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List of fake news websites

This is a list of fake news sites, which intentionally, but not necessarily solely, publish hoaxes and disinformation for purposes other than news satire.

Some of these sites use homograph spoofing attacks, typosquatting and other deceptive strategies similar to those used in phishing attacks to resemble genuine news outlets.[1][2]


Fake news websites deliberately publish hoaxes and disinformation to drive web traffic inflamed by social media.[3][4][5] These sites are distinguished from news satire (which is humorous) as they mislead and sometimes profit from readers' gullibility.[4] While most fake news sites are portrayed to be spinoffs of other news sites, some of these websites are examples of website spoofing, structured to make visitors believe they are visiting trusted sources like ABC News or MSNBC.[6] The New York Times pointed out that within a strict definition, "fake news" on the Internet referred to a fictitious article which was fabricated with the deliberate motivation to defraud readers, generally with the goal of profiting through clickbait.[7] PolitiFact described fake news as fabricated content designed to fool readers and subsequently made viral through the Internet to crowds that increase its dissemination.[8]

The New York Times noted in a December 2016 article that fake news had previously maintained a presence on the Internet and within tabloid journalism in the years prior to the 2016 U.S. election.[7] Except for the 2016 Philippine elections,[9] prior to the election between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, fake news had not impacted the election process and subsequent events to such a high degree.[7] Subsequent to the 2016 election, the issue of fake news turned into a political weapon, with supporters of left-wing politics saying those on the opposite side of the spectrum spread falsehoods, and supporters of right-wing politics arguing such accusations were merely a way to censor conservative views.[7] Due to these back-and-forth complaints, the definition of fake news as used for such polemics became more vague.[7]


Name Notes Sources
70 News A WordPress-hosted site that published a false news story, stating that Donald Trump had won the popular vote in the 2016 United States presidential election; the fake story rose to the top in searches for "final election results" on Google News. [10][11] (defunct) Owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of ABC News (owned by Disney–ABC Television Group). [12][13]
American News Published a false story claiming actor Denzel Washington endorsed Donald Trump for president. The fictional headline led to thousands of people sharing it on Facebook, a prominent example of fake news spreading on the social network prior to the 2016 presidential election. [14][15][16]
Before It's News Cited by U.S. President Donald Trump at his 2016 campaign rallies. Before It's News and InfoWars were described as "unabashedly unhinged 'news' sites" in 2014 by The Washington Post following its promotion of conspiracy theories relating to Malaysia Airlines Flight 17. [17][18] Often spreading fake stories, often of political nature. [19] Its stories have been mistaken as real-news then shared and cited as real-news.

Its disclaimer says the stories "could be true" because "reality is so strange nowadays". But the disclaimer also says it is "a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle."[20]

Its name is similar to the unrelated Indian English-language daily newspaper called Business Standard.

