List of fake news websites
The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards the Philippines. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Fake news websites deliberately publish hoaxes and disinformation to drive web traffic inflamed by social media. These sites are distinguished from news satire (which is humorous) as they mislead and sometimes profit from readers' gullibility. While most fake news sites are portrayed to be spinoffs of other news sites, some of these websites are examples of website spoofing, structured to make visitors believe they are visiting trusted sources like ABC News or MSNBC. The New York Times pointed out that within a strict definition, "fake news" on the Internet referred to a fictitious article which was fabricated with the deliberate motivation to defraud readers, generally with the goal of profiting through clickbait. PolitiFact described fake news as fabricated content designed to fool readers and subsequently made viral through the Internet to crowds that increase its dissemination.
The New York Times noted in a December 2016 article that fake news had previously maintained a presence on the Internet and within tabloid journalism in the years prior to the 2016 U.S. election. Prior to the election between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, fake news had not impacted the election process and subsequent events to such a high degree. Subsequent to the 2016 election, the issue of fake news turned into a political weapon, with supporters of left-wing politics saying those on the opposite side of the spectrum spread falsehoods, and supporters of right-wing politics arguing such accusations were merely a way to censor conservative views. Due to these back-and-forth complaints, the definition of fake news as used for such polemics became more vague.
|70 News||A WordPress-hosted site that published a false news story, stating that Donald Trump had won the popular vote in the 2016 United States presidential election; the fake story rose to the top in searches for "final election results" on Google News.|||
|ABCnews.com.co||Owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of ABC News (owned by Disney–ABC Television Group).|||
|American News||Published a false story claiming actor Denzel Washington endorsed Donald Trump for president. The fictional headline led to thousands of people sharing it on Facebook, a prominent example of fake news spreading on the social network prior to the 2016 presidential election.|||
|Before It's News||Cited by US President Donald Trump at his 2016 campaign rallies. Before It's News and Infowars were described as "unabashedly unhinged 'news' sites" in 2014 by The Washington Post following its promotion of conspiracy theories relating to Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.|||
|bizstandardnews.com||Its stories have been mistaken as real-news then shared and cited as real-news.
Its disclaimer says the stories "could be true" because "reality is so strange nowadays". But the disclaimer also says it is "a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle."
Its name is similar to the unrelated Indian English-language daily newspaper called Business Standard.
|Bloomberg.ma||Designed to imitate Bloomberg.com. Was used to issue a false report announcing that Twitter had received a USD $31 billion takeover offer, resulting in a brief 8% stock price spike of Twitter. The site is now defunct.|||
|The Boston Tribune||Starting in February 2016, this website's outright hoaxes quickly became popular with its readers.|||
*That President Obama declared a state of emergency in Chicago after more than 300 people were shot in one night.
*That an employee at a Wendy's put vaginal discharge on a burger as revenge against a partner.
|cnn-trending.com||Imitated CNN.com, complete with the CNN logo. Pushed the Hawking Code scam|||
|Conservative 101||Falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway.|||
|Conservative Frontline||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|CountyNewsroom.info||The fake news website, registered to Tbilisi, Georgia, makes "a minimal attempt to look official" and is used to spread malware on readers' computers.|||
|Daily Buzz Live|||
|Denver Guardian||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|DrudgeReport.com.co||Owned by Jestin Coler (mimics the name of the Drudge Report).|||
|Empire Herald||Starting in January 2016, this fake news site had spread many of its hoaxes online in just a few weeks.|||
|Empire News||Many of this website's fake news hoaxes were widely shared on social media, with stories based off social or political controversies, or were simply appalling to readers.|||
|Empire Sports||Not to be confused with the legitimate (but long-defunct) Empire Sports Network.|||
|Firebrand Left||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|Global Associated News|||
|Globalresearch.ca||Principal website of the Centre for Research on Globalization, which The Economist in April 2017 called "a hub for conspiracy theories and fake stories," and NATO information warfare specialists in November 2017 linked to a concerted effort to undermine the credibility of mainstream Western media.|||
|Gossip Mill Mzansi||A fake news website using Wordpress, targeting South African affairs. Its misinformation is spread on social media including Facebook and Twitter.|||
|Gummy Post||Fake news website that has published claims about President Obama issuing a full pardon for convicted rapper C-Murder, musician Kodak Black getting shot outside a nightclub in Florida, and a Hulk Hogan death hoax.|||
|Huzlers||Fake news from this website often involve popular restaurants and brands to disgust readers with its gross-out stories. One story by the site falsely reported that Dong Nguyen, the creator of Flappy Bird, killed himself. Another story made up an incident where a person working at a McDonald's restaurant put his mixtapes in Happy Meals.|||
|InfoWars||Managed by Alex Jones. Has previously claimed that millions of people have voted illegally in the 2016 presidential election, that the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting was a hoax, that the Boston Marathon bombing was a hoax, and that the Democratic Party was hosting a child sex slave ring out of a pizza restaurant.|||
