List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events
Predictions of apocalyptic events that would result in the extinction of humanity, a collapse of civilization, or the destruction of the planet have been made since at least the beginning of the Common Era. Most predictions are related to Abrahamic religions, often standing for or similar to the eschatological events described in their scriptures. Christian predictions typically refer to events like the Rapture, Great Tribulation, Last Judgment, and the Second Coming of Christ. Many religious-related end-time events are predicted to occur within the lifetime of the person making the prediction, who often quote the Bible, and in particular the New Testament, as either the primary or exclusive source for the predictions. Often this takes the form of mathematical calculations, such as trying to calculate the point where it will have been 6000 years since the supposed creation of the Earth by the Abrahamic God, which according to the Talmud marks the deadline for the Messiah to appear. Predictions of the end from natural events have also been theorised by various scientists and scientific groups. While these disasters are generally accepted within the scientific community as plausible "end of the world" scenarios, the events and phenomena are not expected to occur for hundreds of thousands or even billions of years from now.
Little research has been done into why people make apocalyptic predictions. Historically, it has been done for reasons such as diverting attention from actual crises like poverty and war, pushing political agendas, and promoting hatred of certain groups; antisemitism was a popular theme of Christian apocalyptic predictions in medieval times, while French and Lutheran depictions of the apocalypse were known to feature English and Catholic antagonists respectively. According to psychologists, possible explanations for why people believe in modern apocalyptic predictions include mentally reducing the actual danger in the world to a single and definable source, an innate human fascination with fear, personality traits of paranoia and powerlessness and a modern romanticism involved with end-times due to its portrayal in contemporary fiction. The prevalence of Abrahamic religions throughout modern history is said to have created a culture which encourages the embracement of a future that will be drastically different from the present. Such a culture is credited with the rise in popularity of predictions that are more secular in nature, such as the 2012 phenomenon, while maintaining the centuries-old theme that a powerful force will bring the end of humanity.
Polls conducted in 2012 across 20 countries found over 14% of people believe the world will end in their lifetime, with percentages ranging from 6% of people in France to 22% in the US and Turkey. Belief in the apocalypse is most prevalent in people with lower rates of education, lower household incomes, and those under the age of 35. In the UK in 2015, 23% of the general public believed the apocalypse was likely to occur in their lifetime, compared to 10% of experts from the Global Challenges Foundation. The general public believed the likeliest cause would be nuclear war, while experts thought it would be artificial intelligence. Only 3% of Britons thought the end would be caused by the Last Judgement, compared to 16% of Americans. Between one and three percent of people from both countries thought the apocalypse would be caused by zombies or alien invasion.
First millennium CEEdit
|66–70||Simon bar Giora, Jewish Essenes||The Jewish Essene sect of ascetics saw the Jewish uprising against the Romans in 66–70 in Judea as the final end-time battle which would bring about the arrival of the Messiah. By the authority of Simon, coins were minted declaring the redemption of Israel.|||
|365||Hilary of Poitiers||This early French bishop announced the end of the world would happen during this year.|||
|375–400||Martin of Tours||This French bishop stated that the world would end before 400 AD, writing, "There is no doubt that the Antichrist has already been born. Firmly established already in his early years, he will, after reaching maturity, achieve supreme power."|||
|500||Hippolytus of Rome, Sextus Julius Africanus, Irenaeus||All three predicted Jesus would return in this year, with one of the predictions being based on the dimensions of Noah's Ark.|||
|6 Apr 793||Beatus of Liébana||This Spanish monk prophesied the Second Coming of Christ and the end of the world on that day in front of a large crowd of people.|||
|800||Sextus Julius Africanus||This Christian historian revised his prediction from the year 500 to 800.|||
|799–806||Gregory of Tours||This French bishop calculated the end would occur between 799 and 806.|||
|847||Thiota||This Christian declared in 847 that the world would end that year, though later confessed the prediction was fraudulent and was publicly flogged.|||
|992–995||Various Christians||Good Friday coincided with the Feast of the Annunciation; this had long been believed to be the event that would bring forth the Antichrist, and thus the end-times, within three years.|||
|1000||Pope Sylvester II and others||According to several sources, various Christian clerics predicted this date as the Millennium, including Pope Sylvester II. As a result, riots are said to have occurred in Europe and pilgrims headed east to Jerusalem. Other historians, however, have disputed that any of these events ever took place.|||
|1033||Various Christians||Following the failure of the prediction for 1 January 1000, some theorists proposed that the end would occur 1000 years after Jesus' death, instead of his birth.|||
|1200–1260||Joachim of Fiore||This Italian mystic determined that the Millennium would begin between 1200 and 1260.|||
|1284||Pope Innocent III||Pope Innocent III (died 1216) predicted that the world would end 666 years after the rise of Islam in 618.|||
|Joachimites||After his 1260 prediction failed, the followers of Joachim of Fiore rescheduled the end of the world to 1290 and then again to 1335.|||
|1346–1351||Various Europeans||The Black Death spreading across Europe was interpreted by many as the sign of the end of times.|||
|1368–1370||Jean de Roquetaillade||This French alchemist predicted the Antichrist was to come in 1366 and the Millennium would begin either in 1368 or 1370.|||
|1378||Arnaldus de Villa Nova||This Joachite wrote that the Antichrist was to come during this year.|||
|1504||Sandro Botticelli||This painter believed he was living during the Tribulation, and that the Millennium would begin in three and a half years from 1500. He wrote into his painting The Mystical Nativity that the Devil was loose and would soon be chained.|||
|1 Feb 1524||London astrologers||A group of astrologers in London predicted the world would end by a flood starting in London, based on calculations made the previous June. Twenty thousand Londoners left their homes and headed for higher ground in anticipation.|||
|20 Feb 1524||Johannes Stöffler||A planetary alignment in Pisces was seen by this astrologer as a sign of the Millennium.|||
|1524–1526||Thomas Müntzer||1525 would mark the beginning of the Millennium, according to this Anabaptist. His followers were killed by cannon fire in an uneven battle with government troops. He died under torture and was beheaded.|||
|27 May 1528||Hans Hut||This German Anabaptist predicted the end would occur on this date.|||
|1528||Johannes Stöffler||A revised date from Stöffler after his 1524 prediction failed to come true.|||
|19 Oct 1533||Michael Stifel||This mathematician calculated that Judgement Day would begin at 8:00 am on this day.|||
|1533||Melchior Hoffman||This Anabaptist prophet predicted Christ's Second Coming to take place this year in Strasbourg. He claimed that 144,000 people would be saved, while the rest of the world would be consumed by fire.|||
|5 Apr 1534||Jan Matthys||During the Münster rebellion, this Anabaptist leader declared that the apocalypse would take place on this day. When the day came he led a failed attack against Franz von Waldeck and was decapitated.|||
