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A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term maréchaussée (or marshalcy) may also be used (e.g., Royal Marechaussee) but is now uncommon.

Although pioneered in France, the concept of a gendarmerie was adopted by several other European nations during the Napoleonic Wars.[1] It remains an integral part of the military establishment in most Francophone states and territories.[1] A somewhat related phenomenon has been the formation of paramilitary units which fall under the authority of civilian police agencies. Since these are not strictly military forces, however, they are not considered gendarmerie.[2]

List of active gendarmeriesEdit

Country or territory Image English name Native-language name Notes Refs.
Algeria   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale (الدرك الوطني)
Argentina   Argentine National Gendarmerie Gendarmería Nacional Argentina
  Argentine Naval Prefecture Prefectura Naval Argentina
Armenia   Armenian Border Guard
Azerbaijan   Internal Troops of Azerbaijan Azərbaycan Respublikası Daxili Qoşunları
Bahrain   National Guard الحرس الوطني
  Public Security Forces
Bangladesh   Village Defence Party
Belarus   Internal Troops Belarusian: Унутраныя войскі (Unutranyja vojski)
Russian: Внутренние войска (Vnutrennie voyska)
  State Border Committee of the Republic of Belarus
Benin   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Bhutan   Royal Bhutan Police
Brazil   Military Police Polícia Militar Brazilian states have their own gendarmeries and federal government has a National Public Security Force, a department formed with personal from states' Military Police Forces, Military Firefighters Corps and Civil Police.
Burkina Faso   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Burundi   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Cambodia   Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia កងរាជអាវុធហត្ថ
Cameroon   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Canada Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gendarmerie royale du Canada
  Canadian Forces Military Police Police militaire des Forces canadiennes Sworn as peace officers who can arrest civilians on military bases.
Central African Republic   Gendarmerie
Chad   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Chile   Carabineros of Chile Carabineros de Chile The police of streets, roads and borders.
  Chilean Gendarmerie Gendarmería de Chile The police of prisons and courts of justice. The national prison service of Chile.
China   People's Armed Police Zhōngguó Rénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá Bùduì (中国人民武装警察部队) The PAP perform military-civilian police duties. The PAP is a component of the Paramilitary forces of China.
Colombia   Corps of Carabiners
Mobile Carabinier Squadrons
Cuerpo de Carabineros
Escuadrones Móviles de Carabineros
Comoros   Gendarmerie
Costa Rica   Costa Rican Civil Guard Guardia Civil The Costa Rican Civil Guard is a branch of the Public Forces of Costa Rica (Fuerza Pública).
Air Vigilance Service Servicio de Vigilance Aéreo Air Vigilance Service is the aviation wing of the Public Forces of Costa Rica.
Djibouti   Djiboutian National Gendarmerie
Egypt   Central Security Forces A separate force known as the Egyptian Gendarmerie was created in 1882 and continued in existence until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952. In 2014 it was announced that the Gendarmerie were to be recreated, initially for policing and security duties in certain districts of Cairo.
France   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
  Maritime Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Maritime The maritime coast guard wing of the National Gendarmerie.
  National Guard Garde nationale
Gabon   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Guinea   Gendarmerie
Guinea-Bissau   National Guard Guarda Nacional Created in 2010 through the merger of several former security agencies. Modeled on the Portuguese National Republican Guard and other similar organizations.
Haiti   Haitian National Police Police Nationale d'Haiti
  Haitian Coast Guard The maritime coast guard unit of the Haitian National Police.
India   Assam Rifles
Border Security Force
Central Industrial Security Force
Central Reserve Police Force
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Sashastra Seema Bal
Special Frontier Force The Assam Rifles, Border Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Sashastra Seema Bal and Special Frontier Force are components of the paramilitary forces of India.
The Central Reserve Police Force, including its specialized wing the Rapid Action Force.
Indonesia   Indonesian National Police Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia For part of its history (1946–2000), it was a service branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces under the Department of Defense and Security. Since 2000 it operates as an independent civilian police under direct command of the President.
Iran   Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iraq   National Police Not to be confused with civilian Iraqi Police Service, although at present both are highly militarized.
  Facilities Protection Service
Iraqi Kurdistan   Zeravani
Israel   Israel Border Police Mishmar HaGvul (משמר הגבול)
Italy   Corps of Carabineers Arma dei Carabinier The Carabinieri is a component of the Italian Armed Forces.