|KMT 11 News||Falsely reports celebrity appearances and filming locations in random local towns.|||
|The Last Line of Defense||This website has a history of publishing fake news articles, especially of the political genre. Notable hoaxes include Donald Trump revoking the press credentials of six major news outlets, Michelle Obama getting ditched by the Secret Service, and Hillary Clinton describing Beyonce's music using racial slurs.|||
|Liberal Society||Published a fake direct quote attributed to Obama, Falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway.|||
|Liberty Writers News||Established in 2015 by Paris Wade and Ben Goldman, who told The Washington Post their stories focus on "violence and chaos and aggressive wording" to attract readers. The stories reflect the positions of supporters of Donald Trump.|||
|LinkBeef||Fake news website that has published claims about the pilot of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 reappearing, a billionaire wanting to recruit 1,000 women to bear his children, and an Adam Sandler death hoax.|||
|Naha Daily||This fake news website is now defunct, and was active in a span of five months with popular fake news articles, including a fake quote by Michael Kors.|||
|NationalReport.net||Founder Jestin Coler told Columbia Journalism Review: "When it comes to the fake stuff, you really want it to be red meat. [...] It doesn’t have to be offensive. It doesn’t have to be outrageous. It doesn’t have to be anything other than just giving them what they already wanted to hear." In 2013, the nonpartisan FactCheck.org deemed NationalReport.net a satirical site.|||
|Natural News||Formerly NewsTarget, a website for the sale of various dietary supplements, promotion of alternative medicine, controversial nutrition and health claims, and various conspiracy theories, such as "chemtrails", chemophobic claims (including the purported dangers of fluoride in drinking water, anti-perspirants, laundry detergent, monosodium glutamate, aspartame), and purported health problems caused by allegedly "toxic" ingredients in vaccines, including the now-discredited link to autism.|||
|NBCNews.com.co||Owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of NBC News.|||
|Neonnettle.com||This fake news website "tried to connect the random deaths of doctors with conspiracy theories around vaccination" in a phony story from 2017.|||
|News Breaks Here|||
|The News Buzz Daily||This fake news website mostly consists of celebrity gossip and death hoaxes, but a few of its other stories became popular on social media.|||
|News Examiner||Started in 2015 by Paul Horner, the lead writer of the National Report. This website has been known to mix real news along with its fake news.|||
|The News Nerd|||
|NewsWatch33||Began in April 2015 under the name NewsWatch28, later becoming NewsWatch33. The website disguises itself as a local television outlet. It has also been known to mix real news along with its fake news in an attempt to circumvent Facebook’s crackdown on them.|||
|The New York Evening (TheNewYorkEvening.com)||This fake news website has spread numerous false claims, including a fake story claiming that Malia Obama had been expelled from Harvard.|||
|Now 8 News (Now8News.com)||Started in 2015, this fake news website is also designed to look like a local television outlet. Several of the website's fake stories have successfully spread on social media.|||
|Prntly||A politically conservative news site described by Snopes as "a disreputable outlet that has a penchant for publishing both fake news and spurious pro-Trump articles".|||
|React 365||This user-created fake news generator, supposedly for "pranking your friends", had at least two stories that went viral.|||
|Red Flag News|||
|The Reporterz||Starting in early 2016, this fake news website penned several different hoaxes, including one about a murder over a Twitter trend.|||
|Stuppid||This fake news purveyor specializes in articles with stories that are morally offensive.|||
|TrueTrumpers.com||This fake news website makes "claims about President Donald Trump, former President Barack Obama and Muslims, in particular, as well as click-baiting claims about porn stars and secret tricks for weight loss and whiter teeth."|||
|UndergroundNewsReport.com||According to PolitiFact, "the site purposely writes outlandish stories to trick readers". Launched on February 21, 2017, the website gained more than 1 million page views in its first two weeks; in less than a month the site was sued by Whoopi Goldberg.|||
|United Media Publishing||Owned by Jestin Coler.|||
|washingtonpost.com.co||Originally registered by Jestin Coler. The Washington Post submitted a complaint against Coler's registration of the site with GoDaddy under the UDRP, and in 2015, an arbitral panel ruled that Coler's registration of the domain name was a form of bad-faith cybersquatting (specifically, typosquatting), "through a website that competes with Complainant through the use of fake news. ... The fake news content misleads readers and serves as 'click bait' to drive readers to other sites, or to share the fake news content with others on social networking websites, to generate advertising revenue."|||
|World Truth TV|||
|World News Daily Report (worldnewsdailyreport.com)[disputed ]||Run by Janick Murray-Hall. Its disclaimer states, "World News Daily Report assumes all responsibility for the satirical nature of its articles and for the fictional nature of their content. All characters appearing in the articles in this website—even those based on real people—are entirely fictional and any resemblance between them and any person, living, dead or undead, is purely a miracle."|||
|YourNewsWire.com||Founded by Sean Adl-Tabatabai and Sinclair Treadway in 2014. It has published fake stories, such as "claims that the Queen had threatened to abdicate if the UK voted against Brexit."|||
For Philippine audiences
Fake news sites have also become rampant for Philippine audiences, especially being shared on social media. It has become so bad that that lawmakers have started filing laws to combat fake news.
