List of prominent operas

(Redirected from List of famous operas)

Since the origins of opera in late 16th century Italy, a central repertoire has developed, shepherded by major opera composers. The earliest major opera composer is generally considered to be Claudio Monteverdi,[1] who wrote the first prominent opera, L'Orfeo, followed by two others. Throughout the later 17th century, his successor Francesco Cavalli and the Englishman Henry Purcell wrote numerous prominent operas. The early 18th century was dominated by the operas of George Frideric Handel, while other important works include Pepusch's The Beggar's Opera, Pergolesi's' La serva padrona, and various works by Jean-Philippe Rameau

This list provides a guide to the most prominent operas, as determined by their presence on a majority of selected compiled lists, which date from between 1984 and 2000. The operas included cover all important genres, and include all operas regularly performed today, from seventeenth-century works to late twentieth-century operas. The brief accompanying notes offer an explanation as to why each opera has been considered important. The organisation of the list is by year of first performance, or, if this was long after the composer's death, approximate date of composition.

1600–1699Edit

  • 1607 L'Orfeo (Claudio Monteverdi). Widely regarded as the first operatic masterwork.[2]
  • 1640 Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (Monteverdi). Monteverdi's first opera for Venice, based on Homer's Odyssey, displays the composer's mastery of portrayal of genuine individuals as opposed to stereotypes.[3]
  • 1642 L'incoronazione di Poppea (Monteverdi). Monteverdi's last opera, composed for a Venetian audience, is often performed today. Its Venetian context helps to explain the complete absence of the moralizing tone often associated with opera of this time.[4]
  • 1644 Ormindo (Francesco Cavalli). One of the first of Cavalli's operas to be revived in the 20th century, Ormindo is considered one of his more attractive works.[5]
  • 1649 Giasone (Cavalli). In Giasone Cavalli, for the first time, separated aria and recitative.[6] Giasone was the most popular opera of the 17th century.[7]
  • 1651 La Calisto (Cavalli). Ninth of the eleven operas that Cavalli wrote with Faustini is noted for its satire of the deities of classical mythology.[8]
  • 1683 Dido and Aeneas (Henry Purcell). Often considered to be the first genuine English-language operatic masterwork. Not first performed in 1689 at a girls' school, as is commonly believed, but at Charles II's court in 1683.[9]
  • 1692 The Fairy-Queen (Purcell). A semi-opera rather than a genuine opera, this is often thought to be Purcell's finest dramatic work.[10]

1700–1749Edit

 
George Frideric Handel by Balthasar Denner, 1733
  • 1710 Agrippina (Handel). Handel's last opera that he composed in Italy was a great success,[11] and established his reputation as a composer of Italian opera.[12]
  • 1711 Rinaldo (Handel). Handel's first opera for the London stage was also the first all-Italian opera performed on the London stage.[13]
  • 1724 Giulio Cesare (Handel). Noted for the richness of its orchestration.[14]
  • 1724 Tamerlano (Handel).[15] Described by Anthony Hicks, writing in Grove Music Online, as possessing a "taut dramatic power".[16]
  • 1725 Rodelinda (Handel). Rodelinda is often praised[by whom?] for the fullness of the melodic writing among Handel's output.[17]
  • 1728 The Beggar's Opera (Johann Christoph Pepusch). A satire of Italian opera seria based on a play by John Gay, the ballad opera format of The Beggar's Opera has proved popular even up to the current time.[18]
  • 1731 Acis and Galatea (Handel). Handel's only work for the theatre that is set to an English libretto.[19]
  • 1733 Orlando (Handel).[20] An opera that is described by Anthony Hicks as "remarkable"[16] and by Orrey as one of Handel's "best works".[19]
  • 1733 La serva padrona (Giovanni Battista Pergolesi). Became a model for many of the opera buffas that followed it, including those of Mozart.[21]
  • 1733 Hippolyte et Aricie (Jean-Philippe Rameau). Rameau's first opera caused great controversy at its premiere.[22]
  • 1735 Ariodante (Handel). Both this opera and Alcina enjoy high critical reputations today.[23]
  • 1735 Alcina (Handel). Both this work and Ariodante were part of Handel's first opera season at Covent Garden.[24]
  • 1735 Les Indes galantes (Rameau). In this work Rameau added emotional depth and power to the traditionally lighter form of opéra-ballet.[25]
  • 1737 Castor et Pollux (Rameau). Initially only a moderate success, when it was revived in 1754 Castor et Pollux was regarded as Rameau's finest achievement.[26]
  • 1738 Serse (Handel). Deviation from the usual model of opera seria, Serse contains many comic elements rare in Handel's other works.[27]
  • 1744 Semele (Handel). Originally performed as an oratorio, Semele's dramatic qualities have often led to the work being performed on the opera stage in modern times.[28]
  • 1745 Platée (Rameau). Rameau's most famous comic opera. Originally a court entertainment, a 1754 revival proved extremely popular with French audiences.[29]

