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List of early Hindu-Muslim military conflicts in the Indian subcontinent

  (Redirected from List of early Hindu Muslim military conflicts in the Indian subcontinent)

The table below lists the early Hindu-Muslim military conflicts in the Indian subcontinent.[1]

Muslim Hindu

( Color legend for aggressor)

Year Aggressor Location Commander Details
636 Muslim Tanah, near Mumbai Caliph Umar Major Naval Raid[1][2]
c. 643 Muslim Debal Arabs invaded Debal at the mouth of the Indus river[3]
650 Muslim Zaranj Caliph Uthman City of Zabul occupied by Muslims[1]
660s Muslim Bust Ibn Samarah Bust occupied; Kabul garrisoned[1]
670 Hindu Kabul unknown Hindus recapture Kabul[1]
680 Hindu Kabul Ratbil, Yazid ibn Ziyad Hindu raiding parties harass Muslims[1]
692 Muslim Bust Abu Dulhah, Ratbil Bust retaken by Muslim expedition[1]
694 Muslim Kabul Ibn Abi-Makrah, Ratbil Major Muslim siege fails to retake Kabul[1]
708 Muslim Sijistan Qutaya ibn Muslim, Ratbil Major punitive raid against Ratbil[1]
710 Muslim Sri Lanka Al-Hajjaj Raid on island[1]
713 Muslim Multan Muhammad ibn Qasim Islamic conquest of urban Sindh completed[1]
715 Hindu Alor Hullishah, al-Muhallab Hindu army retakes major city from Muslims.[1]
715 Hindu Mehran Hullishah, al-Muhallab Muslims stall the Hindu counter-offensive[1]
718 Hindu Brahmanabadh Hullishah, al-Muhallab Hindu attacks resume[1]
721 Muslim Brahmanabadh al-Muhallab, Hullishah Hullishah becomes a Muslim, likely due to military reversals.[1]
725 Muslim Avanti Nagabhata I Defeat of large expedition against Avanti.[1]
724-740 Muslim Uzain, Mirmad, Dahnaj, others Junayd of Sindh Raiding India as part of Umayyad Hindu policy.[1]
740 Muslim Chittor Mauray of Chittor Hindus repulse an Arab siege[1]
743 Muslim al-Bailaman, al-Jurz Junayd Annexed by Muslims.[1]
750 Muslim Vallabhi Junayd of Sindh, Nagabhata I Pratihara capital sacked in Muslim raid.[1][4][5]
754-775 Muslim ar-Rukhraj, Kabul, Kandahar, Kashmir Caliph Al-Mansur Heavy raids and sieges but few annexations by Muslims[1]
778 Muslims Barabad Caliph Al-Mahdi Muslim amphibious assault annihilated.[1]
Late 770s Muslim Sijistan Caliph Al-Mahdi Raja of Sijistan made vassal of Caliphate.[1]
780-787 Muslim Fort Tharra, Bagar, Bhaqmbur Haji Abu Turab Vigorous Muslim offensive captures several important Hindu outposts.[1]
786-791 Muslim Kabul Caliph ar-Rashid Major Muslim siege effort fails.[1]
800-810 Hindu Sindh border Nagabhata II, Caliph Al-Amin Several Muslim outposts fall to Pratihara incursions[1]
810-820 Muslim Kabul Caliph Al-Ma'mun, Nagabhata II Kabul falls to Muslims, is then retaken by Hindus.[1]
820-830 Muslim Fort Sindan al-Fadl ibn Mahan Sindan captured, but Hindu riots make pacification of Sindh impossible.[1]
839 Hindu Fort Sindan Mihira Bhoja Hindus expel Muslim garrison.[1]
845 Hindu Sindh Mihira Bhoja Muslim principality becomes vassal of Pratiharas.[1]
845-860 Hindu Pratihara-Sindh Mihira Bhoja Uneasy truce between Sindh and Rajputana.[1]
860 Hindu Rajputana-Sindh Kokkalla I Kalachuri raids into Sindh to finance war with Pratihara kingdom[1]
867 Muslim Herat Yakub ibn Layth Saffarid conquest[1]
870 Muslim Kabul Yakub ibn Layth, Lalliya Shahi Saffarid conquest[1]
880-900 Muslim Sijistan Amr ibn Layth, Kamaluka Shahi Frequent raids by Muslims.[1]
903-905 Hindu Kabul region Shahi dynasty Disintegration of Saffarids allows major Hindu military achievements.[1]
905-915 Hindu Multan region Mahipala Pratihara Series of major but unsuccessful Hindu sieges of Multan.[1]
940-950 Hindu Multan region Pratihara, Amir of Multan Evidences of war and reprisals prior to the Qarmatian take-over.[1]
c. 948-963 Muslim Alptigin Punjab Alptigin of Ghazni plunders Punjab several times.[6]
963 Muslim Alptigin, Anuk Lawik Fort Ghazni Muslims take fort from Hindus.[1]
965-973 Muslim Lamghan Sabuktigin Heavy raiding[1]
973 Hindu Ghazna Sabuktigin Defeat of Hindu expedition.[1]
973-991 Muslim Lamghan Sabuktigin, Jayapala Long series of engagements, eventual Muslim annexation of Lamghan[1]
1001 Muslim Peshawar Mahmud, Jayapala Defeat of major Hindu confederation.[1]
1004 Muslim Bhera Mahmud, Bijay Ray Muslims annex city[1]
1005–1006 Muslim Multan Mahmud, Fateh Daud Siege successful, Daud agrees to pay tribute to Mahmud[1]
1005–1008 Muslim Punjab Mahmud, Anandapala Enormous devastation by Muslim raids.[1]
1009 Muslim Nagarkot Mahmud City razed[1]
1009 Muslim Ohind Mahmud, Anandapala Ghaznavid victory[1]
1013 Muslim Nandanah Mahmud, Trilochanpala City taken[1]