Some of the links below are now dead, under construction, redirect to other URLs, or have morphed, but are maintained in the list to show how prevalent fake news sites for Philippine audiences are. Another problem is that satire sites are being passed as real news by Philippine social media audiences, or have now lost their satire disclaimers and are being passed off as real news.
Exercise caution when visiting some of the URLs below as anti-virus software have tagged some as containing malware.
|24Seven Daily News||24sevendailynews.com|||
|Al Jazeera TV||aljazeera-tv.com||Imitates Al Jazeera. Used to redirect to vanguardngr.local-reports.com, now down.|||
|All Things Pinoy||allthingspinoy.com||"www.allthingspinoy.com does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down.|||
|Asian Policy Press||asianpolicy.press||"...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this website...". Now down.|||
|Balitang Pinas||www.balitangpinas.net||"Balitangpinas.net makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contain on this website or any sites linked to this site."|||
|BBC101, BBC Channel, TV BBC||bbc-channel.com
|BBC Times||bbctimes.com||Imitates BBC|||
|Blog di latestdutertenews||latestdutertenews.altervista.org|||
|TV CNN, CNN Channel, CNN Alive||tv-cnn.com
cnnalive.com (contains malware)
|Dai1lymail/Mail in One||da1lymail.com
|Down. Imitates Daily Mail|||
|No About Us, no Contact Us.|||
|Duterte News Blog||du30newsblog.blogspot.com|||
|Duterte News Info||du30newsinfo.com||Contains fake articles and satirical news passed off as real news. Publishes fake articles about Rodrigo Duterte's critics|||
|Duterte Trending News||dutertetrendingnews.blogspot.com|||
|DW-TV3||dw-tv3.com||Imitates DW-TV. Now down.|||
|Media ni Duterte||dutertedefender.com|||
|FilipiNews PH||filipinewsph.net||"FilipiNews PH does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down.|||
|Fox Channel||fox-channel.com||Imitates Fox News|||
|GMA TV||gma-tv.com||Imitates GMA 7. Now Down.|||
|Guard1an||theguard1an.com||No About Us, no contact us. Imitates The Guardian. Now down.|||
|Hot News Philippines||hotnewsphil.blogspot.com|||
|I Am Pilipino||www.iampilipino.com|||
|International Latest Updates||internationallatestupdates.blogspot.com||Redirect from trendingnewsphfile.net.|||
|Kalye Pinoy||kalyepinoy.com||Now Down/Under Construction.|||
|Leak News PH||www.leaknewsph.com|||
|My News TV||mynewstv.newsgenic.com||Down|||
|News 8 Bureau||globalnews.favradio.fm|||
|News Feed Society||www.newsfeedsociety.tk|||
|Newsfile||newsfileph.com||Carried fake stories.|||
|News Info Learn||newsinfolearn.com||"...www.newsinfolearn.com does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information...". Now down.|||
|News Media PH||newsmediaph.com||No about Us.|||
|News Trend PH||newstrendph.com||Related to "DuterteMedia" Facebook page. No About Us, No Contact Us. Now down.|||
|OKD2||okd2.com||Now redirects to thephpride.blogspot.com|||
|Philippine News Blog||ilikeyouquotes.blogspot.com|||
|Philippine News Courier||philnewscourier.blogspot.com|||
|Philippine News Portal||www.philnewsportal.com|||
|Philstar.i-telecast.com||philstar.i-telecast.com||Imitates The Philippine Star. Site down.|||
|Pilipinas Online Updates||www.pilipinasonlineupdates.com||Takes some of its articles from Balitang Pinas. "Pilipinas Online Updates makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contain (sic) onthis website or any sites linked to this site"|||
|Pilipinas Trending News||pilipinastrendingnews.blogspot.com||Currently blank.|||
|Pinas News Portal||pinasnewsportal.blogspot.com|||
|Pinoy Article||pinoyarticle.com||Now down.|||
|Pinoy Freedom Wall||pinoyfreedomwall.com|||
|Pinoy News Blogger||pinoynewsblogger.blogspot.com|||
|Pinoy News TV||pinoynewstv.com||Down.|||