1750–1799Edit

 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart aged 21 in 1777

1800–1832Edit

 
Gioachino Rossini, 1820 (International Museum and Library of Music, Bologna)

1833–1849Edit

1850–1875Edit

1876–1899Edit

1900–1920Edit

1921–1944Edit

1945–1964Edit

1965–1999Edit

Significant firsts in opera historyEdit

Operas not included in the above list, but which were important milestones in operatic history.

Lists consultedEdit

This list was compiled by consulting nine lists of great operas, created by recognized authorities in the field of opera, and selecting all of the operas which appeared on at least five of these (i.e. all operas on a majority of the lists). The lists used were:

  1. "A–Z of Opera by Keith Anderson, Naxos, 2000".
  2. "The Standard Repertoire of Grand Opera 1607–1969", a list included in Norman Davies's Europe: a History (Oxford University Press, 1996; paperback edition Pimlico, 1997). ISBN 0-7126-6633-8.
  3. Operas appearing in the chronology by Mary Ann Smart in The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (Oxford University Press, 1994). ISBN 0-19-816282-0.
  4. Operas with entries in The New Kobbé's Opera Book, ed. Lord Harewood (Putnam, 9th ed., 1997). ISBN 0-370-10020-4
  5. Table of Contents of The Rough Guide to Opera. by Matthew Boyden. (2002 edition). ISBN 1-85828-749-9.
  6. Operas with entries in The Metropolitan Opera Guide to Recorded Opera ed. Paul Gruber (Thames and Hudson, 1993). ISBN 0-393-03444-5 and/or Metropolitan Opera Stories of the Great Operas ed. John W Freeman (Norton, 1984). ISBN 0-393-01888-1
  7. List of operas and their composers in Who's Who in British Opera ed. Nicky Adam (Scolar Press, 1993). ISBN 0-85967-894-6
  8. Entries for individual operas in Warrack, John; West, Ewan (1992). The Oxford Dictionary of Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-869164-8.
  9. Entries for individual operas in Who's Who in Opera: a guide to opera characters by Joyce Bourne (Oxford University Press, 1998). ISBN 0-19-210023-8