  Finance Guard/ Customs Guardia di Finanza
Ivory Coast   Gendarmerie
Jordan   General Directorate of Gendarmerie General Directorate of Gendarmerie (قوات الدرك الأردني)
Lebanon   Internal Security Forces Internal Security Forces - ISF (قوى الأمن الداخلي) Nicknamed "El Darak"
Lithuania   Public Safety Service Viešojo saugumo tarnyba
Madagascar   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Mali   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Malaysia   Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency
Mauritania   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
  National Guard
Mauritius   Special Mobile Force Armed paramilitary wing of the Mauritius Police Force
Mexico   National Gendarmerie The National Gendarmerie was created in 2014, and is legally defined as a military force within the Federal Police. On account of its heavily armed agents, its culture, and its origins, the Federal Police as a whole may be considered a gendarmerie.
  National Guard Guardia Nacional The National Guard was created in 2019 by merging the Military Police, the Naval Police, and the Federal Police (including the National Gendarmerie).
  Rurales The Rurales are a voluntary militia.
  Maritime Search and Rescue Maritime search and rescue organisation of the Mexican Navy.
Moldova   Carabinier Troops Trupele de Carabinieri
  Moldovan Border Police
Monaco   Prince's Company of Carabiniers Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince The Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers provide an armed support service.
Mongolia   National Police Agency
Morocco   Royal Moroccan Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Royale (الدرك الملكي)
  Auxiliary Forces
Netherlands   Royal Marechaussee Koninklijke Marechaussee
Nicaragua   National Police of Nicaragua
Niger   National Gendarmerie
  National Guard of Niger
Nigeria   Nigerian Mobile Police Armed paramilitary wing of the Nigerian Police Force
  Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps
Pakistan   Balochistan Levies The Balochistan Levies are a paramilitary force in the Pakistani province of Balochistan.
  Frontier Constabulary The Frontier Constabulary is a component of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.
  Frontier Corps The Frontier Corps are a component of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.
  Gilgit Baltistan Scouts The Gilgit Baltistan Scouts are a component of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.
  Kharan Rifles The Kharan Rifles are a paramilitary unit of the Pakistan federal government.
  Malakand Levies The Malakand Levies are a paramilitary force in the Pakistani province of Pakhtunkhwa, Malakand Division.
  National Guard of Pakistan The Pakistan National Guard is a paramilitary reserve unit of the Pakistan Army.
  Pakistan Rangers The Pakistan Ranges are paramilitary law enforcement organisation. The Pakistan Rangers are a component of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan.
Panama   National Border Service The National Border Service is the paramilitary border guard component of the Panamanian Public Forces.
  National Aeronaval Service Servico Nacional Aeronaval The National Aeronaval Service is the air and coast guard component of the Panamanian Public Forces.
Poland   Military Gendarmerie Żandarmeria Wojskowa
Portugal   National Republican Guard Guarda Nacional Republicana
Romania   Romanian Gendarmerie Jandarmeria Română
Russia   Military Police Военная полиция
  Russian National Guard
National Guard Naval Service Corps Naval, coast guard and water police service of the Russian National Guard.
  OMON Paramilitary gendarmerie, riot police units of the Russian National Guard and Police of Russia.
San Marino   Corps of Gendarmerie of San Marino Gendarmeria
Senegal   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Serbia   Gendarmery Žandarmerija (Жандармерија)
Spain   Civil Guard Guardia Civil
Switzerland   Border Guard Corps
Federal Office of Police
Both have civilian status.
(The cantonal police of the French-speaking cantons are called gendarmerie, but do not fit any of the criteria.)
Tajikistan   Internal Troops Қӯшунҳои дохилӣ
Togo   National Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Nationale
Tunisia   National Guard Garde Nationale
Turkey   Gendarmerie General Command Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Turkmenistan   Internal Troops Türkmenistanyň içeri işler edaralarynyň işgärlerine
  State Border Service of Turkmenistan
Ukraine   National Guard Національна гвардія України (Natsionalna hvardiia Ukrainy)
  State Border Guard Service of Ukraine
Vatican City   Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano General responsibility for security and public order which encompasses all regular police duties, including border control, crime prevention and investigation, and enforcement of financial and commercial regulations.
Vanuatu   Vanuatu Mobile Force
Venezuela   Venezuelan National Guard Guardia Nacional de Venezuela
Vietnam   Vietnam People's Public Security Công an Nhân dân Việt Nam
Yemen   Special Security Forces
Europe   European Gendarmerie Force French: Force de gendarmerie européenne
Italian: Forza di Gendarmeria Europea
Portuguese: Força de Gendarmerie Europeia
Spanish: Fuerza de Gendarmería Europea
Formed by seven members of the European Union: France, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Spain. The European Gendarmerie Force was created as an intervention force at the service of the EU, the NATO, the UN, the OSCE, or other “ad hoc” alliances. It is characterized by its robustness, and quick deployability, and it specializes in the management of crisis areas. Lithuania is currently a Partner Member, and Turkey has Observer status.