|Pinoy Speak||pinoyspeak.info||Posts satirical articles and passes them off as real news.|||
|Pinoy Viral Issues||pinoyviralissues.net||Down.|||
|Pinoy Trending||pinoytrending.altervista.org||No about us, contact info.|||
|Pinoy Trending News||pinoytrendingnews.net
|"...Information on this site may contain errors and inaccuracies..."|||
|Pinoy Tribune||pinoytribune.com||"...Pinoytribune.com does not guarantee the legitimacy, accuracy, currency or completeness of the content of its website..."|||
|Pinoy Viral Issues||pinoyviralissues.net|||
|Pinoy World||pinoyworld.net||Publishes articles from other fake news sites.|||
|Public Trending||publictrending.net (down)
|"...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following any link on this site."|||
|So Whats News||sowhatsnews.wordpress.com||Satirical news site|||
|Social News PH||www.socialnewsph.com||Connected to the Facebook pages SNP – Social News Philippines and President Duterte Random Photos. "...does not give assurances as to the accuracy, completeness and currency of its content..." Now down.|||
|Tartey Viral||tartey.com||Contains articles obtained from News Trend PH, which also publishes fake news. No About US, no Contact Us. "makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy or completeness of the content"|||
|The News Feeder||thenewsfeeder.net|||
|The Philippine Politics||thephilippinepolitics.com||Down.|||
|The T1mes||thet1mes.com||Imitates The Times|||
|Opinion blog founded by RJ Nieto. Posted multiple fake news.|
|Today in Manila||todayinmanila.ga||No About Us, no Contact Us. Now down.|||
|Today's Broadcast||todaysbroadcast.net||Currently empty page.|||
|Trending Balita||trendingbalita.info||Now Down/Under Construction.|||
|Trending News Portal||tnp.ph
|"Trending News Portal makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completenesss of the content contain on this website or and sites linked to this site". Changed URLs multiple times.|||
|Trending News Video||trendingnewsvideo.com||Down.|||
|Trending Viral||trendingviral.tk||"The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site.... will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor the availability of this information...". Now down.|||
|Updater24||updater24.com||Posted several fake sites. Down.|||
- "Watch out for this fake news website masquerading as The New York Times". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Would you believe the pope endorsed Trump? Five tips for spotting fake news". NBC News. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Weisburd, Andrew; Watts, Clint (6 August 2016), "How Russia Dominates Your Twitter Feed to Promote Lies (And, Trump, Too)", The Daily Beast, retrieved 24 November 2016
- LaCapria, Kim (2 November 2016), "Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors - Snopes.com's updated guide to the internet's clickbaiting, news-faking, social media exploiting dark side.", Snopes.com, retrieved 19 November 2016
- Lewis Sanders IV (11 October 2016), "'Divide Europe': European lawmakers warn of Russian propaganda", Deutsche Welle, retrieved 24 November 2016
- Ben Gilbert (15 November 2016), "Fed up with fake news, Facebook users are solving the problem with a simple list", Business Insider, retrieved 16 November 2016,
Some of these sites are intended to look like real publications (there are false versions of major outlets like ABC and MSNBC) but share only fake news; others are straight-up propaganda created by foreign nations (Russia and Macedonia, among others).
- Tavernise, Sabrina (7 December 2016), "As Fake News Spreads Lies, More Readers Shrug at the Truth", The New York Times, p. A1, retrieved 9 December 2016,
Narrowly defined, 'fake news' means a made-up story with an intention to deceive, often geared toward getting clicks.