Operas included in all nine listsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 18.
  2. ^ John Whenham (2002) [1992]. "Orfeo (i)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O005849.
  3. ^ Ellen Rosand (2002) [1992]. "Ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, Il". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004922.
  4. ^ Ellen Rosand (2002) [1992]. "Incoronazione di Poppea, L'". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O902316.
  5. ^ Ellen Rosand (2002) [1992]. "Ormindo". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004544.
  6. ^ Ellen Rosand (2002) [1992]. "Giasone". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O003539.
  7. ^ Viking 1993, p. 191.
  8. ^ Martha Novak Clinkscale (2002) [1992]. "Calisto". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004390.
  9. ^ Curtis Price (2002) [1992]. "Dido and Aeneas". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O006883.
  10. ^ Curtis Price (2002) [1992]. "Fairy-Queen, The". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009948. ISBN 9781561592630.
  11. ^ Viking 1993, p. 418.
  12. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Agrippina". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O900058.
  13. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Rinaldo". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004199.
  14. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Giulio Cesare in Egitto (ii)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004424.
  15. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Tamerlano (opera by Handel)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O007352.
  16. ^ a b Anthony Hicks (2001) [2001]. "Handel [Händel, Hendel], George Frideric". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.40060.
  17. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Rodelinda". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004237.
  18. ^ Robert D. Hume (2002) [1992]. "Beggar's Opera, The". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O002751.
  19. ^ a b Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 64
  20. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Orlando (ii)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O903662.
  21. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, pp. 90–91.
  22. ^ Graham Sadler (2002) [1992]. "Hippolyte et Aricie". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009340.
  23. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Ariodante". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O900182.
  24. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Alcina". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O900075.
  25. ^ Graham Sadler (2002) [1992]. "Platée". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O903916.
  26. ^ Graham Sadler (2002) [1992]. "Indes galantes, Les". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O005181.
  27. ^ Anthony Hicks (2002) [1992]. "Serse". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O904536.
  28. ^ Stanley Sadie (2002) [1992]. "Semele (ii)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O904697.
  29. ^ Graham Sadler (2002) [1992]. "Platée". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O903916.
  30. ^ Mary Hunter (2002) [1992]. "Buona figliuola, La". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009956.
  31. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 375–376.
  32. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 378–379.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i Julian Rushton, writing in Grove[full citation needed]
  34. ^ Viking 1993, p. 381.
  35. ^ Caryl Clark (2002) [1992]. "Mondo della luna, Il (ii)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009280.
  36. ^ Viking 1993, p. 393.
  37. ^ Viking 1993, p. 370.
  38. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 110.
  39. ^ a b Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 113
  40. ^ Viking 1993, p. 752.
  41. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 107.
  42. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 114.
  43. ^ Gordana Lazarevich (2002) [1992]. "Matrimonio segreto, Il". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O008882.
  44. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 210–211.
  45. ^ Viking 1993, p. 59.
  46. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 1002–1004.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Richard Osborne (2002) [1992]. "Scala di seta, La ('The Silken Ladder')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009899.
  48. ^ Osborne, Richard (2002). "Cenerentola, La [La Cenerentola, ossia La bontà in trionfo ('Cinderella, or Goodness Triumphant')]". Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O008249.
  49. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1212–1214.
  50. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 1214–1215.
  51. ^ Osborne, Richard (2002). "Semiramide ('Semiramis')". Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O904698.
  52. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 136.
  53. ^ Clive Brown (2002) [1992]. "Weber, Carl Maria (Friedrich Ernst) von". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004022.
  54. ^ a b Clive Maguire; Elizabeth Forbes (2002) [1992]. "Pirata, Il ('The Pirate')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O003633.
  55. ^ Palmer, Allen Dean (1975). HEINRICH MARSCHNER AND HIS OPERA "DER VAMPYR" (Master's thesis). University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  56. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 884, 917–918.