List of former gendarmeriesEdit

Country or territory English name Native-language name Formed Disbanded Notes Refs.
  Afghanistan Defenders of the Revolution Sarandoy ~1980 ~1988 Formed and employed under the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
  Albania
International Gendarmerie 1913 1914
Royal Albanian Gendarmerie Xhandarmëria Mbretërore e Shqipëris 1924 ~1939 Formed as a counterweight to the Royal Albanian Army, it employed British advisors on its staff and with the units
Royal Border Guard 1929 1939 The Royal Border Guards were a component of the Royal Albanian Army
  Australia Australian native police
  Austria Federal Gendarmerie Bundesgendarmerie 1849 2005 Dissolved under occupation from 1938 to 1945. Merged with other agencies to form new Bundespolizei in 2005
B-Gendarmerie 1949 1955
  Azerbaijan Special Purpose Police Unit 1990 1995
  Belgium Belgian Gendarmerie French: Gendarmerie
Dutch: Rijkswacht
1796 2001 Was formed under French rule in what now is Belgian territory, even before the establishment of Belgium itself (1830). Merged with federal and local police to form a new policing system
Garde Civique 1830 1920
  Belarus Byelorussian Auxiliary Police 1941 1944
  Belgian Congo Force Publique 1886 1960
  Bulgaria Bulgarian Gendarmerie Zhandarmeriya The Bulgarian Gendarmerie was disbanded by the country's General Directorate of Police, and its personnel were absorbed into various specialized police units.
  Canada North-West Mounted Police 1873 1920
  China Green Standard Army 1644 1912
  Colombia National Gendarmerie Corps Cuerpo de Gendarmeria Nacional 1906 1909 Created to function decentralized from the National Police command and more militarized regime, managed by the Ministry of War. In 1909 General Jorge Holguín suppressed the National Gendarmerie Corps and gave the provincial governors the authority to organize police services at their own will
  Costa Rica Costa Rican Civil Guard 1949 1996
  Cyprus Cyprus Military Police 1880 1935
  Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian Gendarmerie Československé četnictvo 1918 1942 Managed by the Ministry of Interior. In 1942 merged with police and fire brigades. After the liberation in 1945 created a unified police force—the Corps of National Security (SNB)—that amalgamated gendarmerie, police and intelligence.
State Defence Guard 1936 1939
  Cretan State Cretan Gendarmerie Κρητική Χωροφυλακή, Kritiki Chorofylaki 1899 1916
  Denmark Border Gendarmerie Grænsegendarmeriet 1838 1958
The Blue Gendarms De Blå Gendarmer 1885 1897
  Dutch East Indies Marshal Corps On Foot Korps Marechaussee te voet 1890 1942
  El Salvador National Guard Guardia Nacional 1912 1922
  Estonia Estonian Border Guard Eesti Piirivalve 1922 2010
Estonian Auxiliary Police 1941 1944
  Ethiopia Ethiopian Gendarmery Zabagna 1916 1936 Included the Kebur Zabagna Imperial Guard
  Vichy France Moblie Reserve Groups Group Mobile de Réserve 1941 1944
  Gambia Gambia Constabulary 1866 1965
Gambia Regiment 1901 1958
  Georgia Internal Troops of Georgia 1991 2004
  Germany
Gendarmerie Gendarmerie, Landjägerei, Landpolizei and other denominations 19th century mid-20th century Due to the distinctive autonomy of the German states, every state has his own history of establishing and denomination. In Prussia it was called Gendarmerie, in other states it was called Landjägerei, Dragoon corps or Hussar
Federal Border Guards Bundesgrenzschutz 1951 2005
  German Empire Feldgendarmerie 1866 1918 Military police units of the army of the Germany Empire.
  Weimar Republic Sicherheitspolizei 1919 1935
  Nazi Germany Feldgendarmerie 1933 1945 Military police units of the army of Nazi Germany.
