List of demonyms for US states and territories
(recommended by US GPO)
|Official, unofficial, or informal alternatives|
|Alaska||Alaskan||Russian: Аляскинский, romanized: Alyaskinskiy|
|American Samoa||American Samoan, Samoan: Amerika Samoa|
|California||Californian||Californian, Prune Picker, Californio (archaic)|
|Connecticut||Connecticuter||Connecticotian, Connecticutensian, Nutmeg, Nutmegger|
|Delaware||Delawarean||Blue Hen's Chicken, Muskrat|
|District of Columbia||Columbian, D.C.-er||Washingtonian (see also nicknames of people of Washington state)|
|Florida||Floridian||Alligator, Cracker, Fly-Up-the-Creek, Florida Man Spanish: Floridano|
|Georgia||Georgian||Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber|
|Guam||Guamanian, Chamorro: Tåotåo Guåhån|
|Hawaii||Hawaii resident||Islander, Kamaʻāina. The Associated Press Stylebook restricts use of "Hawaiian" to people of Native Hawaiian descent.|
|Illinois||Illinoisan||Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander, Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian|
|Indiana||Hoosier||Indianan (former GPO demonym replaced by Hoosier in 2016), Indianian (archaic)|
|Louisiana||Louisianian||Louisianan, French: Louisianais, Spanish: Luisiano|
|Maine||Mainer||Down Easter or Downeaster, Mainiac, Yankee (rare)|
|Massachusetts||Massachusettsan||Bay Stater (official term used by state government) and Citizen of the Commonwealth (identifier used in state law), Massachusettsian, Massachusite, Masshole (derogatory as an exonym; however, it can be affectionate when applied as an endonym)|
|Michigan||Michiganian||Michigander, Wolverine, Michiganite, Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively), Michigoose (used specifically for female residents, as a play on "Michigander")|
|Missouri||Missourian||French: Missourien, Spanish: Misuriano|
|Nebraska||Nebraskan||Bugeaters or Cornhuskers|
|New Hampshire||New Hampshirite||New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman, Granite Stater|
|New Jersey||New Jerseyan||New Jerseyite|
|New Mexico||New Mexican||Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano|
|New York||New Yorker||Knickerbocker|
|North Carolina||North Carolinian||Tar Heel, Tar Boiler|
|North Dakota||North Dakotan|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Mariana Islander, Chamorro: Tåotåo Mariånas|
|Ohio||Ohioan||Buckeye, Ohian (obsolete)|
|Pennsylvania||Pennsylvanian||Pennamite, Pennsylvania German: Pennsylfaanier|
|Puerto Rico||Puerto Rican||Boricua|
|Rhode Island||Rhode Islander||Swamp Yankee|
|South Carolina||South Carolinian||Sandlapper|
|South Dakota||South Dakotan|
|Tennessee||Tennessean||Volunteer, Big Bender (archaic), Butternut|
|Texas||Texan||Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical), Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)|
|Virgin Islands||Virgin Islander|
|West Virginia||West Virginian|
|Wisconsin||Wisconsinite||Badger, Cheesehead, Sconnie, Wisconsonian, Wisconsese|
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Cuba
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for India
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names
- U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual. 2016. §5.23.
- Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times. Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
- "The State of Alabama". Netstate.
- Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 15, 2009.
- "Ar•kie". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Kincheloe, Joe L. (2000). White Reign: Deploying Whiteness in America. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 239. ISBN 9780312224752.
- Trombley, William (August 12, 1985). "Boom Area's Missing Link--Jobs : Lack of Local Employment a Major Problem for 'Inland Empire'". The Los Angeles Times.
- King, Susan (December 6, 2007). "Cowboy, biker ... rabbit?". The Los Angeles Times.
- Armstrong, Bill (May 20, 2014). Surf, Sun and Prune Pickers. ISBN 978-1499629552.
- "CALIFORNIA ODYSSEY: The 1930s Migration to the Southern San Joaquin Valley" (PDF). University of California Bakersfield. January 19, 1981. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- Hadden, B.; Luce, H.R. (1991). "Time Magazine". Time : 2003. Vol. 138. Time Incorporated. ISSN 0040-781X. LCCN 25011669.
- Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan).
- Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post.
- "Connecticut's Nicknames". Connecticut State Library. April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "The State of Florida". Netstate.
- "'Cracker' Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of 'Pride'". Mediaite. June 27, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "'Florida Man' On Twitter Collects Real Headlines About World's Worst Superhero". NPR.org. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- "The State of Georgia". Netstate. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995.
- "The State of Idaho". Netstate.
- Jim Fitzgerald (October 6, 1987). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!". ChicagoTribune.com.
- "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Indianian". Oxford Dictionaries.
- "The State of Iowa". Netstate.com.
- "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
People who live in or come from Kansas are called Kansans. Kansans are sometimes referred to as Jayhawkers. Kansans have also been referred to as Grasshoppers and Sunflowers, names derived from some of the state nicknames described above.
- Corncracker, - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2.
- "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938. (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
- "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved February 29, 2008.: "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
- Safire, William (June 6, 1982). "On Language". The New York Times.
- Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435.
- Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd (ed.). History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465.
- Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270. doi:10.1017/S0954394510000062.
- "'Masshole' among newest words added to Oxford English Dictionary". masslive.com. June 25, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8.
- Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592. JSTOR 453592.
- "MDE - Michigan Glossary". Michigan.gov. January 30, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Football Players to Eat Corn, Not Bugs". History Nebraska. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. April 13, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Neomexicano definition by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
- Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC 005457348. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Ohian". Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.
- Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2.
Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City.
- "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "History of". Luzerne County. Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "der Pennsylfaanier". Pennsylvania Dutch Dictionary. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
- "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - providencejournal.com - Providence Journal". Projo.com. July 17, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "South Carolina - Origin of the Terms Sandlapper, Sand-lapper, and Sand Lapper".
- "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn (eds.). Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2.
- "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
- Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- Partridge, Eric (2006). The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: J-Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 1678. ISBN 9780415259385. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
- "Chicago Daily Tribune". June 2, 1903. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)