  57. ^ a b Ashbrook, William (1965). "Anna Bolena". The Musical Times. 106 (1468): 432–436. doi:10.2307/951045.
  58. ^ Viking 1993, p. 38.
  59. ^ Viking 1993, p. 66.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Budden, Julian; Forbes, Elizabeth; Maguire, Simon (1998). "La sonnambula". In Sadie, Stanley (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Vol. 4.
  61. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 132.
  62. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 659–660.
  63. ^ Viking 1993, p. 70.
  64. ^ Viking 1993, p. 609.
  65. ^ Viking 1993, p. 277.
  66. ^ Viking 1993, p. 278.
  67. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1176.
  68. ^ Viking 1993, p. 71.
  69. ^ Viking 1993, p. 412.
  70. ^ Viking 1993, p. 280.
  71. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 246 ff.
  72. ^ Viking 1993, p. 660.
  73. ^ Viking 1993, p. 282.
  74. ^ Viking 1993, p. 92.
  75. ^ a b Viking 1993, p. 1125.
  76. ^ a b Viking 1993, p. 285.
  77. ^ a b The New Penguin Opera Guide, p. 265
  78. ^ Viking 1993, p. 584.
  79. ^ a b c d Roger Parker (2002) [1992]. "Nabucco [Nabucodonosor]". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O008126.
  80. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1177.
  81. ^ Viking 1993, p. 368.
  82. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1179.
  83. ^ Viking 1993, p. 288.
  84. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1127.
  85. ^ Viking 1993, p. 48.
  86. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1128.
  87. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1181.
  88. ^ a b Viking 1993, p. 1132.
  89. ^ a b Viking 1993, p. 94.
  90. ^ Viking 1993, p. 328.
  91. ^ Viking 1993, p. 726.
  92. ^ Viking 1993, p. 661.
  93. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1138.
  94. ^ Viking 1993, p. 968.
  95. ^ Viking 1993, pp. 1184–86.
  96. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1139.
  97. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 192.
  98. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 193.
  99. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1143.
  100. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1144.
  101. ^ Viking 1993, p. 228.
  102. ^ Viking 1993, p. 735.
  103. ^ Penguin Guide to Opera on CD, p. 114
  104. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1147.
  105. ^ The New Penguin Opera Guide, p. 266
  106. ^ Viking 1993, p. 97.
  107. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1149.
  108. ^ Viking 1993, p. 115.
  109. ^ Viking 1993, p. 736.
  110. ^ Viking 1993, p. 397.
  111. ^ Viking 1993, p. 664.
  112. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1196.
  113. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1098.
  114. ^ Viking 1993, p. 988.
  115. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1152.
  116. ^ Viking 1993, p. 116.
  117. ^ Viking 1993, p. 398.
  118. ^ Viking 1993, p. 990.
  119. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1198.
  120. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1099.
  121. ^ a b Viking 1993, p. 738.
  122. ^ Viking 1993, p. 131.
  123. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1188.
  124. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1190.
  125. ^ Viking 1993, p. 718.
  126. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1020.
  127. ^ Viking 1993, p. 992.
  128. ^ Viking 1993, p. 118.
  129. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1191.
  130. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1192.
  131. ^ Penguin Guide to Opera on Compact Discs, p. 53
  132. ^ Hugh Macdonald (2002) [1992]. "Samson et Dalila ('Samson and Delilah')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O904621.
  133. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1087.
  134. ^ Viking 1993, p. 624.
  135. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1201.
  136. ^ Viking 1993, p. 866.
  137. ^ Viking 1993, p. 252.
  138. ^ Viking 1993, p. 807.
  139. ^ Viking 1993, p. 625.
  140. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1022.
  141. ^ Viking 1993, p. 720.
  142. ^ Penguin Guide to Opera on Compact Discs, p. 54
  143. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, pp. 164–165.
  144. ^ Viking 1993, p. 618.
  145. ^ Viking 1993, p. 134.
  146. ^ a b c Taruskin, Richard. "Tchaikovsky". The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Vol. 4. p. 669.
  147. ^ Peter Ross (2002) [1992]. "Amico Fritz, L' ('Friend Fritz')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O007230.
  148. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1094.
  149. ^ Sadie, Stanley, ed. (1998). "Wally, La". The New Grov Dictionary of Opera. Vol. 4. Macmillan Publishers. pp. 1096–1097.
  150. ^ Viking 1993, p. 564.
  151. ^ a b c Rodney Milnes (2002) [1992]. "Werther". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O005411.
  152. ^ Ian Denley (2001). "Humperdinck, Engelbert". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.13550.
  153. ^ Jan Smaczny (2002) [1992]. "Devil and Kate, The". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009137.
  154. ^ Viking 1993, p. 203.
  155. ^ a b Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 269.
  156. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, pp. 281–287.
  157. ^ Viking 1993, p. 728.
  158. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 304.
  159. ^ Viking 1993, p. 559.
  160. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1026.
  161. ^ Viking 1993, p. 729.
  162. ^ Viking 1993, p. 256.
  163. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 285.
  164. ^ Viking 1993, p. 871.
