List of ethnic riots
|1993 ethnic violence in Burundi|
|Côte d'Ivoire||2004 French–Ivorian clashes|||
|Egypt||1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt|
|Ghana||see: Ethnic conflict in Ghana|
(see: Ethnic conflicts in Kenya)
|2012 Baragoi clashes|
|2012–13 Tana River District clashes|
|Lesotho||2007 Anti-Chinese riot in Maseru|||
|Libya||1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania|
|1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania|
|Mauritania||1989 race riots in Mauritania||Riots took place during Mauritania–Senegal Border War|||
|Mauritius||1906 Pagoda riots|
|1911 Curepipe riots|
|1937 Uba riots|
|1943 Belle Vue Harel Massacre|
|1965 Mauritius race riots|
|1968 Mauritian riots|
|1999 Mauritian riots|
|1999 L'Amicale riots|
|Nigeria||1966 anti-Igbo pogrom|
|Rhodesia||1925 Kananga riot|
|South Africa||1949 Anti-Indian riots in Durban||These riots, taking place between 13–14 January 1949, were a pogrom in which Indians were targeted, predominantly by Zulus. In total 142 Asians died and another 1,087 people were injured; the riot resulted in the massacre of mostly poor Indians. It also led to the destruction of 58 shops, 247 dwellings, and one factory.|||
|1976 Soweto uprising|
|1985 Anti-Indian riot in Durban||This riot came as Zulu youth spilled into Asian suburbs of Durban (including Inanda) during the night. While this event was less severe in its intensity and of much shorter duration than the 1949 riots, this riot also saw hundreds of South-African Indians families fleeing their neighbourhoods in order to escape Zulu rioters who looted and torched their homes on the night of 7 August 1985.|||
|2007 Anti-Somali riot in Port Elizabeth|||
|2020 riot in Senekal||Protests in response to the killing of Brendin Horner turned violent. Rioters, largely Boers, stormed the courthouse where the two perpetrators were being held. Gunfire was exchanged, and a police van outside was turned over and set alight.|||
|Tanzania||1964 Zanzibar Revolution||Took place on 12 January 1964.|||
|Brazil||1823 Anti-Portuguese riots in Rio de Janeiro|||
|1831 Anti-Portuguese riots in Salvador|
|Canada||1784 Shelburne riots in Nova Scotia||These riots took place in July 1784 by landless white Loyalist veterans of the American War of Independence against Black Loyalists and government officials in the Nova Scotian town of Shelburne, and the nearby village of Birchtown.
They are considered the first race riots in Canada, and are one of the earliest recorded race riots in North America.
|1835–45 Shiners' War|
|1875 Jubilee riots in Toronto|
|1907 Anti-Oriental riots in Vancouver||As part of the larger anti-Asian Pacific Coast race riots of 1907, along the west coast of Canada and the US.|
|1918 Toronto anti-Greek riot|
|1933 Christie Pits riot in Toronto|
|1969 Sir George Williams affair|
|Mexico||1911 Torreón massacre|
|Peru||1880s anti-Chinese riots||Peruvians held the Chinese as responsible for Chile's invasion during the War of the Pacific, due to Chinese support for Chile throughout the war. This would stem a sense of sinophobia among Peruvians, the first of its kind in Latin America.
In the Cañete region, Chinese immigrants were massacred by Afro-Peruvian peasants, led by women during the War of the Pacific. Following the war, Chinese were further targeted and murdered by native Peruvians. In the central Sierra, armed indigenous peasants sacked and occupied the haciendas of landed elite Criollo 'collaborationists', a majority of whom were of ethnic-Chinese descent. In Lima, Indigenous and mestizo Peruvians murdered Chinese shopkeepers. In response, Chinese coolies revolted, some even joining the Chilean Army. It was not until 1890s that anti-Chinese pogroms ended in Peru.
|1880s Indigenous uprising against White Peruvians|||
Nativist Period: 1700s–1860Edit
- 1824: Providence, RI — Hard Scrabble Riots
- 1829: Cincinnati, OH — Cincinnati riots of 1829
- 1829: Charlestown, Massachusetts — anti-Catholic Riots
- 1831: Providence, RI
- 1834: Massachusetts — Convent burning
- 1834: Philadelphia, PA — pro-slavery riots
- 1834: New York, NY — New York City pro-slavery riots
- 1835: Boston, MA — pro-slavery riots
- 1835: Five Points Riot[where?]
- 1835: Washington, D.C. — Snow Riot
- 1836: Cincinnati, OH — Cincinnati riots of 1836
- 1841: Cincinnati, OH — White Irish-descendant and Irish immigrant dock workers rioted against Black dock workers.
- 1844: Philadelphia, PA —Philadelphia Nativist Riots
- 1851: Hoboken, NJ —anti-German riot
- 1855: Louisville, KY — anti-German riots
Civil War Period: 1861–1865Edit
Reconstruction Period: 1865–1877Edit
Jim Crow Period: 1878–1914Edit
- 1885: Rock Springs, WY — Anti-Chinese riot
- 1886: Seattle, WA — Seattle riot of 1886
- 1898: North Carolina — Wilmington Insurrection of 1898 (white Democrats overthrew elected government and attacked blacks)
- 1898: Lake City, SC — Lynching of Frazier B. Baker and Julia Baker
- 1898: Greenwood County, SC — Phoenix election riot
- 1900: New Orleans, LA — Robert Charles riots
- 1900: Manhattan, NY — Tenderloin race riot
- 1904: Springfield, OH — Springfield race riot of 1904
- 1906: Springfield, OH — Springfield race riot of 1906
- 1906: Atlanta, GA — Atlanta Massacre of 1906 (whites against African Americans)
- 1906: Brownsville, TX — Brownsville affair
- 1907: Onancock, VA
- 1907: San Francisco, CA and Bellingham, WA — Pacific Coast race riots of 1907 (anti-Asian)
- 1908: Springfield, IL — Springfield race riot of 1908
- 1909: Omaha, NE — Greek Town riot
- 1910: Nationwide — Johnson–Jeffries riots (anti-black riots following the heavyweight championship victory of Jack Johnson against Jim Jeffries)
- 1910: Slocum, TX — Slocum massacre
War and interwar period: 1914–1945Edit
- 1917: East St. Louis, IL — East St. Louis riots
- 1917: Chester, PA — 1917 Chester race riot
- 1917: Philadelphia, PA
- 1917: Houston, TX — Houston riot
- 1919: Red Summer
- 1920: Ocoee, FL — Ocoee Massacre
- 1921: Tulsa, OK — Tulsa race massacre
- 1921: Springfield, OH — Springfield race riot of 1921
- 1923: Rosewood, FL — Rosewood massacre
- 1927: Yakima Valley, WA — Yakima Valley riots (anti-Filipino)
- 1928: Wenatchee Valley — Wenatchee Valley anti-Filipino riot
- 1929: Exeter, CA — Exeter anti-Filipino riot
- 1930: Watsonville, CA — Watsonville riots (anti-Filipino riot that inspired further riots and attacks in San Francisco, Salinas, San Jose, and elsewhere).
- 1935: New York, NY — Harlem riot of 1935
- 1943: Detroit, MI — Detroit race riot
- 1943: Beaumont, TX — Beaumont race riot of 1943
- 1943: New York, NY — Harlem riot of 1943
- 1943: Los Angeles, CA — Zoot Suit Riots (white against black and Mexican Americans)
- 1944: Agana, Guam — Agana race riot
Postwar era: 1946–1954Edit
- 1946: Airport Homes race riots (series) Airport Homes race riots
- 1946: Columbia, TN — Columbia race riot of 1946
- 1949: Cortlandt Manor, NY — Peekskill riots (anti-communist race riots against Jews and African Americans)
- 1951: Cicero, IL — Cicero race riot
Civil Rights and Black Power Movement's Period: 1955–1977Edit
- 1958: Maxton, NC — Battle of Hayes Pond
- 1962: Oxford, MS — Ole Miss riot
- 1963: Birmingham, AL — Birmingham Riot of 1963
- 1963: Cambridge, MD — Cambridge riot of 1963
- 1963: Lexington, NC — Lexington riot
- 1964: Harlem, NY — Harlem Riot of 1964
- 1964: Rochester, NY — Rochester riot
- 1964: North Philadelphia, PA — Philadelphia 1964 race riot
- 1965: Los Angeles, CA — Watts Riots
- 1966: Humboldt Park, Chicago, IL — Division Street riots
- 1966: Cleveland, OH — Hough Riots
- 1966: Omaha, NE — North Omaha summer riots
- 1967: Long Hot Summer of 1967
- June 2: Boston riot (Boston, MA)
- June 11 – 14: Tampa riot (Tampa, FL)
- June 12 – June 15: Cincinnati riot (Cincinnati, OH)
- June 17: Atlanta riot (Atlanta, GA)
- June 26 – July 1: Buffalo riot (Buffalo, NY)
- July 12 – 17: Newark riots (Newark, NJ)
- July 14 – 16: Plainfield riots (Plainsfield, NJ)
- July 17: Cairo riot (Cairo, IL)
- July 20 – 21: Minneapolis riot (Minneapolis, MN)
- July 23 – 25: Toledo riot (Toledo, OH)
- July 23 – 28: Detroit riot (Detroit, MI)
- July 24: Cambridge riot (Cambridge, MD)
- July 26: Saginaw riot (Saginaw, MI)
- July 30: Albina riot (Portland, OR)
- July 30 – August 3: Milwaukee riot (Milwaukee, WI)
- 1968: Protests of 1968
- Orangeburg massacre (Orangeburg, SC)
- 1968: King-assassination riots (riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.)
- 1968: Cleveland, OH — Glenville shootout and riot
- 1969: York, PA — 1969 York Race Riot
- 1969: New York, NY — Stonewall Riot
- 1970: Augusta, GA — May 11 Race Riot
- 1970: Jackson, MS — Jackson State killings
- 1971: Camden, NJ — Camden riots
- 1972–1977: Pensacola, FL — Escambia High School riots
- 1972: Coast of North Vietnam — USS Kitty Hawk Riot (October 12–13)
- 1975: Ontario, CA — Chaffey High School race riot enhanced by local sniper
1978 to todayEdit
- 1978: Houston, TX — Moody Park Riot (on the first anniversary of Joe Campos Torres' death).
- 1979: Worcester, MA — Great Brook Valley Projects Riots (Puerto Ricans rioted)
- 1980: Miami, FL — Miami riots (riots in reaction to the acquittal of four Miami-Dade Police officers in the death of Arthur McDuffie).
- 1980: Chattanooga, TN — Chattanooga riot
- 1984: Lawrence, MA — Lawrence race riot (a small scale riot centered at the intersection of Haverhill and railroad streets between working class whites and Hispanics; several buildings were destroyed by Molotov cocktails; August 8, 1984).
- 1989: Miami, FL — Overtown riot (two nights of rioting by residents after a black motorcyclist was shot by a Hispanic police officer in the predominantly black community of Overtown. The officer was later convicted of manslaughter).
- 1990: Miami, FL — Wynwood riot (Puerto Ricans rioted after a jury acquitted six officers accused of beating a Puerto Rican drug dealer to death)
- 1991: Brooklyn, New York, NY — Crown Heights riot (black anti-Jewish mob killed 2, injured 190).
- 1992: Los Angeles, CA — Los Angeles riots (riots in reaction to the acquittal of all four LAPD officers involved in the videotaped beating of Rodney King, in addition to the Korean involved in the murder of Latasha Harlins; riots broke out mainly involving black and Latino youths in the black neighborhoods of South Central LA and in the neighborhood of Koreatown before spreading to the rest of the city)
- 1996: St. Petersburg, FL — St. Petersburg riots (2-day riots that broke out after 18-year-old Tyron Lewis was fatally shot by Officer Jim Knight, who stopped Lewis for speeding and claimed to have accidentally fire his weapon).
- 2001: Cincinnati, OH — Cincinnati riots (riots in a reaction to the fatal shooting of an unarmed young black male, Timothy Thomas by Cincinnati police officer Steven Roach).
- 2003: Benton Harbor, MI — Benton Harbor riots
- 2005: Toledo, OH — 2005 Toledo riot (a race riot that broke out after a planned Neo-Nazi protest march through a black neighborhood).
- 2006: Fontana, CA — Fontana High School riot (riot involving about 500 Latino and black students)
- 2006: California — Prison race riots (a series of riots across California set off by a war between Latino and black prison gangs)
- 2008: Los Angeles, CA — Locke High School riot
- 2009: Oakland, CA — 2009 Oakland riots (peaceful protests turned into rioting after the fatal shooting of Oscar Grant, an unarmed black man, by a BART transit policeman).
- 2014–2015: Ferguson, MO — The Ferguson unrest (a series of riots that broke out over the shooting of Michael Brown).
- 2015: Baltimore, MD — 2015 Baltimore riots (protests-turned-riots following the death of Freddie Gray, an incident in which a suspect died in police custody)
- 2016: Salt Lake City, UT — Riots sparked by the shooting of Abdullahi Omar Mohamed.
- 2020: Nationwide — 2020 riots (protests-turned-riots that broke out across the US following the murder of George Floyd).
|Belgium||1941 Antwerp pogrom|
|2006 Brussels riots|
|Bulgaria||2007 Anti-Romani riots in Sofia|||
|2019 Anti-Romani riots in Gabrovo||A mob of approximately 1000 Bulgarians rioted for four nights following the assault of a Bulgarian shop worker by Romani youths. Property destruction of the Romani area ensued.|||
|Denmark||1873 St. Croix labor riot||St. Croix Agricultural labor rioted against landlords and labor laws.|
|1820–1822 Jewish skirmishes||Riots in various Danish and German cities and towns.|
|France||2005 Perpignan riots||Riots in Perpignan between Maghrebi and Romani communities after a man of Maghrebi descent was shot dead.|||
|2009 riots in Avignon||Riots in September 2009 between Turkish and Moroccan youths (one youth of African descent was dead)|
|2015 Corsican protests||Conflict between locals and immigrants in December 2015 in Ajaccio.|
|2020 Dijon riots||These riots between members of the Chechen diaspora and the resident Arab community occurred due to an assault on a Chechen teenager by Arab drug dealers.|||
|Germany||1819 Hep-Hep riots|
|1938 Kristallnacht||Anti-Jewish riots that would precipitate the Holocaust|
|Neo-Nazi marches in Dresden||These marches have sparked many riots as recently as August 2015.|
|1991 Hoyerswerda riots|
|1992 Rostock-Lichtenhagen riots|
|Greece||1990 Komotini events|
|Kosovo||2000 riots in Kosovo|
|2004 pogrom in Kosovo|
|Italy||2007 Chinese riot in Milan|||
|2010 African-immigrant riots in Rosarno|||
|2011 African-immigrant riots in Bari|||
|2011 African-immigrant riots in Lampedusa||Riots involving mostly Tunisians|||
|2015 riots in Sassari||Riots as result of refugees refusing to reside in provided buildings|||
|2016 anti-Arab riots in Sesto Fiorentino||Chinese-Italian riots against Arab immigrants and refugees|||
|2018 Italian-Senegalese riots in Florence||Senegal community riot the city of Florence|||
|North Macedonia||2001 insurgency in Macedonia|
|2012 Republic of Macedonia inter-ethnic violence|
|2017 storming of Macedonian Parliament|
|Norway||2008–2009 Oslo riots||anti-Jewish riots in the city of Oslo, involving mostly muslim immigrants and far-left activists|
|Poland||1936 Przytyk pogrom||anti-Jewish riots in Przytyk, on March 9, 1936|
|1945 Kraków pogrom||anti-Jewish riots that occurred on August 11, 1945, in the city of Kraków|
|1946 Kielce pogrom||an outbreak of violence against the Jewish community of Kielce, Poland on July 4, 1946|
|1991 Mława pogrom||a series of violent incidents in June 1991, when a crowd attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława|
|2017 Ełk riots||During the New Year's Eve, a Polish man was stabbed to death by a Tunisian man - incident sparked the riots.|
|Romania||1990 ethnic clashes of Târgu Mureș|
|1993 Hădăreni riots|
(see also: Ethnic conflicts in the Soviet Union)
|Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire|
|2006 ethnic tensions in Kondopoga||Anti-immigrant riots in Kondopoga, Karelia|
|2010 Manezhnaya Square riot trials||Anti-immigrant riots on Moscow's Manezhnaya Square following the murder of Egor Sviridov|
|2013 Biryulyovo riots||Anti-immigrant riots in Biryulyovo District, Moscow|
|Spain||2000 race riot in Almería|||
|2007 riots in Madrid|||
|2008 immigrant riots in Roquetas de Mar||Riot between Senegalese and Roma (Gypsy) families|||
|2015 African riot in Salou|||
|Sweden||2010 Rinkeby riots|
|2013 December Stockholm riots|
|2013 May Stockholm riots|
|2016 riots in Sweden|
|2017 Rinkeby riots|
|2020 Sweden riots|
|Turkey||1934 Thrace pogroms||Anti-Jewish pogrom in Eastern Thrace|
|1955 Istanbul pogroms|
|1980 Çorum massacre|
|Ukraine||1821 Odessa pogrom|
|1881 Kiev pogrom|
|1905 Odessa pogrom|
|1905 Chernihiv pogrom|
|1905 Kiev pogrom|
|1914 Lwów pogrom|
|1918 Lwów pogrom|
|1919 Kiev pogroms|
|1941 Lviv pogroms|
|2014 Odessa clashes||Part of the larger pro-Russian unrest, these riots culminated in the 2 May city clashes, pro-Ukrainian rioters burned the House of Trade Unions where pro-Russian rioters barricaded themselves.|||
|2016 anti-Romani riot in Odessa||Local villagers attack Romani settlement in Odessa after the body of a 9 year old girl was discovered.|||
|United Kingdom||1919 riot in South Shields||February 1919|
|1919 riots in Cardiff||June 1919|
|1919 riot in Liverpool||June 1919|
|1919 riots in London||In Stepney in April; on St Anne Street in May; and on Cable Street and Poplar in June|
|1921 Bloody Sunday|
|1947 anti-Jewish riots in Birkenhead|
|1948 riot in Liverpool||August 1948|
|1958 riot in Nottingham||August 1958|
|1958 Notting Hill race riots|
|1975 Chapeltown riot|
|1976 Notting Hill race riots|
|1979 Southall race riot||London, 23 April 1979|
|1980 St. Pauls riot||In Bristol|
|1981 Brixton riot||London, April 1981|
|1981 Toxteth riots||Liverpool, July 1981|
|1981 Handsworth riots||Birmingham July 1981|
|1981 Chapeltown Caribbean riot|
|1981 Moss Side riot|
|1985 Peckham riot|
|1985 Handsworth riots||Birmingham July 1985|
|1985 Brixton riot||London, September 1985|
|1985 Broadwater Farm riot||London, October 1985|
|1987 Chapeltown riot|
|1989 Dewsbury riot|
|1991 Meadow Well riots|
|2001 Oldham riots||Oldham, May 2001|
|2001 riots in Burnley||Burnley, June 2001|
|2001 Bradford riots||Bradford, July 2001|
|2001 riots in Stoke-on-Trent|
|2005 Birmingham riots|
|2011 London riots|
|2021 Northern Ireland riots||Riots by Loyalist youths due to post-Brexit trading arrangements and the refusal of the PSNI to prosecute a Sinn Fein member's attendance of an illegal funeral. Eventually escalated when Loyalists threw petrol bombs into a nationalist area.|||
(see: Racial violence in Australia)
|1857 Buckland riot|
|1860–61 Lambing Flat riots|
|Broome riots (1905, 1914, 1920)|
|1915 anti-Greek riots in Perth|
|1916 anti-Greek riots in Kalgoorlie|
|2004 Redfern riots|
|2004 Palm Island riot|
|2005 Cronulla riots|
|Fiji||2000 anti-Indian riots||Race riots following the 2000 Fijian coup d'état attempt|||
|New Zealand||1943 Battle of Manners Street||Conflict in Wellington involving American servicemen and New Zealand servicemen|
|Solomon Islands||2006 Anti-Chinese riots in Honiara|||
|Tonga||2006 Anti-Chinese riots in Nukuʻalofa|||
- Ethnic conflict
- List of riots
- List of ethnic slurs
- List of ethnic slurs by ethnicity
- Territorial nationalism
- Xenophobia in South Africa
- "Rwanda Syndrome on the Ivory Coast". Worldpress.org. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "France's 'Little Iraq'". Archived from the original on October 8, 2013.
- "Anti-Chinese resentment flares". IRIN. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Mauritania profile". Bbc.co.uk. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "The Durban Riot 1949". Sahistory.org.za. Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "VIOLENCE SPREADS IN DURBAN AREA OF SOUTH AFRICA." New York Times. 1985 August 10.
- United Press International. 1985 August 8. "19 REPORTED DEAD IN SOUTH AFRICA RIOTING SPREADS TO ASIAN SUBURBS." South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- Hassen, Fakir. 2006 May 23. "Current Africa race riots like 1949 anti-Indian riots: minister." The Indian Star. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03.
- "News24 – South Africa's leading source of breaking news, opinion and insight". News24. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "HOW IT UNFOLDED | Brendin Horner murder: A timeline of violence, protests and shootings".
- "Country Histories – Empire's Children". Channel4.empireschildren.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Heartman, Adam (2006-09-26). "A Homemade Genocide". Who's Fault Is It?. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Rebelions in Bahia Archived 2011-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
- Robertson, Jesse. 2014 November 19. "The Shelburne Race Riots." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada (last updated January 20, 2015).
- Peloso, Vincent C. 2005. "Racial Conflict and Identity Crisis in Wartime Peru: Revisiting the Cañete Massacre of 1881." Social Identities 11(5):467–88. doi:10.1080/13504630500407919
- Kapsoli, Wilfredo. 1979. "El Peru en una coyuntura de crisis, 1879–1883." Pp. 35–36 in La Guerra del Pacífico, vol. 1, edited by W. Reategui, W. Kapsoli, et al. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. pp. 238 & ff
- Taylor, Lewis. Indigenous Peasant Rebellions in Peru during the 1880s
- Bonilla, Heraclio. 1978. "The National and Colonial Problem in Peru." Past and Present
- de los Rios, Ramon Aranda, and Carmela Sotomayor Roggero. 1979. "Una sublevación negra en Chincha: 1879." In La Guerra del Pacífico, vol. 1, edited by W. Reategui, W. Kapsoli, et al. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. pp. 238 & ff
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-12. Retrieved 2010-11-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- August 'Snow-Storm' Brought Devastation To D.C.. NPR. July 5, 2012.
- Snow-Storm in August: Washington City, Francis Scott Key, and the Forgotten Race Riot of 1835. 2012 book by Jefferson Morley.
- No deaths were reported, but all Chinese and most other Asians were expelled from Seattle and Tacoma. Schwantes, Carlos A. "Protest in a Promised Land: Unemployment, Disinheritance, and the Origin of Labor Militancy in the Pacific Northwest, 1885–1886." Western Historical Quarterly. 13:4 (October 1982).
- Thirty African Americans died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
- Carter, Darnell (1993). "The 1904, 1906, and 1921 Race Riots in Springfield, Ohio and the Hoodlum Theory". Etd.ohiolink.edu. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Ten African Americans and two Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
- Two African Americans and four Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979; Roberta Senechal, "Springfield Race Riot of 1908," Illinois History Teacher, Summer/Fall 1996.
- According to federal, state and local government investigators, 39 African Americans died. But civilian investigations shortly after the riot indicate that between 100 and 200 African Americans died. The riot was notable for the brutality of white attackers, who used scalping, gouging out of eyes of victims. Some children were seen to kill others. Elliott M. Rudwick, Race Riot at East St. Louis, Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.
- Twenty-three African Americans and 15 Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
- Officially, 39 African Americans died. But more recent estimates are that between 150 and 200 African Americans and 50 Caucasians died, and some sources put the number of black dead at 300. James S. Hirsch, Riot and Remembrance: America's Worst Race Riot and Its Legacy, Mariner Books, 2003. ISBN 0-618-34076-9; Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
- Officially, six African Americans and two Caucasians died. However, there is disagreement about the number of dead, and some estimates place the number of black dead between 40 and 150. Michael D'Orso, Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood, Putnam Books, 1996. ISBN 1-57297-256-4.
- "IV. Timeline: Asian Americans in Washington State History". Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Racial Riots". Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Twenty-five African Americans and nine Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
- "The Dispatch". news.google.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Akilah Johnson (2 June 2017). "The forgotten riot that sparked Boston's racial unrest". The Boston Globe.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2009-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Search Results for "ci_4491714" – San Bernardino Sun". Sbsun.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Archibold, Randal C. (10 February 2006). "More Injuries as Race Riots Disrupt Jails in Los Angeles". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via www.nytimes.com.
- "Race riot put down at California state prison". Archived from the original on March 7, 2010.
- Locke High School locked down after huge brawl, Los Angeles Times
- "Xinjiang, China's Restive Northwest (Human Rights Watch Backgrounder, November 2000)". Hrw.org. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Indonesia Turns Its Chinese Into Scapegoats, New York Times
- Anti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia, CNN
- Acre faces fourth night of riots, Al Jazeera English
- Israeli City Divided by Sectarian Violence, New York Times, October 12, 2008
- Police arrest Acre Yom Kippur driver Archived 2012-01-11 at the Wayback Machine, Jpost, October 12, 2008
- "Anti-African Riots Erupt Over Tel Aviv Rape". Forward.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Tel Aviv race riots shock Israel". Theaustralian.com.au. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "South Tel Aviv simmers as racial tensions linger". Jpost.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "'Deport the Sudanese': Violent Israeli race riots draw condemnation, empathy". News.nationalpost.com. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Anti-Police Protest in Israel Turns Violent The New York Times, 3 May 2015
- "Focus on Mesketian Turks". IRIN. 9 June 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Bulgaria Roma riots highlight discrimination-group". Reuters. 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
- "Injuries in clashes between police and protesters in Bulgaria's Gabrovo amid ethnic tensions". The Sofia Globe. 11 April 2019.
- "'Race killing' sparks French riot". News.bbc.co.uk. 30 May 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "French city of Dijon rocked by unrest blamed on Chechens seeking revenge". France 24. 26 June 2020.
- "Protesters in Germany attack refugee buses shouting 'foreigners out'". Independent.co.uk. 22 August 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Milan police in Chinatown clash". News.bbc.co.uk. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Milan Chinese riot over traffic fine". Theaustralian.news.com.au. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Immigrants Riot In Rosarno, Italy". Huffington Post. January 8, 2010.
- "Clashes between Italy police, immigrants injure 30". Reuters.com. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- freedom1164 (1 August 2011). "asylum seekers riot in bari italy". YouTube. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Police battle Tunisian migrants". Bbc.com. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Immigrati asserragliati a Sassari: seconda notte sul bus – Sardegna". Ansa.it. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Squires, Nick (1 July 2016). "Police raid Italy's largest Chinatown to investigate attacks against Arab immigrants". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Staff Reporter (1 July 2016). "Chinese 'White Stags' wage race war against Arab migrants in Tuscany town". Ibtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Two held for Chinese riot near Florence – English". Ansa.it. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Migrants protest angrily in Florence after Italian kills street vendor". Reuters.com. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018.[dead link]
- "BBC News – EUROPE – Spain struggles with race riots". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- African immigrants riot in Spain, BBC NEWS
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