1014 Hindu Tosi river Mahmud, Trilochanpala Muslims halted[1]
1015 Muslim Lohkot (Lahore) Mahmud Unsuccessful Muslim siege[1]
1018 Muslim Kannauj and Baran Mahmud Two major Hindu capitals surrounded.[1]
1021 Muslim Lohkot (Lahore) Mahmud Second siege also fails[1]
1022 Muslim Fort Gwalior Mahmud, Nanda Fort taken[1]
1022 Muslim Fort Kalanjara Mahmud, Nanda Chandela fort stalls Muslim advance.[1]
1025 Muslim Somnath Mahmud City taken.[1]
1027 Muslim Indus Valley Mahmud, Jats Ghaznavid victory[1]
1033 Muslim Saraswa, near Saharanpur Masud Ghaznavid siege successful[1]
1033 Muslim Varanasi Ahmed Nialtigin, Gangeyadeva Major raid[1][7]
1037 Muslim Hansi (near Delhi) Masud Ghaznavid victory[1]
1040 Muslim Thanesar Mahmud, Tomara dynasty Major city taken.[1]
1044 Hindu Thanesar, Hansi, Kangra Mahipal of Delhi Grand counter offensive recaptures some ground.[1]
1049 Muslim Thanesar, Hansi, Kangra Bu'Ali Hasan Mahipal forced to give up some reconquests[1]
1052 Muslim Fort Kangra Nushtigin Ghazni, Mahipala Retaken by Muslims.[1]
1060–1075 Muslim Rupal, Ajudhan, Buria, Sirhind, Dhangan, Fort Darah Sultan Ibrahim Muslim conquests.[1]
1079–1081 Muslim Navsari Ibrahim. Muslims stall.[1]
1084–1094 Muslim Beyond Ganges. Mahmud ibn Ibrahim Powerful but valueless expeditionary probe[1]
1099–1115 Muslim Kannauj Hajib Tughatigin, Madanachandra Massive raids and sieges after Hindu reconquest bring many marginal victories but Kannauj remains in the hands of the Hindu garrison.[1]
1120–1124 Muslim Nagaur Muhammed Bahlim Massive penetration raid 300 miles south of Lahore.[1]
1160–1175 Hindu Dhillika, Asika, Aryavarta Vigraharaja Major successes in counter-offensive[1]
1170 Hindu Kannauj Jayachandra Hindus retake Kannauj[1]
1170 Muslim Multan Ghuri, Muslim ruler of Multan Ghurid victory[1]
1178 Muslim Nahrwalah Ghuri Siege fails[1]
1178 Muslim Kayadara Ghuri, Mularaja II Major defeat for Ghurids[1]
1179 Muslim Nadol Ghuri Major fort taken.[1]
1182 Muslim Ghuri Unknown Muslims halted.
1186 Muslim Lahore Ghuri Ghurids take Lahore from the Ghaznavids.[1]
1191 Muslim Tarain Ghuri, Prithviraj Chauhan Chauhan victory[1]
1192 Muslim Tarain Ghuri, Prithviraj Chauhan Ghurid victory[1]
1192 Muslim Sirsuti, Samana, Kuhram and Hansi Ghuri All were captured in quick succession after the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan, with ruthless slaughter and a general destruction of temples and building of mosques.[8]
1193 Muslim Chandawar Ghuri, Jaichand Ghurid victory.[1]
1202 Muslim Fort Kalinjar Qutb al-Din, Rai Parmar End of independent Hindu dynasties in Kannauj[1]
1203 Muslim Mahoba Qutb al-Din Capital of Kalpi province falls.[1]
1205 Muslim Brahmaputra area Muhammad ibn Bakhtyar Major Muslim expedition to Tibet a total disaster.[1]
1205 Hindu Fort Kalinjar Chandelas Fort recaptured.[1]
1205 Hindu Between Lahore and Multan Ghurid, Khokhars Khokar rebellion put down by Ghurids[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf Richards, J.F. (1974). "The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia". Journal of South Asian Studies. 4 (1): 91–109. doi:10.1080/00856407408730690.
  2. ^ R. C. Majumdar. The History and Culture of the Indian People. 3. p. 167.
  3. ^ Majumdar. 3. p. 169
  4. ^ (Ed) Pusalkar, Dr A. D. History and Culture of Indian People, Classical age. p. 150. Dr R. C. Majumdar.
  5. ^ Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994). The End of the Jihad State: The Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads. SUNY Press. pp. 187–189. ISBN 978-0-7914-1827-7. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  6. ^ Majumdar. 5. p. 2
  7. ^ "Chapter 3: Muslims Invade India" Lal, Kishori Saran. The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India. Sultan Mahmud died in Ghazni on 20 April 1030 at the age of sixty, leaving immense treasures and a vast empire. After his death his two sons Muhammad and Masud contested for the throne in which the latter was successful. Masud recalled Ariyaruk, the oppressive governor of Punjab, and in his place appointed Ahmad Niyaltigin. Niyaltigin marched to Benaras to which no Muslim army had gone before. The markets of the drapers, perfumers and jewellers were plundered and an immese booty in gold, silver, and jewels was seized. This success aroused the covetousness of Masud who decided to march to Hindustan in person for a holy war. He set out for India by way of Kabul in November 1037. Hansi was stormed and sacked in February the next year, but the Sultan on return realised that the campaign had been counterproductive.
  8. ^ "Muslims Invade India".