|1555||Pierre d'Ailly||Around 1400, this French theologian wrote that 6845 years of human history had already passed, and the end of the world would be in the 7000th year.|||
|1585||Michael Servetus||In his book The Restoration of Christianity, the Spanish born reformer claimed that the Devil's reign in this world had started in 325 AD, at the Council of Nicea, and would last for 1260 years, thus ending in 1585.|||
|1588||Regiomontanus||This mathematician and astronomer predicted the end of the world during this year.|||
|1600||Martin Luther||Luther, a German priest and professor of theology, predicted the end of the world would occur no later than 1600.|||
|1 Feb 1624||London astrologers||The same astrologers who predicted the deluge of 1 February 1524 recalculated the date to 100 years later after their first prophecy failed.|||
|1648||Sabbatai Zevi||Using the kabbalah proclaimed that the Messiah would come during that year. Later claimed to be the Messiah in 1666-7|||
|1651||Unknown author from Lübeck, Germany||The apocalypse maps tell of an Antichrist, the rise of Islam and other events following Judgement Day that was predicted to occur in 1651.|||
|1654||Helisaeus Roeslin||This physician made a prediction that the world would end this year based on a nova that occurred in 1572.|||
|1656||Christopher Columbus||In his Book of Prophecies (1501), Columbus predicted that the world would end during this year.|||
|1655–1657||Fifth Monarchists||This group of radical Christians predicted that the final apocalyptic battle and the destruction of the Antichrist were to take place between 1655 and 1657.|||
|1658||Christopher Columbus||Columbus claimed that the world was created in 5343 BCE, and would last 7000 years. Assuming no year zero, that means the end would come in 1658.|||
|1660||Joseph Mede||Mede claimed that the Antichrist had appeared in 456, and the end would come in 1660.|||
|1666||Sabbatai Zevi||Following his failed prediction of 1648, Zevi recalculated the end of the Earth for this year.|||
|Fifth Monarchists||The presence of 666 in the date, the death of 100,000 Londoners to bubonic plague, and the Great Fire of London led to superstitious fears of the end of the world from some Christians.|||
|1673||William Aspinwall||This Fifth Monarchist claimed the Millennium would begin by this year.|||
|1688||John Napier||This mathematician calculated the end of the world would be this year based on calculations from the Book of Revelation.|||
|1689||Pierre Jurieu||This prophet predicted that Judgement Day would occur this year.|||
|1694||John Mason||This Anglican priest predicted the Millennium would begin by this year.|||
|Johann Heinrich Alsted||This Calvinist minister predicted the Millennium would begin by this year.|||
|Johann Jacob Zimmermann||Believed that Jesus would return and the world would end this year.|||
|1697||Cotton Mather||This Puritan minister predicted the world would end this year. After the prediction failed, he revised the date of the end two more times.|||
|1700||John Napier||Following his 1688 prediction, Napier recalculated his end of the world prediction to 1700 in A Plaine Discovery, a book published in 1593.|||
|Henry Archer||In his 1642 work, The Personall Reigne of Christ Upon Earth, Archer predicted the Second Coming of Jesus would occur in approximately this year.|||
|1705–1708||Camisards||Camisard prophets predicted the end of the world would occur in either 1705, 1706 or 1708.|||
|1716||Cotton Mather||Revised prediction from Mather after his 1697 prediction failed to come true.|||
|5 Apr 1719||Jacob Bernoulli||This mathematician predicted a comet would destroy the Earth on this day.|||
|1700–1734||Nicholas of Cusa||This cardinal predicted the end would occur between 1700 and 1734.|||
|16 Oct 1736||William Whiston||This theologian predicted a comet colliding with the Earth this year.|||
|1736||Cotton Mather||Mather's third and final prediction for the end of the world.|||
|1757||Emanuel Swedenborg||Swedenborg, a former Lutheran, claimed that the Last Judgement occurred in the spiritual world this year.|||
|19 May 1780||Connecticut General Assembly members, New Englanders||The sky turning dark during the day was interpreted as a sign of the end times. The primary cause of the event is believed to have been a combination of smoke from forest fires, a thick fog, and cloud cover.|||
|1789||Pierre d'Ailly||The year 1789 would bring the coming of the Antichrist, according to this 14th-century cardinal.|||
|Shakers||The Shakers, a Christian sect founded in 18th century England, predicted the world would end in 1792 and then in 1794.|||
|19 Nov 1795||Nathaniel Brassey Halhed||While campaigning for Richard Brothers' release, Halhead proclaimed that the world would end on this day.|||
|1793–1795||Richard Brothers||This retired sailor stated the Millennium would begin between 1793 and 1795. He was eventually committed to an insane asylum.|||
|1805||Christopher Love||This Presbyterian minister predicted the destruction of the world by earthquake in 1805, followed by an age of everlasting peace when God would be known by all.|||
|1806||Mary Bateman||In Leeds, England, in 1806 a hen began laying eggs on which the phrase "Christ is coming" was written. Eventually it was discovered to be a hoax. The owner, Mary Bateman, had written on the eggs in a corrosive ink so as to etch the eggs, and reinserted the eggs back into the hen's oviduct.|||
|19 Oct 1814||Joanna Southcott||This 64-year-old self-described prophet claimed she was pregnant with the Christ child, and that he would be born on October 19, 1814. She died later that year having not delivered a child, and an autopsy proved she had not been pregnant.|||
|1836||Johann Albrecht Bengel||In the 1730s this Lutheran clergyman proclaimed that Judgment Day would come in 1836, with the pope as the anti-Christ and the Freemasons representing the "false prophet" of Revelations.|||
|1836||John Wesley||Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Church, foresaw the Millennium beginning this year. He wrote that Revelation 12:14 referred to 1058 to 1836, "when Christ should come".|||
|28 Apr 1843
31 Dec 1843
|Millerites||Although it was not officially endorsed by their leadership, many Millerites expected the Second Coming to occur on April 28 or at the end of 1843.|||
|1843||Harriet Livermore||The first of two years this preacher predicted the world would end.|||
|21 Mar 1844||William Miller||Miller, a Baptist preacher, predicted Christ would return on this day.|||
|22 Oct 1844||Millerites||After Christ did not return on 21 March 1844, the Millerites then revised William Miller's prediction to 22 October that year, claiming to have miscalculated Scripture. The realization that the predictions were incorrect resulted in the Great Disappointment.|||
|7 Aug 1847||George Rapp||Rapp, the founder of the Harmony Society, preached that Jesus would return in his lifetime, even as he lay dying on August 7, 1847.|||
|1847||Harriet Livermore||The second prediction of the end of the world from this preacher.|||
|1862||John Cumming||This Scottish clergyman stated it was 6000 years since creation in 1862, and that the world would end.|||
|Joseph Morris||Originally an English convert to Mormonism, Morris had revelations to gather his followers and wait for the Second Coming, through successive prophesied days.|||
|1863||John Wroe||The founder of the Christian Israelite Church calculated that the Millennium would begin this year.|||
|1873||Jonas Wendell||In 1870, Wendell published his views in the booklet entitled The Present Truth, or Meat in Due Season concluding that the Second Advent was sure to occur in 1873.|||
|1874||Charles Taze Russell||This Christian minister predicted the return of Jesus to occur in 1874, and after this date reinterpreted the prediction to say that Jesus had indeed returned in invisible form.|||
|1881||Mother Shipton (attrib.)||This 15th-century prophet was quoted as saying "The world to an end shall come, In eighteen hundred and eighty one" in a book published in 1862. In 1873 it was revealed to be a forgery; however, this did not stop some people from expecting the end.|||