Sonderdienst 1940 1944
Police Regiment Centre 1941 1942
Axiliary Police Schutzmannschaft 1941 1944
  East Germany Barracked People's Police Kasernierte Volkspolizei 1948 1956 The precursor of the East German Army
  Greece
Hellenic Gendarmerie Ελληνική Χωροφυλακή, Elliniki Chorofylaki 1833 1984 Merged with the City Police and formed the current Hellenic Police
Roman Legion 1941 1943
Security Battalions 1943 1944
National Guard Defence Battalions 1948 1982
  Haiti Gendarmerie of Haiti 1915 1928
Tonton Macoute 1959 1986
  Hungary Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie Magyar Királyi Csendőrség 1881 1945 Disbanded by the Interim National Government after WWII because Hungarian Royal Gendarmerie took part in the Holocaust by gathering the Hungarian Jews and giving them to the Nazi German forces.
Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat 2004 2008 Couple years after the fall of the communist regime, a new gendarmerie-type police force within the frameworks of the Hungarian National Police:, Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat was formed and existed between 2004 and 2008.
  Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Gendarmerie ژاندارمری (Zhāndārmerī) 1979 1990 Persian Central Government Gendarmerie 1911-1921, Amniyeh Kol-e Mamlekati 1921-1943; GENMISH 1943-1957; State Gendarmerie 1957-1979; gendarmerie dissolved in 1990
Qarasuran
  Ireland Royal Irish Constabulary[3] 1822 1922 Royal added to the name in 1867.[4]
Criminal Investigation Department 1921 1923
  Kingdom of Italy Blackshirts 1923 1943
Guardia alla Frontiera 1934 1954 The Guardia alla Frontiera was part of the Italian Army.
  Italian East Africa Italian African Police Polizia dell'Africa Italiana 1936 1941 Operated throughout Italian East Africa
  Italian colonies of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland Zaptié 1889 1942
  Italian Social Republic National Republican Guard Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana 1943 1945 Formed by the Italian Social Republic
Black Brigades 1944 1945
  Japan Corps of Law Soldiers (lit) Kempeitai 1881 1945 Part of the Imperial Japanese Army
Naval Secret Police Tokkeitai, 特警隊 1945 The Imperial Japanese Navy's military police, they were equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Army's Kempeitai. They were also the smallest military police service.
Special Higher Police (特別高等警察, Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu 1911 1945 Often shortened to Tokkō (特高, Tokkō ?), established specifically to investigate and control political groups and ideologies deemed to be a threat to public order. Its main function was as a civilian counterpart to the military's Kempeitai.
National Police Reserve 1950 1952 National force in Japan until formation of JSDF and NPA
  Kazakhstan Internal Troops of Kazakhstan 1992 2014
  Kingdom of Laos Royal Lao Police 1949 1975
  Latvia Latvian Auxiliary Police 1941 1944
  Lithuania Lithuanian TDA Battalions 1941 1941 Predecessor to the Lithuanian Auxiliary Police
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions 1941 1944
Lithuanian Security Police 1941 1944
  Luxembourg Grand Ducal Gendarmerie Gendarmerie Grand-Ducale 1733 2000 Dissolved under Nazi occupation from 1940 to 1944. Merged on 1 January 2000 with local Police to form the new Grand Ducal Police
  Mexico Rural Guard Guardia Rural 1861 1914 In modern Mexico, the name is applied to the part-time Rural Defence Corps.
National Gendarmerie Gendarmeria Nacional 1877 1970 It was a body that has militarized police functions whose jurisdiction in large urban areas.
  Mongolia Internal Troops of Mongolia 1995 2013
  Portugal Mozambique (Portuguese Province) Republican Guard of Lourenço Marques Guarda Republicana de Lourenço Marques 1913 1924 Replaced both the former military Guarda Cívica (Civic Guard) and the Civil Police of Lourenço Marques.
Police Guard of the Mozambique Company Guarda Policial da Companhia de Moçambique 1914 1925 Military and police force of the territory under administration of the Mozambique Company (Territory of Manica and Sofala). Replaced by the Police Forces of the Mozambique Company (Forças Policiais da Companhia de Moçambique).
  Nicaragua National Guard Guardia Nacional 1909 1979 Dissolved along with the Somoza regime. The concept of the Civil Guard was integrated into what would later become the National Police of Nicaragua
  Northern Ireland, United kingdom Royal Ulster Constabulary 1922 2001
Ulster Special Constabulary 1920 1970
  Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) Northern Rhodesia Police 1889 1964
  Norway Statspolitiet 1941 1945
  Ottoman Empire Ottoman Gendarmerie 1869
  Pakistan Gilgit Scouts 1889 1975
Swat Levies 1895
Federal Security Force 1972 1977
Mehran Force 1942 1995
Palestine (British Mandate) British Gendarmerie 1920 1926 Replaced by the Transjordan Frontier Force on 1 April
  Peru Peruvian Gendarmerie Gendarmería Nacional del Perú 1852 1924 Became the basis of the Civil Guard.