[21][22][23][24][25][26] (defunct) Designed to imitate Was used to issue a false report announcing that Twitter had received a USD $31 billion takeover offer, resulting in a brief 8% stock price spike of Twitter. The site is now defunct. [27][28]
The Boston Tribune Starting in February 2016, this website's outright hoaxes quickly became popular with its readers. [29] Responsible for publishing numerous death hoaxes, including one for former First Lady Barbara Bush one day after her announcement that she would halt all further medical treatment in 2018. Designed to emulate CNN. [30]
BVA News [31][32]
Celebtricity Has falsely claimed that Barack Obama declared a state of emergency in Chicago, Illinois after more than 300 people were shot in one night; that a Wendy's employee put vaginal discharge on a burger as revenge against a partner; and that Bryshere Y. Gray was Jay-Z's son. Contains a "notorious fauxtire and satire entertainment" disclaimer which used to read "the most notorious urban satirical entertainment website in the world".[33] [34][33][35] Imitated, complete with the CNN logo. Pushed the Hawking Code scam [36][37]
Conservative 101 Falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway. [14][15]
Conservative Frontline Owned by Jestin Coler. [38] The fake news website, registered to Tbilisi, Georgia, makes "a minimal attempt to look official" and is used to spread malware on readers' computers. [39]
Daily Buzz Live Website dedicated in bringing bizarre stories for the sole purpose of getting traffic to its website. [18]
Daily USA Update [40][41]
DC Gazette [18]
Denver Guardian Owned by Jestin Coler. [38]
Disclose TV [18][42] Owned by Jestin Coler (mimics the name of the Drudge Report). [38]
Empire Herald Starting in January 2016, this fake news site had spread many of its hoaxes online in just a few weeks. [29]
Empire News Many of this website's fake news hoaxes were widely shared on social media, with stories based off social or political controversies, or were simply appalling to readers. The site says that its content is for "entertainment purposes only."[43] [12][29]
Empire Sports Includes a disclaimer describing itself as a "satirical and entertainment website."[44] Not to be confused with the legitimate (but long-defunct) Empire Sports Network. [45] Site currently down. [46][47]
The Gateway Pundit A popular right-wing blog prone to publishing false stories, including a story involving an unsubstantiated claim that Special Counsel head Robert Mueller sexually assaulted someone. [48][49][50][51]
Global Associated News Described itself as enabling users to produce fake stories using its "fake celebrity news engine." [45] Principal website of the Centre for Research on Globalization, which The Economist in April 2017 called "a hub for conspiracy theories and fake stories," and NATO information warfare specialists in November 2017 linked to a concerted effort to undermine the credibility of mainstream Western media. [52][53]
Gossip Mill Mzansi A fake news website using Wordpress, targeting South African affairs. Its misinformation is spread on social media including Facebook and Twitter. [54][55]
Guerilla News [56][57]
Gummy Post Fake news website that has published claims about President Obama issuing a full pardon for convicted rapper C-Murder, musician Kodak Black getting shot outside a nightclub in Florida, and a Hulk Hogan death hoax. [58][59][60]
Houston Chronicle TV Not affiliated with the legitimate Houston Chronicle. [61][62][63]
Huzlers Fake news from this website often involves popular restaurants and brands to disgust readers with its gross-out stories. One story by the site falsely reported that Dong Nguyen, the creator of Flappy Bird, killed himself. Another story made up an incident where a person working at a McDonald's restaurant put his mixtapes in Happy Meals. The site describes itself as "the most infamous fauxtire & satire entertainment website in the world."[64] [29][45][65][66]
InfoWars Managed by Alex Jones. Has claimed that millions of people have voted illegally in the 2016 presidential election, that the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting was a hoax, that the Boston Marathon bombing was a hoax, and that the Democratic Party was hosting a child sex slave ring out of a pizza restaurant. [18][67][68][69]