|1890||Wovoka||The founder of the Ghost Dance movement predicted in 1889 that the Millennium would occur in 1890.|||
|1901||Catholic Apostolic Church||This church, founded in 1831, claimed that Jesus would return by the time the last of its 12 founding members died. The last member died in 1901.|||
|23 Apr 1908||Michael Paget Baxter||The last of numerous apocalyptic predictions by this Anglican evangelist and author; this prediction was published in 1894.|||
|1910||Camille Flammarion||Flammarion predicted that the 1910 appearance of Halley's Comet "would impregnate that atmosphere and possibly snuff out all life on the planet", but not the planet itself. "Comet pills" were sold to protect against toxic gases.|||
|1892–1911||Charles Piazzi Smyth||This pyramidologist concluded from his research on the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza that the Second Coming would occur somewhere between 1892 and 1911.|||
|1914||Charles Taze Russell||Russell said "...the battle of the great day of God Almighty... The date of the close of that 'battle' is definitely marked in Scripture as October 1914. It is already in progress, its beginning dating from October, 1874."|||
|1915||John Chilembwe||This Baptist educator and leader of a rebellion in the British protectorate of Nyasaland predicted the Millennium would begin this year.|||
|1918||International Bible Students Association||"Christendom shall be cut off and glorification of the Little Flock (The Church) in the Spring of 1918 A. D."|||
|1920||International Bible Students Association||In 1918, Christendom would go down as a system to oblivion and be succeeded by revolutionary governments. God would "destroy the churches wholesale and the church members by the millions." Church members would "perish by the sword of war, revolution and anarchy." The dead would lie unburied. In 1920 all earthly governments would disappear, with worldwide anarchy prevailing.|||
|13 Feb 1925||Margaret Rowen||According to this Seventh-Day Adventist, the angel Gabriel appeared before her in a vision and told her that the world would end at midnight on this date.|||
|1926||Spencer Perceval||This British MP, who was one of the 12 apostles of the Catholic Apostolic Church, believed that the world was growing nearer to the Apocalypse due to what he viewed as the rampant immorality of the times in Europe.|||
|Sep 1935||Wilbur Glenn Voliva||This evangelist announced that "the world is going to go 'puff' and disappear" in September 1935.|||
|1936||Herbert W. Armstrong||The founder of the Worldwide Church of God told members of his church that the Rapture was to take place in 1936, and that only they would be saved. After the prophecy failed, he changed the date three more times.|||
|1941||Jehovah's Witnesses||A prediction of the end from the Jehovah's Witnesses, a group which branched from the Bible Student movement.|||
|1943||Herbert W. Armstrong||The first of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 prediction failed to come true.|||
|1947||John Ballou Newbrough||The author of Oahspe: A New Bible foresaw the destruction of all nations and the beginning of post-apocalyptic anarchy in this year.|||
|21 Dec 1954||Dorothy Martin||The world was to be destroyed by terrible flooding on this date, claimed this leader of a UFO cult called Brotherhood of the Seven Rays. The fallout of the group after the prediction failed was the basis for the 1956 book When Prophecy Fails.|||
|22 Apr 1959||Florence Houteff||The second prophet of the Branch Davidians predicted the apocalypse foretold in the Book of Revelation would proceed on this date. The failure of the prophecy led to the split of the sect into several subsects, the most prominent led by Benjamin and Lois Roden.|||
|4 Feb 1962||Jeane Dixon, various Indian astrologers||Dixon predicted a planetary alignment on this day was to bring destruction to the world. Mass prayer meetings were held in India.|||
|20 Aug 1967||George Van Tassel||This day would mark the beginning of the third woe of the Apocalypse, during which the southeastern US would be destroyed by a Soviet nuclear attack, according to this UFO prophet, who claimed to have channeled an alien named Ashtar.|||
|1967||Jim Jones||The founder of the People's Temple stated he had visions that a nuclear holocaust was to take place in 1967.|||
|9 Aug 1969||George Williams||The founder of the Church of the Firstborn predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.|||
|1969||Charles Manson||Manson predicted that Helter skelter, an apocalyptic race war, would occur in 1969.|||
|1972||Herbert W. Armstrong||The second of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 and 1943 predictions failed to come true.|||
|Jan 1974||David Berg||Berg, the leader of Children of God, predicted that there would be a colossal doomsday event heralded by Comet Kohoutek.|||
|1975||Herbert W. Armstrong||Armstrong's fourth and final prediction.|||
|Jehovah's Witnesses||From 1966 on, Jehovah's Witnesses published articles which stated that the fall of 1975 would be 6000 years since man's creation, and suggested that Armageddon could be finished by then.|||
|1976||Brahma Kumaris||The Brahma Kumaris founder, Lekhraj Kirpalani, has made a number of predictions of a global Armageddon which the religion believes it will inspire, internally calling it "Destruction". During Destruction, Brahma Kumari leaders teach the world will be purified, all of the rest of humanity killed by nuclear or civil wars and natural disasters which will include the sinking of all other continents except India.|||
|1977||John Wroe||The founder of the Christian Israelite Church predicted this year for Armageddon to occur.|||
|William M. Branham||This Christian minister predicted the Rapture would occur no later than 1977.|||
|17 Feb 1979||Roch Thériault||Thériault, who called himself Moïse (Moses), led a commune in the wilderness of eastern Quebec in the late seventies. Formerly a Seventh-Day Adventist, he told his group they would form the center of a new society during God's 1000 year reign following Armageddon.|||
|1980||Leland Jensen||In 1978 Jensen predicted that there would be a nuclear disaster in 1980, followed by two decades of conflict, culminating in God's Kingdom being established on Earth.|||
|1981||Chuck Smith||The founder of Calvary Chapel predicted the generation of 1948 would be the last generation, and that the world would end by 1981. Smith identified that he "could be wrong" but continued to say in the same sentence that his prediction was "a deep conviction in my heart, and all my plans are predicated upon that belief."|||
|Apr–Jun 1982||Tara Centers||Full-page ads in many newspapers April 24 and 25, 1982, stated that "The Christ is Now Here!" and that he would make himself known "within the next two months".|||
|10 Mar 1982||John Gribbin, Stephen Plagemann||Gribbin, an astrophysicist, co-authored the 1974 book The Jupiter Effect which predicted that combined gravitational forces of aligned planets would create a number of catastrophes, including a great earthquake on the San Andreas Fault.|||
|21 Jun 1982||Benjamin Creme||Creme took out an ad in the Los Angeles Times stating that the Second Coming would occur in June 1982 with the Maitreya announcing it on worldwide television.|||
|1982||Pat Robertson||In late 1976 on his 700 Club TV programme, Robertson predicted that the end of the world would come in this year.|||
|1985||Lester Sumrall||This minister predicted the end in this year, even writing a book about it entitled I Predict 1985.|||
|29 Apr 1986||Leland Jensen||Jensen predicted that Halley's Comet would be pulled into Earth's orbit on this day, causing widespread destruction.|||
|17 Aug 1987||José Argüelles||Argüelles claimed that Armageddon would take place unless 144,000 people gathered in certain places across the world in order to "resonate in harmony" on this day.|||
|11–13 Sep 1988
3 Oct 1988