  165. ^ Viking 1993, p. 502.
  166. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1028.
  167. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1241.
  168. ^ Viking 1993, p. 872.
  169. ^ Viking 1993, p. 635.
  170. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1029.
  171. ^ Viking 1993, p. 849.
  172. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1031.
  173. ^ Peter Franklin (2002) [1992]. "Ferne Klang, Der ('The Distant Sound')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O008719.
  174. ^ Viking 1993, p. 314.
  175. ^ Viking 1993, p. 137.
  176. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1045.
  177. ^ Viking 1993, p. 485.
  178. ^ Viking 1993, p. 168.
  179. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1251.
  180. ^ Viking 1993, p. 773.
  181. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, pp. 286–287.
  182. ^ a b c David Murray (2002) [1992]. "Frau ohne Schatten, Die ('The Woman Without a Shadow')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009306.
  183. ^ Christopher Palmer, writing in Grove
  184. ^ Viking 1993, p. 505.
  185. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 306.
  186. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1252.
  187. ^ Viking 1993, p. 953.
  188. ^ a b Michael Kennedy, writing in Grove
  189. ^ Viking 1993, p. 506.
  190. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 297.
  191. ^ Harman A & Mellers W. Man and His Music: The Story of Musical Experience in the West. Barrie and Rockliff, London, 1962, p. 950.
  192. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 218.
  193. ^ Viking 1993, p. 477.
  194. ^ Tibor Tallián (2002) [1992]. "Háry János". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O005826.
  195. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1076.
  196. ^ a b John Tyrrell, writing in Grove[full citation needed]
  197. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, pp. 310–311.
  198. ^ Viking 1993, p. 542.
  199. ^ a b Stephen Hinton (2002) [1992]. "Dreigroschenoper, Die ('The Threepenny Opera')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O006155.
  200. ^ Viking 1993, p. 980.
  201. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 220.
  202. ^ Laurel Fay (2002) [1992]. "Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O002507.
  203. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1039.
  204. ^ Richard Crawford (2002) [1992]. "Porgy and Bess". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O004106.
  205. ^ Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 219.
  206. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1120.
  207. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1041.
  208. ^ Viking 1993, p. 613.
  209. ^ Viking 1993, p. 480.
  210. ^ Viking 1993, p. 143.
  211. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 316.
  212. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1115.
  213. ^ Viking 1993, p. 144.
  214. ^ Viking 1993, p. 803.
  215. ^ Viking 1993, p. 802.
  216. ^ a b c Bruce Archibald, writing in Grove
  217. ^ a b c d e f Arnold Whittal, writing in Grove
  218. ^ Viking 1993, p. 307.
  219. ^ Viking 1993, p. 793.
  220. ^ Anthony Sellors (2002) [1992]. "Prigioniero, Il". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O903754.
  221. ^ Viking 1993, p. 649.
  222. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1050.
  223. ^ Viking 1993, p. 462.
  224. ^ Viking 1993, p. 152.
  225. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1208.
  226. ^ a b c Geraint Lewis (2002) [1992]. "Midsummer Marriage, The". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009926.
  227. ^ Jon Alan Conrad (2002) [1992]. "Candide". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O900983.
  228. ^ Viking 1993, p. 794.
  229. ^ a b Barbara B. Heyman (2002) [1992]. "Vanessa". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O905419.
  230. ^ Viking 1993, p. 795.
  231. ^ a b c d e f g h Andrew Clements (2002) [1992]. "Elegy for Young Lovers". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O901437.
  232. ^ a b Orrey & Milnes 1987, p. 234
  233. ^ a b Arnold Whittall (2002) [1992]. "Prodigal Son, The". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O008108.
  234. ^ Viking 1993, p. 159.
  235. ^ Viking 1993, p. 243.
  236. ^ Swed, Mark (18 November 2020). "Philip Glass and 'Einstein on the Beach': How one opera changed everything". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  237. ^ a b Paul Griffiths (2002) [1992]. "Grand Macabre, Le ('The Grand Macabre')". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O002356.
  238. ^ Viking 1993, p. 854.
  239. ^ David Osmond-Smith (2002) [1992]. "Re in ascolto, Un". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O904301.
  240. ^ Tim Page (2002) [1992]. "Akhnaten". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O009554.
  241. ^ Viking 1993, p. 108.
  242. ^ Viking 1993, p. 1232.
  243. ^ Viking 1993, p. 18.
  244. ^ a b Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 8.
  245. ^ Viking 1993, p. 174.
  246. ^ Oxford Illustrated 1994, p. 31.
  247. ^ Viking 1993, p. 180.
  248. ^ Curtis Price (2002) [1992]. "Venus and Adonis (i)". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.O905445.
  249. ^ Stein, Louise K. (13 May 2004). "La púrpura de la rosa". Mundo Clasico. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  250. ^ Craig H. Russell (2001) [2001]. "Zumaya [Sumaya], Manuel de". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.31064.
  251. ^ Frolova-Walker 2001, §1 "988–1730".

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit