3
Soybean 1.7
Cuba Maize 3 000
Czech Republic Maize 1,754
Honduras Maize 29 000
India Cotton 11 600 000
Mexico Cotton 160 000
Soybean 10 000
Myanmar Cotton 318,000
Pakistan Cotton 2 850 000
Paraguay Cotton 36 000
Maize 500 000
Soybean 3 300 000
Philippines Maize 831 000
Portugal Maize 8 542
Romania Maize 771
Slovakia Maize 441
South Africa Cotton 9 000
Maize 2 150 000
Soybean 552 000
Spain Maize 131,538
Sudan Cotton 90 000
United States of America Alfalfa 862 000
Canola 685 000
Cotton 4 500 000
Maize 34 500 000
Papaya 1 000
Potato
Soybean 32 300 000
Squash 1 000
Sugar beet 479 000
Uruguay Maize 90 000
Soybean 1 550 000

The following graph shows the area planted in GM crops in the five largest GM crop producing countries. The area planted is presented along the y axis in thousands of hectares while the year is along the x axis. [N 4]

 
  USA
  Canada
  Argentina
  Brazil
  India
  Others


See alsoEdit

References and notesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c No official public documentation available
  2. ^ No public documents
  3. ^ GM cotton production was banned in 2016 due to economic and quality concerns.[44]
  4. ^ The data for the graph is calculated from information found in ISAAA briefs. [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53] The other values were found by adding up all the area for GM crop producing countries (excluding the top five).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "19 Years of Biotech Crops in the World". isaaa.org. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 Feb 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  2. ^ "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms". loc.gov. Library of Congress. 9 Jun 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  3. ^ "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms | Law Library of Congress". Loc.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  4. ^ Papademetriou, Theresa (9 Jun 2015). "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: European Union". loc.gov. Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  5. ^ Acosta, Luis (9 Jun 2015). "Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms:United States". loc.gov. Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014 - ISAAA Brief 49-2014". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  7. ^ a b USA (2016-08-01). "Pleiotropic effects of herbicide-resistance genes on crop yield: a review. - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID 23457026. 
  8. ^ "GM Events with 2,4-D herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  9. ^ "GM Events with Dicamba herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  10. ^ "GM Events with Glufosinate herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  11. ^ "GM Events with Glyphosate herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  12. ^ "GM Events with Sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  13. ^ "GM Events with Oxynil herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  14. ^ "GM Events with Mesotrione Herbicide Tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  15. ^ "GM Events with Isoxaflutole herbicide tolerance| GM Approval Database". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  16. ^ Jerry M Green. "Current state of herbicides in herbicide-resistant crops - Green - 2014 - Pest Management Science - Wiley Online Library". Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "GM Crops List | GM Approval Database- ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "All the GMOs Approved In the U.S." TIME.com. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  19. ^ www.gmo-compass.org. "Lucerne - GMO Database". www.gmo-compass.org. Archived from the original on 2016-07-02. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  20. ^ "UPDATE 3-U.S. farmers get approval to plant GMO alfalfa". Reuters. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  21. ^ "Infographics: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014 - ISAAA Brief 49-2014 | ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  22. ^ a b Scott Kilman. "Modified Beet Gets New Life". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  23. ^ Pollack, Andrew (2007-11-27). "Round 2 for Biotech Beets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  24. ^ Fleischer, Shelby J.; Hutchison, William D.; Naranjo, Steven E. (2014-01-01). Ricroch, Agnès; Chopra, Surinder; Fleischer, Shelby J., eds. Plant Biotechnology. Springer International Publishing. pp. 115–127. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-06892-3_10. ISBN 9783319068916. 
  25. ^ "GM Events with Coleopteran insect resistance| GM Approval Database- ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  26. ^ "GM Events with Lepidopteran insect resistance| GM Approval Database- ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  27. ^ "SGK321 | GM Approval Database- ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2017-04-27. 
  28. ^ Qiu, Jane (2008-10-15). "Agriculture: Is China ready for GM rice?". Nature News. 455 (7215): 850–852. doi:10.1038/455850a. 
  29. ^ "Facts and trends - India" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. 
  30. ^ "Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014 - ISAAA Brief 49-2014 | ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2016-02-16. 
  31. ^ "Facts and trends-Mexico" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. 
  32. ^ "Facts and trends- China" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. 
  33. ^ "Monsanto's SmartStax maize 'to be approved for growth in October' in EU". Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  34. ^ "Facts and trends - Columbia" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. 
  35. ^ a b c Press, Associated (2010-03-03). "GM potato to be grown in Europe". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  36. ^ Kilman, Scott (21 March 2001). "Monsanto's Genetically Modified Potatoes Find Slim Market, Despite Repelling Bugs". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  37. ^ Kanter, James (2012-01-16). "BASF to Stop Selling Genetically Modified Products in Europe". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  38. ^ James, Clive. "Highlights of isaaa briefs no. 34-2005" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. 
  39. ^ a b Tao, Zhang; Shudong, Zhou (2003-06-01). "The Economic and Social Impact of GMOs in China". China Perspectives (in French) (47). ISSN 1996-4617. 
  40. ^ Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Pray, Carl; Wang, Qinfang (2002-01-01). "Plant Biotechnology in China". Science. 295 (5555): 674–677. JSTOR 3075699. 
  41. ^ Schneider, Keith R.; Goodrich Schneider, Renée; Richardson, Susanna (22 March 2017). "Genetically Modified Food". University of Florida. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 2018-01-06. 
  42. ^ "GM linseed: Products being taken off the market". Gmo-compass.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  43. ^ "Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014 - ISAAA Brief 49-2014 | ISAAA.org". www.isaaa.org. Retrieved 2016-08-27. 
  44. ^ "Top African producer bans GM cotton". Phys.org. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  45. ^ "ISAAA Brief 36-2006 > Executive Summary" (PDF). ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  46. ^ "ISAAA Brief 35-2006 > Executive Summary". ISAAA.org. 2006-09-04. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  47. ^ "ISAAA Brief 37-2007 - Executive Summary >". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  48. ^ "ISAAA Brief 39-2008 - Executive Summary >". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  49. ^ "Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2009 - ISAAA Brief 41-2009". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  50. ^ "Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2011 - ISAAA Brief 43-2011". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  51. ^ "Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2012 - ISAAA Brief 44-2012". ISAAA.org. 2012-11-06. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  52. ^ "Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013 - ISAAA Brief 46-2013". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15. 
  53. ^ "Executive Summary: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014 - ISAAA Brief 49-2014". ISAAA.org. Retrieved 2016-09-15.