|Edgar C. Whisenant||Whisenant predicted in his book 88 Reasons Why the Rapture Could Be in 1988 that the Rapture of the Christian Church would occur between September 11 and 13, 1988. After his September predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to October 3.|||
|30 Sep 1989||Edgar C. Whisenant||After all his 1988 predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to this day.|||
|23 Apr 1990||Elizabeth Clare Prophet||Prophet predicted a nuclear war would start on this day, with the world ending 12 years later, leading her followers to stockpile a shelter with supplies and weapons. Later, after Prophet's prediction did not come to pass, she was diagnosed with epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.|||
|9 Sep 1991||Menachem Mendel Schneerson||This Russian-born rabbi called for the Messiah to come by the start of the Jewish New Year.|||
|1991||Louis Farrakhan||The leader of the Nation of Islam declared that the Gulf War would be the "War of Armageddon which is the final war."|||
|28 Sep 1992||Rollen Stewart||This born-again Christian predicted the Rapture would take place on this day.|||
|28 Oct 1992||Lee Jang Rim||Lee, the leader of the Dami Mission church, predicted the rapture would occur on this day.|||
|1993||David Berg||Berg predicted the tribulation would start in 1989 and that the Second Coming would take place in 1993.|||
|2 May 1994||Neal Chase||This Bahá'í sect leader predicted that New York City would be destroyed by a nuclear bomb on March 23, 1994, and the Battle of Armageddon would take place 40 days later.|||
|6 Sep 1994
29 Sep 1994
2 Oct 1994
|Harold Camping||Camping predicted the Rapture would occur on 6 September 1994. When it failed to occur he revised the date to the 29th of September and then to the 2nd October.|||
|31 Mar 1995||Harold Camping||Camping's fourth predicted date for the end. This would be Camping's last prediction until 2011.|||
|17 Dec 1996||Sheldan Nidle||Californian psychic Sheldan Nidle predicted that the world would end on this date, with the arrival of 16 million space ships and a host of angels.|||
|26 Mar 1997||Marshall Applewhite||Applewhite, leader of the Heaven's Gate cult, claimed that a spacecraft was trailing the Comet Hale-Bopp and argued that suicide was "the only way to evacuate this Earth" so that the cult members' souls could board the supposed craft and be taken to another "level of existence above human". Applewhite and 38 of his followers committed mass suicide.|||
|10 Aug 1997||Aggai||The 1st-century bishop of Edessa predicted this date to be the birth date of the Antichrist and the end of the universe.|||
|23 Oct 1997||James Ussher||This 17th-century Irish archbishop predicted this date to be 6000 years since creation, and therefore the end of the world.|||
|31 Mar 1998||Hon-Ming Chen||Chen, leader of the Taiwanese cult Chen Tao – "The True Way" – claimed that God would come to Earth in a flying saucer at 10:00 am on this date.|||
|Jul 1999||Nostradamus||A quatrain by Nostradamus which stated the "King of Terror" would come from the sky in "1999 and seven months" was frequently interpreted as a prediction of doomsday in July 1999.|||
|18 Aug 1999||The Amazing Criswell||The predicted date of the end of the world, according to this psychic well known for predictions.|||
|11 Sep 1999||Philip Berg||Berg, dean of the worldwide Kabbalah Centre, stated that on this date "a ball of fire will descend, destroying almost all of mankind, all vegetation, all forms of life."|||
|1999||Charles Berlitz||This linguist predicted the end would occur in this year. He did not predict how it would occur, stating that it might involve nuclear devastation, asteroid impact, pole shift or other Earth changes.|||
|Hon-Ming Chen||The leader of the cult Chen Tao preached that a nuclear holocaust would destroy Europe and Asia in 1999.|||
|James Gordon Lindsay||This preacher predicted the great tribulation would begin before 2000.|||
|Timothy Dwight IV||This 19th century president of Yale University foresaw Christ's Millennium starting by 2000.|||
|Nazim Al-Haqqani||This Sufi Muslim sheikh predicted that the Last Judgment would occur before 2000.|||
|1 Jan 2000||Credonia Mwerinde, Joseph Kibweteere||An estimated 778 followers of this Ugandan religious movement perished in a devastating fire and a series of poisonings and killings that were either a group suicide or an orchestrated mass murder by group leaders after their predictions of the apocalypse failed to come about.|||
|Jerry Falwell||Falwell foresaw God pouring out his judgement on the world on this day.|||
|Tim LaHaye, Jerry B. Jenkins||These Christian authors stated that the Y2K bug would trigger global economic chaos, which the Antichrist would use to rise to power. As the date approached, however, they changed their minds.|||
|Various||During and before 1999 there was widespread predictions of a Y2K computer bug that would crash many computers on midnight of January 1, 2000 and cause malfunctions leading to major catastrophes worldwide, and that society would cease to function.|||
|6 Apr 2000||James Harmston||The leader of the True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.|||
|5 May 2000||Nuwaubian Nation||This movement claimed that the planetary lineup would cause a "star holocaust", pulling the planets toward the Sun on this day.|||
|2000||Peter Olivi||This 13th-century theologian wrote that the Antichrist would come to power between 1300 and 1340, and the Last Judgement would take place around 2000.|||
|Ruth Montgomery||This self-described Christian psychic predicted the Earth's axis would shift and the Antichrist would reveal himself in this year.|||
|Edgar Cayce||This psychic predicted the Second Coming would occur this year.|||
|Sun Myung Moon||The founder of the Unification Church predicted the Kingdom of Heaven would be established in this year.|||
|Ed Dobson||This pastor predicted the end would occur in his book The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A.D. 2000.|||
|Lester Sumrall||This minister predicted the end in his book I Predict 2000.|||
|Jonathan Edwards||This 18th-century preacher predicted that Christ's thousand-year reign would begin in this year.|||
|2001||Tynnetta Muhammad||This columnist for the Nation of Islam predicted the end would occur in this year.|||
|27 May 2003||Nancy Lieder||Lieder originally predicted the date for the Nibiru collision as May 2003. According to her website, aliens in the Zeta Reticuli star system told her through messages via a brain implant of a planet which would enter the solar system and cause a pole shift on Earth that would destroy most of humanity.|||
|30 Oct–Nov 29 2003||Aum Shinrikyo||This Japanese cult, which carried out the Tokyo subway sarin attack in 1995, predicted the world would be destroyed by a nuclear war between 30 October and 29 November 2003.|||
|12 Sep 2006||House of Yahweh||Yisrayl Hawkins, pastor and overseer of The House of Yahweh, predicted in his February 2006 newsletter that a nuclear war would begin on September 12, 2006.|||
|29 Apr 2007||Pat Robertson||In his 1990 book The New Millennium, Robertson suggests this date as the day of Earth's destruction.|||
|May 2008||Pyotr Kuznetsov||Followers of Kuznetsov, 31 adults and 4 children (one 18 months old), went into a cave in Russia in November 2007 thinking they would be safe from an apocalypse occurring in the spring. Kuzentsov did not join them, was later committed and attempted suicide when some had left the cave in the spring. By the time all the followers had left the cave in the spring, two adults had died.|||
|2010||Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn||This magical organization, which existed from 1887 to 1903, predicted the world would end during this year.|||
|21 May 2011||Harold Camping||Camping predicted that the Rapture and devastating earthquakes would occur on 21 May 2011, with God taking approximately 3% of the world's population into Heaven, and that the end of the world would occur five months later on October 21.|||
|29 Sep 2011||Ronald Weinland||Weinland, the founder of the Church of God Preparing for the Kingdom of God, stated Jesus would return on this day. After his prophecy failed to come true he changed the date to 27 May 2012.|||