Notable for its use of the IDN homograph attack, this fake news site used lookalike letters from other scripts (news coverage of the spoof did not specify which, though the examples listed demonstrate Greek and Cyrillic examples) to spoof the legitimate television station KBOI-TV's website in 2011. (The real KBOI site has since moved to a new domain, The sole purpose of the fake KBOI site was to spread an April Fool's Day joke regarding Justin Bieber being banned in the state. [76][77]
KMT 11 News Falsely reports celebrity appearances and filming locations in random local towns. Before the website went down, it referred to itself as a "fantasy news website".[78][79] [80][78][79][81]
The Last Line of Defense This website has a history of publishing fake news articles, especially of the political genre. Notable hoaxes include Donald Trump revoking the press credentials of six major news outlets, Michelle Obama getting ditched by the Secret Service, and Hillary Clinton describing Beyonce's music using racial slurs. Although the website claims to be written by "a group of educated, God-fearing Christian conservative patriots who are tired of Obama’s tyrannical reign and ready to see a strong Republican take the White House," its articles are in fact all written by one person, Christopher Blair, who has written under multiple pen names. As of 2019, Blair's site is now branded as "Daily World Update: satire for flat-Earthers, Trumpsters and Y'all-Qaeda." [82][83][84][85]
Liberal Society Published a fake direct quote attributed to Obama, Falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway. [14][15]
Liberty Writers News Established in 2015 by Paris Wade and Ben Goldman, who told The Washington Post their stories focus on "violence and chaos and aggressive wording" to attract readers. The stories reflect the positions of supporters of Donald Trump. [86][87]
LinkBeef Fake news website that has published claims about the pilot of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 reappearing, a billionaire wanting to recruit 1,000 women to bear his children, and an Adam Sandler death hoax. [88][89][90]
Naha Daily This fake news website is now defunct, and was active in a span of five months with popular fake news articles, including a fake quote by Michael Kors. [29]
National Insider Politics [91][92] Founder Jestin Coler told Columbia Journalism Review: "When it comes to the fake stuff, you really want it to be red meat. [...] It doesn’t have to be offensive. It doesn’t have to be outrageous. It doesn’t have to be anything other than just giving them what they already wanted to hear." In 2013, the nonpartisan deemed a satirical site. The site's disclaimer states "All news articles contained within National Report are fiction, and presumably fake news. Any resemblance to the truth is purely coincidental."[93] [12][38][29][94]
Natural News Formerly NewsTarget, a website for the sale of various dietary supplements, promotion of alternative medicine, controversial nutrition and health claims, and various conspiracy theories, such as "chemtrails", chemophobic claims (including the purported dangers of fluoride in drinking water, anti-perspirants, laundry detergent, monosodium glutamate, aspartame), and purported health problems caused by allegedly "toxic" ingredients in vaccines, including the now-discredited link to autism. [18][95][96][97][98] Owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of NBC News. [99]
News Breaks Here [100]
NewsBuzzDaily (defunct) This fake news website mostly consists of celebrity gossip and death hoaxes, but a few of its other stories became popular on social media. When the site was up it said that it was "a combination of real shocking news and satire news" and that articles were for "entertainment and satirical purposes" only.[29] [29]
News Examiner Started in 2015 by Paul Horner, the lead writer of the National Report. This website has been known to mix real news along with its fake news. [29]
News Hound [45]
The News Nerd A defunct website which used to have a disclaimer on every page.[101] [45]
NewsPunch (formerly known as YourNewsWire) Founded by Sean Adl-Tabatabai and Sinclair Treadway in 2014. It has published fake stories, such as "claims that the Queen had threatened to abdicate if the UK voted against Brexit." Its name was changed to NewsPunch in 2018. [102][103][104][105][106][107][108]
NewsWatch33 Began in April 2015 under the name NewsWatch28, later becoming NewsWatch33. The website disguises itself as a local television outlet. It has also been known to mix real news along with its fake news in an attempt to circumvent Facebook’s crackdown on them. [29]
The New York Evening ( This fake news website has spread numerous false claims, including a fake story claiming that Malia Obama had been expelled from Harvard. [109]
Now 8 News ( Started in 2015, this fake news website is also designed to look like a local television outlet. Several of the website's fake stories have successfully spread on social media. [29][110][111]
The Predicted [19]
Prntly A politically conservative news site described by Snopes as "a disreputable outlet that has a penchant for publishing both fake news and spurious pro-Trump articles". [112][113]
React 365 This user-created fake news generator, supposedly for "pranking your friends", had at least two stories that went viral. [29]
Red Flag News (defunct) [18]
The Reporterz Starting in early 2016, this fake news website penned several different hoaxes, including one about a murder over a Twitter trend. [29]
Snoopack [114][115]
Spin Zone [116][42]
St George Gazette [117][118]
Stuppid This fake news purveyor specializes in articles with stories that are morally offensive. [29]
Super Station 95 Pirate radio station and corresponding website operated by Hal Turner. [119][120][121][122][123][124] This fake news website makes "claims about President Donald Trump, former President Barack Obama and Muslims, in particular, as well as click-baiting claims about porn stars and secret tricks for weight loss and whiter teeth." [125]
UConservative [126][127] According to PolitiFact, "the site purposely writes outlandish stories to trick readers". Launched on February 21, 2017, the website gained more than 1 million page views in its first two weeks; in less than a month the site was sued by Whoopi Goldberg. [128][129]
United Media Publishing Owned by Jestin Coler. [38]
USA Daily Info [130][131] Falsely reports celebrity appearances and filming locations in random local towns [38]
US Postman [42][132] Originally registered by Jestin Coler. The Washington Post submitted a complaint against Coler's registration of the site with GoDaddy under the UDRP, and in 2015, an arbitral panel ruled that Coler's registration of the domain name was a form of bad-faith cybersquatting (specifically, typosquatting), "through a website that competes with Complainant through the use of fake news. ... The fake news content misleads readers and serves as 'click bait' to drive readers to other sites, or to share the fake news content with others on social networking websites, to generate advertising revenue." [133][38]
World Truth TV Fake news website often using clickbait headlines to get traffic. [18]
World News Daily Report ([disputed ] Run by Janick Murray-Hall. Its disclaimer states, "World News Daily Report assumes all responsibility for the satirical nature of its articles and for the fictional nature of their content. All characters appearing in the articles in this website—even those based on real people—are entirely fictional and any resemblance between them and any person, living, dead or undead, is purely a miracle."[134] [135]

For Philippine audiences

Fake news sites have become rampant for Philippine audiences, especially being shared on social media.[136] Politicians have started filing laws to combat fake news[137][138] and three Senate hearings have been held on the topic.[139][140][141]

The Catholic Church in the Philippines has also released a missive speaking out against it.[142]

Vera Files research at the end of 2017 and 2018 show that the most shared fake news in the Philippines appeared to benefit 2 people the most: President Rodrigo Duterte (as well as his allies) and politician Bongbong Marcos, with the most viral news driven by shares on networks of Facebook pages.[143] Most Philippine audience Facebook pages and groups spreading online disinformation also bear "Duterte", "Marcos" or "News" in their names and are pro-Duterte.[144] Online disinformation in the Philippines is overwhelmingly political as well, with most attacking groups or individuals critical of the Duterte administration.[145] Many Philippine-audience fake news websites also appear to be controlled by the same operators as they share common Google Adsense and Google Analytics IDs.[144]

According to media scholar Jonathan Corpus Ong, Duterte's presidential campaign is regarded as the patient zero in the current era of disinformation, having preceded widespread global coverage of the Cambridge Analytica scandal and Russian trolls.[9] Fake news is so established and severe in the Philippines that Facebook's Global Politics and Government Outreach Director Katie Harbath also calls it "patient zero"[146] in the global misinformation epidemic, having happened before Brexit, the Trump nomination and the 2016 US Elections.[147]

Name URL Notes Sources
24Seven Daily News Cybersquatted. [148]
360 News Live Domain expired [149]
About Du30 Cybersquatted. [150]
Ako'y Pilipino [148]
Al Jazeera News TV Masquerades as Al Jazeera. Legitimate url is [143]
All Things Pinoy (defunct) " does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down. [151][152][148]
Angat Pilipino 404 error [153]
Asian Policy Press "...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this website...". Down again with 404 error. [151][148]
Asenso Pinoy Front page blank, contains JavaScript. [154][155]
Astig Tayo Pinoy Account suspended [156] Account suspended [157]
Balita Online [150]
Balitang Panglahat Domain parked/cybersquatted [158]
Balitang Pinoy 404 error [159]
Blog di du30 Site is up, but front page is an empty blog. [157]
Blog di pinoypolitics Biggest traffic generators on social media: Pinoy Republic, Pres. Rody Duterte News Global and Pilipinas Trending. Account suspended. [160]
Breaking News 404 Error [150]
Breaking BBC Masquerades as BBC. Proper URL is Domain suspended. [153]
Breezy Network Down [161]
Caster Ph 404 error [150]
Citizen Express [162]
Classified Trends Down. Contains JavaScript. [151][163][148]
CNN Channel Masquerades as CNN. Legitimate URLs are, (for CNN International), and Down. [153]
Dailyartikulo Traffic largely from The Filipino News, Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos and The News Wire social media accounts. Same blog template and theme as DailyInsights. [164]
Daily Filipino [148]
Daily Filipinews Empty. [148]
DailyInsights Same blog template and theme as Dailyartikulo. [165]
The Daily Sentry Publishes false and misleading news constantly.

Has disclaimer: "The Daily Sentry does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information."

Daily Viral Hub Biggest traffic generators: Facebook pages Marcos Loyalist, Exclusive DDS Marcos the 3rd Force, and BongBong Marcos United. Wordpress error. [172] Now a furniture spam blog. [173]
DDS Files Down [174][175]
Dedma Lang Front page now empty. Domain still up. [157]
Definitely Filipino

No About Us, no Contact Us. [151][148]
Dugong Maharlika Front page blank, has JavaScript [152]
Du30 Gov Biggest traffic generators on social media: President Rody Duterte - Federal Movement International, Bongbong Marcos Loyalists Movement_Official Group and Marcos Loyalist. Down. [176]
Du30 News Domain expired [157]
Du30 Today Cybersquatted [153]
Dutertards Down [156]
Duterte Community Biggest social media traffic generators: President Duterte Worldwide Supporters, President Duterte Astig Supporters and Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos. Down. [144][177]
Duterte Defender Cybersquatted [153]
Duterte Express Down [178]
Duterte Federal Biggest traffic generators on social media: Silent No More PH, Duterte Worldwide Supporters and President RodyDuterte - Federal Movement International. Down. [179]
Duterte News (blank w/ JavaScript) (squatted) (down) (down) (down)

Duterte News Blog [163]
Duterte News Info Contains fake articles and satirical news passed off as real news. Publishes fake articles about Rodrigo Duterte's critics. Cybersquatted. [163]
Duterte Trending News [148] Biggest social media traffic generators: Inday Sara Duterte Supporters, President Rodrigo Duterte and Duterte Warriors. Facebook: [180]
Duterte Trend Domain expired [157]
Dutrending Largest traffic generators: Facebook pages DU30 Trending News, Duterte Worldwide Supporters and Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International. Down. [156][181]
Dyaryo Down. [163]
Media ni Duterte (cybersquatted) (up)

Federalism PH Biggest traffic generator from social media: Facebook page Philippine Trending News. Down. [182]
Extreme Readers 404 [163]
FilipiNews PH "FilipiNews PH does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.". Now down. [151][163][183][148]

Down. [148][153]
France 24 TV Cybersquatted. Imitates France 24 ( [157]
Global News Reverted to hosting [157]
GMA TV Imitates GMA 7. Now Down. [184]
Go For Win [156]
Good News Network Philippines Now down. Mocha Uson made a callout to follow its Facebook page as "a true alternative for the good news released by the Duterte Admin" in February 2018.[185] Biggest traffic generators: pro-Duterte Facebook page managed by Mocha Uson, Mocha Uson Blog, President Rody Duterte Facebook Army and Team Duterte for Federalism. [186][187][188][189][190][191]
Good News Today Biggest traffic generators from social media: Marcos Defenders Worldwide Unlimited and Rody R. Duterte Movement Universal [192]
Gossip Diary Biggest traffic generators on social media: President Rody Duterte - Federal Movement International, Marcos Loyalist and Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International [193]
GRPundit [148]
Hot News Philippines [163]
I Am Pilipino [163]
International Latest Updates Redirect from [163]
Kabalita Ka Biggest traffic generators on social media: Marcos Loyalist and President Rody Duterte Facebook Army [194]
Kalye Pinoy Now Down/Under Construction. [163][183]
Kanto News PH

Biggest traffic generators on social media: Facebook pages President Rody Duterte - Federal Movement International, President Duterte Worldwide Supporters and President Duterte Astig Supporters. [195][150][156]
Latest Duterte News Account suspended [157]
Leak News PH [163]
Local Hero Account suspended [157]
Maharlika News [152]
Makibalita [196]
Media Curious [153]
Media Ph Biggest traffic generator: Facebook page Sara Duterte Solid Warriors [197]
Minda Nation Owned by Carlos Munda [198]
My News TV Down [148]
My Prosper [199]
Nagbabagang Balita [200] [196][200]
Net Citizen [153]
Netizens PH Down [198]
News 8 Bureau [148]
News Center Ph Traffic largely generated by Facebook pages President Rody Duterte - Federal Movement International, Marcos Loyalist, BongBong Marcos United, The Filipino News, Pinas Citizen and News Wire PH. [201][169][202]
News Feed Society [163]
News Global Now redirects to [165]
News Info Learn " does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information...". Now down. [151][148]
News Media PH No about Us. [163]
Newspaper Ph Domain parked/cybersquatted [157]
News Titans [163]
News TV Down. [148]
News TV5 Masquerades as the legitimate , domain expired [157]
Newz Flash [156] Biggest traffic generators on social media: President Rody Duterte - Federal Movement International, Marcos Loyalist and We Support Duterte Administration [203] Lied in About Us about being a research project by De La Salle University – Dasmariñas. DLSU Das Dasmariñas disowned the site. Contains annoying popups. [157]
Online Balita [150]
Philippine News Blog [163]
Philippine News Courier associated with Facebook page "Philippine News Courier." [148][157]
Philippine News Portal [163]
Philnewstrend [153]
Phnewspride [157]
Pilipinas News [204]
Pilipinas Online Updates Takes some of its articles from Balitang Pinas. "Pilipinas Online Updates makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contain (sic) onthis website or any sites linked to this site" [183]
Pinoy Hopes Redirected from [165]
Pinoy News [144][156][165]
Pinas News Portal [148]
Pinoy Freedom Wall [163]
Pinoy News Blogger [163]
Pinoy Speak Posts satirical articles and passes them off as real news. [163]
Pinoy Viral Issues Down. [148]
Pinoy World Down. [148]
PRRD News [163]
Pinoy Observer Front page is blank, but full of JavaScript. Triggers anti-virus malware warning. [157]
Pinoy Thinking [153]
Pinoy Trending No about us, contact info. [151][183]
Pinoy Trending News

"...Information on this site may contain errors and inaccuracies..." [151][183][148]
Pinoy Viral Issues [163]
PRRD News Tambayan Biggest traffic generator: Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International social media page [205]
Public Trending (down)

"...The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following any link on this site." [151][148]
QWAZK [163]
So Whats News Satirical news site [206] Biggest traffic generator pages from social media: President Rodrigo Duterte, Marcos Loyalist and Alan Peter Cayetano Supporters International [207]
Social News PH Connected to the Facebook pages SNP – Social News Philippines and President Duterte Random Photos. "...does not give assurances as to the accuracy, completeness and currency of its content..." Now down. [163]
Taho News [163]
Tartey Viral Contains articles obtained from News Trend PH, which also publishes fake news. No About US, no Contact Us. "makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy or completeness of the content" [163]
Telegraph TV Imitates British newspaper The Telegraph ( Now cybersquatted. [157]
Tatak Du30 [156]
The News Feeder [148]
The Volatilian [163]
Thinker Vlog [177]
Thinking Pinoys Imitates RJ Nieto's website, Thinking Pinoy. Now cybersquatted. [157]
Thinking Pinoy

Opinion blog founded by RJ Nieto. [208][198]
Today in Manila No About Us, no Contact Us. Now down. [151][148]
Today's Broadcast Currently empty page. [148]
Todays Top News [150]
Trending Balita Now Down/Under Construction. [163]
Trending News Portal

"Trending News Portal makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completenesss of the content contain on this website or and sites linked to this site". Changed URLs multiple times. Frequently shared by Mocha Uson on her Facebook page Mocha Uson Blog.[209] Run by Twinmark Media Enterprises, whose entire network of pages was banned by Facebook in January 2019 for spammy practices and "coordinated inauthentic behavior". 220 Facebook pages, 73 Facebook accounts and 29 Instagram accounts were removed.[210][211] [151][163][209]
Trending News Video Down. [148]
Trending Topics Suspended. [148]
Trending Viral "The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site.... will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor the availability of this information...". Now down. [151][148]
TV CNN Masquerades as CNN. Legitimate URLs are, (for CNN International), and [153]
Unang Hirit [196] [148]
Updated Tayo [212]
Verified Philippines [148]
Viral Duterte News Traffic generated by Facebook groups President Rodrigo Duterte Facebook Army, Inday Sara Duterte Supporters and President Rody Duterte - Federal Movement International [213]
Viral Portal [148]
World Trends [158]
XOLXOL [183]

See also


  1. ^ "Watch out for this fake news website masquerading as The New York Times". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  2. ^ "Would you believe the pope endorsed Trump? Five tips for spotting fake news". NBC News. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  3. ^ Weisburd, Andrew; Watts, Clint (6 August 2016), "How Russia Dominates Your Twitter Feed to Promote Lies (And, Trump, Too)", The Daily Beast, retrieved 24 November 2016
  4. ^ a b LaCapria, Kim (2 November 2016), "Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors -'s updated guide to the internet's clickbaiting, news-faking, social media exploiting dark side.",, retrieved 19 November 2016
  5. ^ Lewis Sanders IV (11 October 2016), "'Divide Europe': European lawmakers warn of Russian propaganda", Deutsche Welle, retrieved 24 November 2016
  6. ^ Ben Gilbert (15 November 2016), "Fed up with fake news, Facebook users are solving the problem with a simple list", Business Insider, retrieved 16 November 2016, Some of these sites are intended to look like real publications (there are false versions of major outlets like ABC and MSNBC) but share only fake news; others are straight-up propaganda created by foreign nations (Russia and Macedonia, among others).
  7. ^ a b c d e Tavernise, Sabrina (7 December 2016), "As Fake News Spreads Lies, More Readers Shrug at the Truth", The New York Times, p. A1, retrieved 9 December 2016, Narrowly defined, 'fake news' means a made-up story with an intention to deceive, often geared toward getting clicks.
  8. ^ Kertscher, Tom (13 December 2016), "PolitiFact's Lie of the Year 2016: Fake news", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, retrieved 14 December 2016
  9. ^ a b Ong, Jonathan Corpus (August 30, 2018). "Trolls for Sale in the World's Social Media Capital". AsiaGlobal Online.
  10. ^ Earl, Jennifer (November 14, 2016). "Google's top search result for "final election numbers" leads to fake news site/". CBS News. a fake news blog called '70news,' which falsely claimed that Trump had won both the popular vote and the Electoral College. ... Google acknowledged the error in surfacing the fake news on Monday
  11. ^ Kircher, Madison Malone (November 14, 2016). "Donald Trump Didn't Win the Popular Vote, Despite What Google Says". New York. Retrieved February 2, 2019. a fake-news piece from a WordPress blog called 70News
  12. ^ a b c Jack Murtha (May 26, 2016). "How fake news sites frequently trick big-time journalists". Columbia Journalism Review.
  13. ^ Louis Jacobson (November 17, 2016). "No, someone wasn't paid $3,500 to protest Donald Trump".
  14. ^ a b c Iannelli, Jerry (28 February 2017). "There's Reportedly a Gigantic #FakeNews Operation Run From Miami (and It's Not New Times!)". Miami New Times.
  15. ^ a b c Silverman, Craig (February 27, 2017). "This Is How Your Hyperpartisan Political News Gets Made". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  16. ^ Bump, Philip (14 November 2016). "Denzel Washington endorsed Trump, according to AmericaNews, Breitbart, USANewsHome — and Facebook". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  17. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (July 18, 2014). "A comprehensive guide to the web's many MH17 conspiracy theories". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Dicker, Rachel (November 14, 2016). "Avoid These Fake News Sites at All Costs". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
  19. ^ a b Triest, Vincent; Grim, Ryan (2017-04-26). "Bernie-backing Albanian fake news site proprietor closes up shop". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
  20. ^ "About". The Business Standard News. Retrieved 24 March 2017. The Business Standard News is a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle. The stories are outlandish, but reality is so strange nowadays they could be true.
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