- Kertscher, Tom (13 December 2016), "PolitiFact's Lie of the Year 2016: Fake news", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, retrieved 14 December 2016
- Jennifer Earl (November 14, 2016). "Google's top search result for "final election numbers" leads to fake news site/". CBS News.
a fake news blog called '70news,' which falsely claimed that Trump had won both the popular vote and the Electoral College. ... Google acknowledged the error in surfacing the fake news on Monday
- Madison Malone Kircher (November 14, 2016). "Donald Trump Didn't Win the Popular Vote, Despite What Google Says". New York.
a fake-news piece from a WordPress blog called 70News
- Jack Murtha (May 26, 2016). "How fake news sites frequently trick big-time journalists". Columbia Journalism Review.
- Louis Jacobson (November 17, 2016). "No, someone wasn't paid $3,500 to protest Donald Trump". PolitiFact.
- Iannelli, Jerry (28 February 2017). "There's Reportedly a Gigantic #FakeNews Operation Run From Miami (and It's Not New Times!)". Miami New Times.
- Silverman, Craig (27 February 2017). "This Is How Your Hyperpartisan Political News Gets Made". Buzzfeed News.
- Bump, Philip (14 November 2016). "Denzel Washington endorsed Trump, according to AmericaNews, Breitbart, USANewsHome — and Facebook". The Washington Post.
- Dewey, Caitlin (July 18, 2014). "A comprehensive guide to the web’s many MH17 conspiracy theories". The Washington Post. (subscription required)
- Dicker, Rachel (November 14, 2016). "Avoid These Fake News Sites at All Costs". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- "About". The Business Standard News. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
The Business Standard News is a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle. The stories are outlandish, but reality is so strange nowadays they could be true.
- Lueders, Bill (22 Feb 2017). "Truth-Testing in the Post-Truth Era". The Progressive. The Progressive Inc.
The poll [from Business Standard News] ... was cited in an opinion piece submitted to The Progressive.
- "Not Pat's Place". Snopes.com. 25 Oct 2016.
the “interview” was still picked up by at least one actual news site, with no mention of its satirical bent. To further muddy the waters, there actually is a site called the Conservative Chronicle, in which Buchanan’s syndicated columns appear.
- "Moral Tissues". Snopes.com. 26 April 2016.
Stories about the Mormon Church's attempt to limit the sales of tissues and emollients in an effort to curb masturbation came from a fake news web site.
- "Minimum Rage". Snopes.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
Reports that New Jersey Governor Chris Christie said that teachers should be paid minimum wage plus bonuses came from a fake news web site.
- "Coulter Wars". Snopes.com. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
An article reporting that the pundit had been arrested for using the women's bathroom came from a fake news site
- "Breaking News". Snopes.com. 20 August 2015.
- Merced, Michael J. De La; Goldstein, Matthew (2015-07-14). "Twitter Shares Jump After Faked Bloomberg Report". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Fake Bloomberg News Report Drives Twitter Stock Up 8%". Fortune. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- LaCapria, Kim. "Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors". snopes. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-11-06). "What was fake on the Internet this week: amazing cows, the KKK and a 'Secret Sister' gift exchange". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-08-28). "What was fake on the Internet this week: Selfie lice, Joey Fatone and James Earl Jones RIPs". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-09-25). "What was fake on the Internet this week: Casey Anthony's death and Chipotle's 9/11 ad". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- "Fake News Site Uses Stephen Hawking To Sell Get-Rich-Quick Scheme". BuzzFeedNews. January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- Scialom, Mike (January 19, 2017). "Faking it: Unravelling a fake news story involving Stephen Hawking". Cambridge News. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- Sydell, Laura (23 November 2016). "We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator In The Suburbs. Here's What We Learned". All Things Considered. NPR.
- Joshua Gillin, Fake news site alters real story of fiery car crash, tries to spread malware on your computer, PolitiFact (April 11, 2017).
- Rensin, Emmett (2014-06-06). "These Satire News Sites Are Taking Advantage of You". New Republic. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
- "How a pair of self-publicists wound up as apologists for Assad". The Economist. 2017-04-15. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
- "Canadian website in NATO's sights for spreading disinformation". The Globe and Mail. 2017-11-17. Archived from the original on 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
- "Ten fake news sites to be wary of". www.enca.com. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
- Wet, Phillip de. "Fake news websites fall foul of the IEC after marked ballot paper story". The M&G Online. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
- "Pardon for the Course". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Kodak Moment". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Hulk Hogan Death Hoax". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Campbell, Jon (12 February 2014). "Flappy Bird Game Creator Dead? Dong Nguyen Suicide Death Rumors Confirmed as Malicious Hoax". www.christianpost.com. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Wile, Rob (8 July 2015). "A Story About Mixtapes in Happy Meals Shows Viral Fake News Sites Still Run the Internet". Fusion. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "Don't get fooled by these fake news sites". CBS News. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Mak, Tim (4 December 2016). "'Pizzagate' Gunman Liked Alex Jones". thedailybeast.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Blake, Andrew (9 December 2016). "Alex Jones, Infowars founder, appeals to Trump for aid over fears of 'fake news' crackdown". The Washington Times. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- "Radio Conspiracy Theorist Claims Ear Of Trump, Pushes 'Pizzagate' Fictions". NPR. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Tracy, Abigail. "The InfoWars Presidency Arrives in Washington". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- William Finnegan (22 November 2016). "Why Won't Donald Trump Denounce Sandy Hook Deniers?". newyorker.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Page, Clarence. "Does the First Amendment protect fake news?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Hinckley, Story (15 December 2016). "Why fake news holds such allure" – via Christian Science Monitor.
- Goldman, Adam (2016-12-07). "The Comet Ping Pong Gunman Answers Our Reporter's Questions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-28.
- Paulson, Dave (30 June 2016). "Sorry, Forrest Gump 2 NOT filming in Brentwood". The Tennessean. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "No, a new 'Harry Potter' movie will not be filmed in Arizona". KTAR.com. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Cataldo, Laurie (14 June 2016). "'The Notebook 2' Not Filming in Atlantic City...or Anywhere Else". WJLK. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Gillin, Joshua (January 6, 2017). "No, a celebrity's car didn't break down in your hometown". Politifact. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- "White House Press Corpse". Snopes. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Reject and Serve". Snopes. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "Diss Is Unreal". Snopes. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- "5 important stories that aren't fake news". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
- McCoy, Terrence (20 November 2016). "For the 'new yellow journalists,' opportunity comes in clicks and bucks". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "Pilot Sight". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Billionaire Baby". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Unhappy Gilmore". Snopes. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- "Free Gas For Low-Income Americans?". FactCheck.org. November 25, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Novella, Steven (2010-12-14). "H1N1 Vaccine and Miscarriages – More Fear Mongering". Neurologica (blog). New England Skeptical Society.
- Pearce, Matt (2013-02-07). "Conspiracy theorists harassing, impersonating Aurora victims". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- Novella, Steven (2010-01-25). "Mike Adams Takes On 'Skeptics'". Neurologica (blog). New England Skeptical Society.
- Orac [David Gorski] (2011-10-27). "Mike Adams vs. the flu vaccine". Respectful Insolence. ScienceBlogs. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- Becky Bratu, Erin Calabrese, Kurt Chirbas, Emmanuelle Saliba & Adam Howard (December 15, 2015). "Tall Tale or Satire? Authors of So-Called 'Fake News' Feel Misjudged". NBC News.
- Jana Heigl, Doctors' deaths were not connected, as fake news website claims, PolitiFact (April 4, 2017).
- Mcintire, Andrew Higgins, Mike; Dance, Gabriel J. x (2016-11-25). "Inside a Fake News Sausage Factory: 'This Is All About Income'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
- Joshua Gillin, Fake story wrong about Malia Obama being expelled from Harvard for marijuana use, PolitiFact (April 19, 2017).
- Dewey, Caitlin (2015-12-04). "What was fake on the Internet this week: bear rapes, 'false flags' and gold testicles". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- Joshua Gillin, Fake news story says United flight attendant slapped baby during flight from Chicago, PolitiFact (April 18, 2017).
- Evon, Dan. "False: A tweet ostensibly posted by vice-presidential candidate Tim Kaine allegedly acknowledges that he has an open marriage". Snopes. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- "The pro-Trump fake news website that's finding an audience — with Trump's help". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
- Madeleine Doubek, Fake news claims Muslims can wear burqas in driver's license photos, PolitiFact (April 2, 2017).
- Gillin, Joshua (March 9, 2017). "Fake news site starts as joke, gains 1M views within 2 weeks". PolitiFact. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- "Report of man pardoned by Obama arrested for murder is fake". @politifact. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
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