|21 Oct 2011||Harold Camping||When his original prediction failed to come about, Camping revised his prediction and said that on May 21, a "Spiritual Judgment" took place, and that both the physical Rapture and the end of the world would occur on 21 October 2011.|||
|Aug–Oct 2011||Various||There were fears amongst the public that Comet Elenin travelling almost directly between Earth and the Sun would cause disturbances to the Earth's crust, causing massive earthquakes and tidal waves. Others predicted that Elenin would collide with Earth on October 16. Scientists tried to calm fears by stating that none of these events were possible.|||
|27 May 2012||Ronald Weinland||Weinland's revised date for the return of Jesus following the failure of his 2011 prediction.|||
|30 Jun 2012||José Luis de Jesús||This cult leader predicted that the world's governments and economies would fail on this day, and that he and his followers would undergo a transformation that would allow them to fly and walk through walls.|||
|21 Dec 2012||Various||The 2012 phenomenon predicted the world would end at the end of the 13th b'ak'tun. The Earth would be destroyed by an asteroid, Nibiru, or some other interplanetary object; an alien invasion; or a supernova. Mayanist scholars stated that no extant classic Maya accounts forecasted impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture. Scientists from NASA, along with expert archaeologists, stated that none of those events was possible.|||
|23 Aug 2013||Grigori Rasputin||Rasputin, a Russian mystic who died in 1916, prophesied a storm would take place on this day where fire would destroy most life on land and Jesus would come back to Earth to comfort those in distress.|||
|Apr 2014–Sep 2015||John Hagee, Mark Biltz||The so-called blood moon prophecy, first predicted by Mark Biltz in 2008 and then by John Hagee in 2014. These Christian ministers claim that the tetrad in 2014 and 2015 may represent the beginning of the Messianic end times. Some Mormons in Utah combined the September 2015 blood moon with other signs, causing a large increase in sales of preppers survival supplies.|||
|23 Sep–15 Oct 2017||David Meade||Conspiracy theorist David Meade predicted that Nibiru would become visible in the sky and would "soon" destroy the Earth.|||
|23 Apr 2018||David Meade||After his 2017 prediction failed, Meade predicted the rapture would take place and that the world would end on this date.|||
|9 Jun 2019||Ronald Weinland||Weinland, who previously predicted the world would end in 2011, 2012, and then 2013, predicted in 2018 that Jesus would return on June 9, 2019. He has since expressed some doubts regarding his own prediction.|||
|2020||Jeane Dixon||Dixon predicted that Armageddon would take place in 2020. She previously predicted the world would end on February 4, 1962.|||
|2021||F. Kenton Beshore||This American pastor bases his prediction on the prior suggestion that Jesus would return in 1988, i.e., within one biblical generation (40 years) of the founding of Israel in 1948. Beshore argues that the prediction was correct, but that the definition of a biblical generation was incorrect and was actually 70–80 years, placing the second coming of Jesus between 2018 and 2028 and the rapture by 2021 at the latest.|||
|2026||Messiah Foundation International||This spiritual organisation predicts that the world will end in 2026, when an asteroid collides with Earth in accordance with Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi's predictions in his book The Religion of God.|||
|2129||Said Nursî||According to abjad interpretation of a hadith, this Sunni Muslim theologian wrote the Risale-i Nur Collection, which expects the end in 2129.|||
|2239||Talmud, Orthodox Judaism||According to the Talmud in mainstream Orthodox Judaism, the Messiah will come within 6000 years of the creation of Adam, and the world may be destroyed 1000 years later. This would put the beginning of the period of desolation in 2239 and the end of the period of desolation in 3239.|||
|2280||Rashad Khalifa||According to this Egyptian-American biochemist's research on the Qu'ran, the world will end during that year.|||
Far future predictionsEdit
|Estimated timeframe (years)||Claimant(s)||Description||Ref.|
|300,000||Peter Tuthill||In approximately 300,000 years, WR 104, a triple star, is expected to explode in a supernova. It has been suggested that it may produce a gamma ray burst that could pose a threat to life on Earth should its poles be aligned 12° or lower towards Earth. However, spectroscopic observations now strongly suggest that it is tilted at an angle of 30°-40° and so any gamma ray burst should not hit Earth.|||
|500,000||Nick Bostrom||According to a journal article by Bostrom, an asteroid impacting with Earth would need to be about 1 km in diameter to render humans extinct. It is estimated that such an asteroid hits Earth about every 500,000 years.|||
|1 million||The Geological Society||Within the next 1 million years, Earth will likely have undergone a supervolcanic eruption large enough to erupt 3,200 km3 of magma, an event comparable to the Toba supereruption 75,000 years ago.|||
|100 million||Stephen A. Nelson||It is estimated that every 100 million years, Earth is hit by an asteroid about 10–15 km in diameter, comparable in size to the one that triggered the K–Pg extinction which killed non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago.|||
|500–600 million||Anne Minard||A gamma ray burst or a massive, hyperenergetic supernova, would have occurred within 6,500 light-years of Earth, close enough for its rays to affect Earth's ozone layer and potentially trigger a mass extinction, assuming that the hypothesis of a previous such explosion triggering the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event is correct. However, the supernova would have to be precisely oriented relative to Earth to have any negative effect.|||
|600–800 million||Various||The Sun's increasing brightness causes the rate of weathering of the planet's crust to increase. This will cause the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to drop dramatically, making photosynthesis in plants impossible. This will very likely cause a mega mass extinction of the Earth's vegetation. The lack of oxygen-producing plants will cause oxygen in the atmosphere to disappear as well as the ozone layer, making animal life impossible. Even if photosynthesis was still possible, rising surface temperatures from the brighter sun will make complex life (plants and animals) impossible.|||
|1–5 billion||Various||The estimated end of the Sun's current phase of development, after which it will swell into a red giant, either scorching or swallowing Earth, will occur around five billion years from now. However, as the Sun grows gradually hotter (over millions of years), Earth may become too hot for life as early as one billion years from now.|||
|1.6 billion||Various||It is estimated that all eukaryotic life will die out due to carbon dioxide starvation, with only prokaryotes remaining.|||
|7.59 billion||David Powell||The Earth and the Moon will be most likely destroyed by falling into the Sun, just before the Sun reaches the largest of its red giant phase when it will be 256 times larger than its current size. Before the final collision, the Moon will possibly spiral below Earth's Roche limit, breaking into a ring of debris, most of which would fall to Earth's surface.|||
|22 billion||Various||This is the end of the Universe in the Big Rip scenario, assuming a model of dark energy with w = −1.5. Observations of galaxy cluster speeds by the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggest that the true value of w is ~-0.991, meaning the Big Rip will not occur.|||
|10100||Various||The time estimated for the heat death of the universe, a hypothetical event in which the universe would diminish to a state of no thermodynamic free energy, becoming no longer able to sustain directed motion or life.|||
- Cole-Turner, Ronald (2012). "The singularity and the rapture: Transhumanist and popular Christian views of the future". Zygon. 47 (4): 777–796.