Republican Guard 1991
  Philippines Civil Guard 1868 1898
Philippine Constabulary Hukbóng Pamayapà ng Pilipinas 1901 1991 Absorbed the Integrated National Police on 1 January 1991 to form the present-day Philippine National Police.
  Poland Border Protection Corps 1924 1939
Internal Security Corps 1945 1965
Territorial Defense Forces 1965 2008
ZOMO 1956 1989
  Portugal Fiscal Guard Guarda Fiscal 1885 1993 It was military force controlled by the Portuguese Ministry of Finance, responsible for the tax and customs law enforcement and border surveillance. In 1993, it became part of the National Republican Guard, as the Fiscal Brigade.
  Portuguese India Police and Supervion Corps of India Corpo de Polícia e Fiscalização da Índia 1924 1946 Transformed in the entirely civilian Polícia do Estado da Índia (State of India Police) in 1946.
  Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) British South African Police 1889 1980
  Russia Internal Troops of Russia 1811 2016
Special Corps of Gendarmes Отдельный корпус жандармов 1836 1917
United States Occupation Zone of West Germany and Austria United States Constabulary - 1946 1952
  Kingdom of Saxony Feldgendarmerie 1810 1812 Military police units of the army of the kingdom of Saxony.
  Serbia Pećanac Chetniks 1941 1943
Serbian Volunteer Corps 1941 1945
Belgrade Special Police 1941 1945
Serbian State Guard 1942 1945
Special Police Units 1994 2001
  South Africa Natal Border Guard 1878 1879
Cape Mounted Police 1882 1913
South African Republic Police 1886 1902
South African Constabulary 1900 1908
  South West Africa (Namibia) Koevoet 1979 1989 Light infantry, counter-insurgency branch of the South West African Police
  Soviet Union Internal Troops 1919 1991
KGB Security Troops
Soviet Border Troops 1918 1992
  Spain Carabineros 1829 1940
Assault Guard Guardia de Asalto 1932 1939
National Republican Guard Guardia Nacional Republicana 1936 1937
Armed Police Corps 1939 1979
  Syria Syrian Gendarmerie 1921 1958 Formed by the French to combat local insurgencies,[5] and maintained as late as 1958.[6]
  Thailand Royal Siamese Provincial Gendarmerie 1897 1915 Formed in 1897 by Danish mercenaries, integrated with the Royal Thai Police in 1915.[7]
Wild Tiger Corps 1911 1925
  Ukraine Free Cossacks 1917 1918
Ukrainian People's Militia 1941 1941 Predecessor to the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police 1941 1944
Internal Troops of Ukraine 1992 2014
Berkut 1992 2014
  United States Indian Territory Lighthorse ? The name given by the Five Civilized Tribes of the United States to their mounted police force. The US Army's cavalry performed gendarme duties until the advent of law and order.
   Vatican City Corps of Gendarmes Corpo della Gendarmeria 1816 1974 Replaced by a civilian Central Security Office which itself became the Corpo di Vigilanza dello Stato della Città del Vaticano
  South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam National Police 1962 1975
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia People's Defence Corps of Yugoslavia 1944 1953

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Lioe, Kim Eduard. Armed Forces in Law Enforcement Operations? - The German and European Perspective (1989 ed.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 52–57. ISBN 978-3-642-15433-1.
  2. ^ Kumar, Kuldeep. Police and Counterinsurgency: The Untold Story of Tripura's COIN Campaign (2016 ed.). SAGE Publications India. pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-9351507475.
  3. ^ Emsley, Clive (1999), Gendarmes and the State in Nineteenth-Century Europe, Oxford University Press, pp. 246–247, 267, ISBN 978-0-19-820798-6, Henry Goulburn...drafted a bill for a centralized, permanent armed constabulary linked to salaried police magistrates ... Even Grant condemned what he considered as an attempt ‘to place the whole of Ireland under an armed police, to subject it to a species of gendarmerie’.
  4. ^ Replaced by the Royal Ulster Constabulary and the Garda Síochána on the partition of Ireland in 1922
  5. ^ Deep, Daniel (2012). Occupying Syria Under the French Mandate: Insurgency, Space and State Formation. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-107-00006-3.
  6. ^ Podeh, Elie (1999), The Decline of Arab Unity: The Rise And Fall of the United Arab Republic, Sussex Academic Press, p. 54, ISBN 1-84519-146-3
  7. ^ Phraya Vasuthep: The Good Danish Soldier of Fortune