List of edge cities

This is a list of edge cities by continent, country and metropolitan area.


An edge city is a term coined by Joel Garreau's in his 1991 book Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, for a place in a metropolitan area, outside cities' original downtowns (thus, in the suburbs or, if within the city limits of the central city, an area of suburban density), with a large concentration of jobs, office space, and retail space. Originally, Garreau defined edge cities in the North American context, though he gave some examples outside North America. To qualify under Garreau's rules, an edge city:[1]

  • has five million or more square feet (465,000 m²) of leasable office space
  • has 600,000 square feet (56,000 m²) or more of leasable retail space
  • has more jobs than bedrooms
  • is perceived by the population as one place
  • was nothing like a "city" as recently as 30 years ago. As Garreau stated, "[then] it was just bedrooms, if not cow pastures."[2]

List by country and metropolitan areaEdit

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding it with entries that meet the criteria and that reference a reliable source. Note: "Emerging 1991" indicated that Garreau assessed this area as an emerging edge city in his 1991 book.








Korea (South)Edit


Zona Río, largest commercial area in Tijuana, master-planned in the 1980s




Mexico CityEdit


  • Zona Río: built in the 1980s and the city's new commercial center, the Zona Río and contiguous Agua Caliente submarkets had, in 2016, a total of 136,102 square metres (1,464,990 sq ft) of office space, in addition to having the city's largest concentration of retail, hospitality, and other commercial facilities, and hospitals.[7]



Levent skyline seen from the Bosphorus
Maslak skyline (2007)
View of Levent and beyond from Istanbul Sapphire mall

The historic city center is in Fatih and contains historic sites, the Grand Bazaar and adjacent wholesale/retail districts, but is not a modern "central business district" in that it does not have modern retail formats, dense residential and hotel towers, etc. These can be found in the following edge cities with concentrations of office space, malls, residential towers, entertainment and educational facilities, hospitals, etc.:[8]

United KingdomEdit


Skyline of Buckhead, Atlanta

United StatesEdit











Kansas CityEdit

Aerial view of the South Coast Plaza–John Wayne Airport edge city: Irvine Business Complex (top), John Wayne Airport runway (upper center), South Coast Metro buildings (lower center) and below, the South Coast Plaza mall

Greater Los AngelesEdit

Miami/Fort Lauderdale/HollywoodEdit



New York CityEdit


Raleigh/Durham (Research Triangle)Edit


San DiegoEdit

San Francisco Bay AreaEdit



San Juan






St. LouisEdit

Tampa/St PetersburgEdit

Washington, DCEdit

in Howard County, Maryland:

in Montgomery County, Maryland:

in Prince George's County, Maryland[1]

in Arlington County, Virginia:

in Alexandria, Virginia:

Aerial view of Tysons, Virginia

in Fairfax County, Virginia:

Emerging edge cities in Virginia, as of 1991:


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Chapter 11: "The List: Edge Cities Coast to Coast" in Garreau, Joel (1991). Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. Anchor Books. pp. 425–438. ISBN 0-385-42434-5.
  2. ^ Garreau 1991, p. 7. sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFGarreau1991 (help)
  3. ^ Coffey, William J. (1994). The evolution of Canada's metropolitan economies. Institute for Research on Public Policy. p. 95. ISBN 0-88645-155-8.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Garreau, Joel, Edge City, Chapter 7: Texas
  5. ^
  6. ^ "mega-projects like Santa Fe and Interlomas in Mexico City" in Mexico Business, Volume 4, Issues 1-3. Mexico Business Publishing Group. 1997. p. 23. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  7. ^ Reporte de Mercado de Oficinas: Tijuana (Tijuana office market report) (PDF). Colliers International. November 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Istanbul Office Market Overview Q1 2014 (PDF). Property Investment Consultancy. 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Edge City: Croydon". National Trust. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  10. ^ Phelps, Nicholas A. (1998). "On the edge of something big: edge-city economic development in Croydon, South London". Town Planning Review. 69 (4): 441–465. JSTOR 40113515.
  11. ^,lng=-84.3275352323414,lat=33.840981354712696
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. 2007. ISBN 0-471-67951-8.
  16. ^ a b c d "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-30. Retrieved 2008-01-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ Village of Skokie - Economic Development - Economic Profile Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ The Corporate Grove Office, Industrial, Commercial Real Estate Buffalo Grove, Illinois
  19. ^ Lincolnshire Corporate Center Office, Industrial, Commercial Real Estate Lincolnshire, Illinois
  20. ^ Major Employers
  21. ^ Business Park, Office Industrial Warehouse Space For Sale Lease Vernon Hills, Illinois - Commercial Real Estate
  22. ^ "FORTUNE 500 2006: States". CNN.
  23. ^ a b c Cooperative Transit Planning in a Congested Suburban Corridor: - 2000 APA National Conference Proceedings Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Great Place to Live and Work or Play
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Garreau, Joel (1991). Edge City. pp. 262–3. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  28. ^ "The City of Franklin, Tennessee" (PDF). Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Southeastern Pennsylvania Office Plan, March 2015
  30. ^ Huber, Robert (March 2017). "The Promised Land?". Philadelphia Magazine. pp. 76–79, 128–134.
  31. ^ a b c Garreau, Joel (1991). Edge City. p. 436. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  32. ^ ""San Diego submarkets Q1 2019", Avison Young". Archived from the original on 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2019-07-02.