- Aveni 2016, p. 7.
- Eliyahu Berkowitz, Adam (August 17, 2015). "200-Year-Old "Messiah Clock" Sets Last Possible Date for Final Redemption – and the Timing Will Surprise You!". Breaking Israel News. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017.
- Yuhas, Daisy (December 18, 2012). "Psychology Reveals the Comforts of the Apocalypse". Scientific American. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018.
- Fessensden, Marissa (September 8, 2015). "People Have Always Been Obsessed with the End of the World". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018.
- "Apocalypse now: our incessant desire to picture the end of the world". The Conversation. August 25, 2015. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018.
- Dovey, Dana (September 26, 2017). "Doomsday Is Postponed Again: Here's Why We're All So Obsessed With The End Of World, According to Psychology". Newsweek. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018.
- Aveni 2016, p. xii.
- "Apocalypse now: Poll shows 1 in 7 thinks end of world is near". The Chicago Tribune. May 2, 2012. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018.
- "One in Seven (14%) Global Citizens Believe End of the World is Coming in Their Lifetime". Ipsos. May 1, 2012. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018.
- Drezner, Daniel W. (March 13, 2015). "Do experts and the public think differently about the apocalypse?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018.
- "YouGov Survey Result" (PDF). YouGov. March 9, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 30, 2015.
- Dahlgreen, Will (March 10, 2015). "UKIP voters most likely to think the apocalypse is coming". YouGov.
- William Cran; Ben Loeterman (November 22, 1998). "Apocalypse". Frontline. Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on January 13, 2013.
- Evans, Craig A. (2006). "Messianic Hopes and Messianic Figures in Late Antiquity". Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism. 3: 9–40.
- Boyett 2005, p. 30.
- Lazarus 2008, p. 237.
- Abanes 1998, p. 119.
- Boyett 2005, p. 31.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 35.
- Kyle 1998, p. 37.
- Weber 1999, p. 48.
- Abanes 1998, p. 337.
- Palmer 2014, p. 161.
- Randi 1993, p. 236.
- Boyett 2005, p. 32.
- Strandberg 2003, pp. 35–36.
- Riché 1987.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 36.
- Kyle 1998, p. 48.
- McIver 1999, p. 58.
- Boyett 2005, p. 33.
- Byrne 2008, p. 67.
- Weber 1999, p. 55.
- McIver 1999, p. 62.
- Weber 1999, p. 60.
- Durant 1953, p. 139.
- Randi 1993, pp. 236–237.
- Ashe 2001, p. 79.
- Gould 1998, p. 48.
- Weber 1999, p. 67.
- Randi 1993, p. 238.
- McIver 1999, p. 88.
- Kyle 1998, p. 59.
- Abanes 1998, p. 338.
- McIver 1999, p. 72.
- Servetus 1553.
- Randi 1993, p. 239.
- Weber 1999, p. 66.
- Martin, Sean (May 14, 2016). "Apocalyptic medieval map of Hell predicted Islam will conquer Europe". Daily Express. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017.
- "These 15th-Century Maps Show How the Apocalypse Will Go Down". National Geographic. November 15, 2016. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016.
- Randi 1993, p. 240.
- McGovern 1992, p. 17.
- Stackhouse 1997, p. 50.
- Kyle 1998, p. 67.
- McIver 1999, p. 77.
- McIver 1999, p. 147.
- Strandberg 2003, pp. 36–37.
- Schwartz 1995, p. 87.
- Abanes 1998, p. 209.
- Weber 1999, p. 92.
- Kyle 1998, p. 70.
- Kyle 1998, p. 72.
- Kyle 1998, p. 66.
- Cohen 1999, pp. 19–20.
- Rice, Brian; González-Velasco, Enrique; Corrigan, Alexander (2017). The Life and Works of John Napier. Springer International Publishing. pp. 88–90. ISBN 978-3319532813.
- Brady 1983, pp. 182–183.
- McIver 1999, p. 73.
- Hegel 2014, p. 246.
- Swedenborg 1758.
- Spinks 2006, p. 114.
- Campanella, Thomas J. (2007). "'Mark Well the Gloom': Shedding Light on the Great Dark Day of 1780". Environmental History. 12 (1): 35–38. doi:10.1093/envhis/12.1.35. ISSN 1084-5453. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011.
- Weber 1999, p. 59.
- McIver 1999, p. 310.
- Schwartz 1995, p. 101.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 37.
- Radford, Benjamin (November 4, 2009). "10 Failed Doomsday Predictions". Live Science. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017.
- Skinner 1994, p. 109.
- Ehrman 2005, p. 110.
- McIver 1999, p. 269.
- Festinger 1956, p. 16.
- McIver 1999, p. 699.
- Festinger 1956, p. 17.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 38.
- Cohen 1999, p. 23.
- Abanes 1998, p. 283.
- Howard, G.M. (1976). "Men, Motives, and Misunderstandings: A New Look at the Morrisite War of 1862". Utah Historical Quarterly. 44 (2).
- Wendell 1870.
- Neusner 2009, p. 242.
- Stone 2000, p. 56.
- Randi 1993, p. 243.
- Gould 1998, p. 69.
- Boyer 1994, p. 87.
- Thompson 1999, p. 121.
- "Ten Notable Apocalypses That (Obviously) Didn't Happen". Smithsonian. November 12, 2009. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017.
- Cohen 1999, p. 94.
- "View from the Tower. Things to Come—and the Present European Situation". Zion's Watch Tower. Xiii (2): 23. January 15, 1892. Archived from the original (Reprint) on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Penton 1997, p. 398.
- Franz 2002, pp. 206–211.
- Abanes 1998, p. 45.
- Wilson 2007, p. 14.
- Abanes 1998, p. 287.
- Shaw 1996, p. 99.
- Shaw 1996, p. 72.
- Heard 2000, pp. 46–48.
- Waco: The Rules of Engagement (Film). September 19, 1997.
- Abanes 1998, p. 340.
- "Priests Leading Thousand in Prayer Meetings in India". Edmonton Journal. February 3, 1962. p. 1."Masses Pray As India Sees "Augur of Doom" In Planets". Toledo Blade. February 4, 1962. p. 5.
- Alnor 1999, p. 145.
- Weber 1999, p. 214.
- Robbins 1998, p. 77.
- Boyett 2005, p. 52.
- Darling 2012, p. xiv.
- "Life Everlasting in Freedom of the Sons of God" (PDF). Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York. 1966: 29–35.
- Wallace 2007, p. 112.
- Babinski 1995, p. 277.
- Khalia 1993, p. 101.
- Stone 2000, p. 269.
- Smith 1980.
- Arellano, Gustavo (May 7, 2011). "Remembering When Chuck Smith Predicted the End Times–And They Didn't Happen". OC Weekly. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 39.
- Abanes 1998, p. 62.
- Grosso 1995, p. 7.
- Restall 2013, p. 121.
- Abanes 1998, p. 99.
- Robbins 1998, pp. 73, 76.
- Kyle 1998, p. 156.
- Abanes 1998, p. 93.
- Boyett 2005, p. 61.
- Snow 2003, pp. 70, 79, 108, 111.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 40.
- Abanes 1998, p. 307.
- Adams 1999, p. 18–20.
- Watanabe, Teresa (October 29, 1992). "No Doomsday Rapture for S. Korea Sect". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Kyle 1998, p. 145.
- Robbins 1998, p. 79.
- Abanes 1998, p. 95.
- Camping 1992, pp. 26–531.
- Jones, Ian; Young, Andy (May 23, 2011). "Apocalypse… not just yet". MSN. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012.
- "Mass suicide involved sedatives, vodka and careful planning". CNN. March 27, 1997. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012.
- Gould 1998, p. 72.
- Gould 1998, p. 68.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 43.
- Lorie 2002, p. 17.
- Abanes 1998, p. 43.
- Strandberg 2003, p. 44.
- Kyle 1998, p. 194.
- Wessinger 2000, p. 5.
- Abanes 1998, p. 280.
- Kyle 1998, p. 81.
- Vadillo 2011, pp. 450–451.
- Fisher, Ian (April 3, 2000). "Uganda Survivor Tells of Questions When World Didn't End". The New York Times.
- Twesigye 2010, p. 21.
- Kellner, Mark A (January 11, 1999). "The Coming Secular Apocalypse". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012.
- Rosin, Hanna (December 27, 1999). "The Apocalypse Is Still Coming—Later". The Washington Post. p. A01.
- McIver 1999, p. 249.
- Alnor 1999, p. 121.
- Weber 1999, p. 54.
- Kyle 1998, pp. 156, 195.
- Hanna 1998, p. 219.
- Kyle 1998, p. 148.
- Dobson 1997.
- Abanes 1998, pp. 99, 341.
- Weber 1999, p. 171.
- Weber 1999, p. 213.
- George Johnson (March 28, 1997). "Comets Breed Fear, Fascination and websites". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012.
- Alnor 1999, p. 98.
- "Kenyan joy as world fails to end". BBC News. September 12, 2006. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017.
- Abanes 1998, p. 138.
- Blomfield, Adrian (May 16, 2008). "Russian doomsday cult emerge from underground cave". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 7, 2013.
- Shaw 1996, p. 223.
- "Harold Camping: Doomsday Prophet Wrong Again". ABC News. October 22, 2011. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012.
- Ronald Weinland. "Moving Forward Rapidly, February 7, 2008". Ronald Weinland. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Ronald Weinland. "New Truth, June 18, 2008". Ronald Weinland. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Ronald Weinland. "1260 Days, December 13, 2008". Ronald Weinland. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008.
- Atkinson, Nancy (July 20, 2011). "Worried About Comet Elenin? FAQs from Ian Musgrave". Universe Today. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012.
- Kissick, Peter (May 26, 2012). "Eurovision 2012: a sign of the apocalypse?". The Phonograph. Archived from the original on January 14, 2013.
- Cotroneo, Christian (May 2, 2012). "Jose Luis De Jesus Miranda: End Of The World Is Nigh (Again)". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013.
- G. Jeffrey MacDonald (March 27, 2007). "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012.
- David Webster (September 25, 2007). "The Uses and Abuses of the Ancient Maya" (PDF). The Emergence of the Modern World Conference, Otzenhausen, Germany: Penn State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2009.
- "Grigory Rasputin predicted end of the world on August 23, 2013". Pravda.ru. August 23, 2013. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017.
- Snyder, Christopher (October 16, 2013). "Is the cosmos telling us the end is near?". Fox News. Archived from the original on December 8, 2013.
- "Some Mormons stocking up amid fears that doomsday could come this month". The Salt Lake Tribune. September 15, 2015. Archived from the original on July 6, 2018.
- "Biblical prophecy claims the world would end on Sept. 23, Christian numerologists claim". Fox News. September 15, 2017. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
- MacDonald, Cheyenne (April 12, 2018). "Conspiracy theorists claim end of world is coming April 23 when Nibiru appears". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on April 24, 2018.
- Gabbatt, Adam (April 19, 2018). "No, the world will not end on Monday, says conspiracy theorist cited in reports". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 24, 2018.
- Weinland, Ronald. "Biography". The Church of God Preparing for the Kingdom of God. Archived from the original on April 24, 2018.
- Weinland, Ronald (June 9, 2018). "Is Christ About to Return?". The Church of God Preparing for the Kingdom of God. Archived from the original on July 30, 2018.
- Dixon 1971, pp. 170–172.
- Anderson, Troy (December 6, 2012). "Bible Scholar Predicts New Date of Christ's Second Coming". Charisma. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013.
- Gohar Shahi 2012, p. 36.
- Whelan, Brian (December 21, 2012). "No sign of apocalypse as Mayan prediction falls flat". Channel 4. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017.
- Khalifa 2010, p. xiv.
- Tuthill, Peter; Monnier, John; Lawrance, Nicholas; Danchi, William; Owocki, Stan; Gayley, Kenneth (2008). "The Prototype Colliding-Wind Pinwheel WR 104". The Astrophysical Journal. 675 (1): 698–710. arXiv:0712.2111. Bibcode:2008ApJ...675..698T. doi:10.1086/527286.
- O'Neill, Ian (December 24, 2015). "WR 104 Won't Kill Us After All". Universe Today. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012.
- Bostrom, Nick (March 2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards". Journal of Evolution and Technology. 9 (1). Retrieved September 10, 2012.
- "Super-eruptions: Global effects and future threats". Geological Society of London. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Nelson, Stephen A. "Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction". Tulane University. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
- Minard, Anne (2009). "Gamma-Ray Burst Caused Mass Extinction?". National Geographic. Archived from the original on July 5, 2015.
- Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; Von Bloh, W. (November 2005). "Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction" (PDF). Biogeosciences Discussions. 2 (6): 1665–1679. Bibcode:2005BGD.....2.1665F. doi:10.5194/bgd-2-1665-2005. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Ward, Peter Douglas; Brownlee, Donald (2003). The life and death of planet Earth: how the new science of astrobiology charts the ultimate fate of our world. Macmillan. ISBN 0-8050-7512-7.
- Carrington, D. (February 21, 2000). "Date set for desert Earth". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Smith, R.C. (2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (1): 155. arXiv:0801.4031. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x.
- Palmer, J. (2008). "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death". New Scientist. Archived from the original on December 14, 2008.
- Powell, David (January 22, 2007). "Earth's Moon Destined to Disintegrate". Space.com. Tech Media Network. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.
- Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Burenin, R.A.; et al. (2009). "Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints". The Astrophysical Journal. 692 (2): 1060–1074. arXiv:0812.2720. Bibcode:2009ApJ...692.1060V. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1060.
- Brush 1996, p. 77.
- Abanes, Richard (1998). End-Time Visions. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows. ISBN 978-1-56858-104-0.
- Adams, Cecil (1999). Triumph of the Straight Dope. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-42008-4.
- Alnor, William M. (1998). UFO Cults and the New Millennium. Baker Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8010-5791-5.
- Ashe, Gregory (2001). Encyclopedia of Prophecy. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-079-6.
- Aveni, Anthony (2016). Apocalyptic Anxiety: Religion, Science, and America's Obsession with the End of the World. University Press of Colarado. ISBN 978-1-60732-471-3.
- Babinski, Edward T. (1995). Leaving the Fold. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-61592-167-6.
- Boyer, Paul (1994). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-95129-7.
- Boyett, Jason (2005). Pocket Guide to the Apocalypse: The Official Field Manual for the End of the World. Relevant Media Group. ISBN 978-0-9760357-1-8.
- Brady, David (1983). The Contribution of British Writers Between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13.16-18. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-144497-5.
- Brush, Stephen G. (1996). A History of Modern Planetary Physics: Nebulous Earth. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-44171-1.
- Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues, Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-34101-4.
- Camping, Harold (1992). 1994?. Vantage Press. ISBN 978-0-533-10368-3.
- Cohen, Daniel (1999). Prophets of Doom. Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7613-1317-5.
- Darling, David; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk (2012). Megacatastrophes!: Nine Strange Ways The World Could End. OneWorld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-027-0.
- Dobson, Ed (1997). The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A. D. 2000. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-21373-4.
- Dixon, Jeane (1971). The Call to Glory. New York: Bantam Books. ASIN B001KUT0PU.
- Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. ASIN B000HMTXTK.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. San Francisco: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4.
- Festinger, Leon (1956). When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of A Modern Group that Predicted the Destruction of the World. Harper-Torchbooks. ISBN 978-0-06-131132-1.
- Franz, Raymond (May 1, 2002). Crisis of Conscience. Commentary Press. ISBN 978-0-914675-23-5.
- Gohar Shahi, Riaz Ahmed (2012). The Religion of God. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-45254-908-8.
- Gould, Stephen Jay (1998). Questioning the Millennium. New York: Vintage/Ebury. ISBN 978-0-09-976581-3.
- Grosso, Michael (1995). Millennium Myth: Love and Death at the End of Time. Wheaton IL: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0-8356-0734-6.
- Hanna, Nick (1998). The Millennium: A Rough Guide to the Year 2000. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-0-9657840-1-6.
- Heard, Alex (2000). Apocalypse Pretty Soon: Travels In End-Time America. Main Street Books. pp. 46–48. ISBN 978-0-385-49852-4.
- Hegel, G. W. F. (2014). Hegel's Philosophy of Nature: Volume II. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-85250-6.
- Khalia, Paul; Laver, Ross (1993). Savage Messiah. Doubleday Canada Limited. p. 101. ISBN 978-0385254403.
- Khalifa, Rashad (2010). Quran – The Final Testament: Authorized English Version of the Original. Rashad Khalifa. ISBN 978-0-557-68013-9.
- Kyle, Richard (1998). The Last Days are Here Again. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-8010-5809-7.
- Lazarus, William P; Sullivan, Mark (2008). Comparative Religion for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-23065-7.
- Lorie, Peter (2002). Nostradamus 2003-2025: A History of the Future. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7434-5775-0.
- McGovern, James R. (1992). The World of Columbus. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0-86554-414-7.
- McIver, Tom (1999). The End of the World: An Annotated Bibliography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarlane & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-0708-8.
- Neusner, Jacob (2009). World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 978-1-61164-047-2.
- Palmer, James (2014). The Apocalypse in the Early Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-08544-2.
- Penton, James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-7973-2.
- Riché, Pierre (1987). Gerbert d'Aurillac, le pape de l'An Mil. Fayard. ISBN 978-2213019581.
- Russell, C.T. (1917). The Finished Mystery (Studies in the Scriptures). International Bible Students Association. ASIN B0008BYWE6.
- Randi, James (1993). The Mask of Nostradamus. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-830-1.
- Restall, Matthew; Solari, Amara (2011). 2012 and the End of the World: The Western Roots of the Maya Apocalypse. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-0609-0.
- Robbins, Thomas (1998). Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements. Taylor & Francis. ASIN B008UYVE12.
- Schwartz, Hillel (1995). Century's End: An Orientation Manual Toward the Year 2000. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-47981-3.
- Servetus, Michael (1553). The Restoration of Christianity. Baltasar Arnoullet.
- Shaw, Eva (1996). Eve of Destruction: Prophecies, Theories and Preparations for the End of the World. Ralph Lowe. ISBN 978-1-56565-431-0.
- Skinner, Stephen (1994). Millennium Prophecies. Stamford, Connecticut: Longmeadow Press. ISBN 978-0-7607-0739-5.
- Smith, Chuck (1980). End times: A Report on Future Survival. The Word For Today. ISBN 978-0-936728-05-6.
- Snow, Robert L. (2003). Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-275-98052-8.
- Spinks, Brian D. (2006). Reformation and Modern Rituals and Theologies of Baptism: From Luther to Contemporary Practices. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5697-5.
- Stackhouse, Reginald (1997). The End of the World?: A New Look at an Old Belief. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3727-5.
- Stone, Jon R. (2000). Expecting Armageddon: Essential Reading in Failed Prophecy. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92331-6.
- Strandberg, Todd; James, Terry (2003). Are You Rapture Ready?. New York City: Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-94737-0.
- Swedenborg, Emanuel (1758). The Last Judgment and Babylon Destroyed. All the Predictions in the Apocalypse are at This Day Fulfilled.
- Thompson, Damien (1999). The End Of Time: Faith and Fear in the Shadow of the Millennium. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-928943-2.
- Twesigye, Emmanuel K. (2010). Religion, Politics and Cults in East Africa: God's Warriors and Mary's Saints. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4331-1112-9.
- Vadillo, Umar Ibrahim (2011). The Esoteric Deviation in Islam. Madinah Press. pp. 450–451. ISBN 978-0-620-30569-3.
- Wallace, John (2007). The Brahma Kumaris as a Reflexive Tradition: Responding to late Modernity. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120829558.
- Weber, Eugen (1999). Apocalypses. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00395-8.
- Wendell, Jonas (1870). The Present Truth, or Meat in Due Season (PDF). ASIN B00088QPWQ.
- Wessinger, Catherine (2000). Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2809-5.
- Wilson, Ben (2007). Decency & Disorder: 1789-1837. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22469-2.