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List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level. List based on Fearon's analysis

This page contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

MethodologyEdit

The lists are commonly used in economics literature to compare the levels of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious fractionalization in different countries.[1][2] Fractionalization measures are computing the probability that two randomly drawn individuals (from a country) are not from the same group (ethnic, religious, or whatever the criterion is). The two lists have been described by Alesina and Ferrara as follows:[1]

"Fearon[3] and Alesina et al.[4] have compiled various measures of ethnic heterogeneity which try to tackle the fact that the difference amongst groups manifests itself in different ways in different places. The two classifications are constructed differently. Alesina et al.[4] do not take a stand on what ethnicity (or language or religion) are more salient than others and adopt the country breakdown suggested by original sources, mainly the Encyclopædia Britannica. Fearon[3] instead is trying to construct the ”right list” of ethnic groups which ”depends on what people in the country identify as the most socially relevant ethnic groupings”. This approach has the advantage of being closer to what the theory would want and the disadvantage of having to make judgement calls (or adopt others’ judgement calls) about what is the ”right list”."

List based on Fearon's analysisEdit

In the Fearon list, cultural fractionalization is approximated by a measure of similarity between languages, varying from 1 = the population speaks two or more unrelated languages to 0 = the entire population speaks the same language.[3] This index of cultural diversity is biased towards linguistic variations as opposed to genetic diversity and other variations.

Ethnic and Cultural diversity (2003)[3]
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
Country Ethnic
Fractionalization
Index
Cultural
Diversity
Index
  Papua New Guinea 1.000
  Tanzania 0.953 0.564
  Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.933 0.628
  Uganda 0.930 0.647
  Liberia 0.899 0.644
  Cameroon 0.887 0.733
  Togo 0.883 0.602
  South Africa 0.880 0.530
  Congo 0.878 0.562
  Madagascar 0.861 0.192
  Gabon 0.857 0.382
  Kenya 0.852 0.601
  Ghana 0.846 0.388
  Malawi 0.829 0.294
  Guinea-Bissau 0.818 0.568
  Somalia 0.812 0.290
  India 0.811 0.667
  Nigeria 0.805 0.660
  Yugoslavia (1943–1992) 0.801 0.385
  Central African Republic 0.791 0.511
  Ivory Coast 0.784 0.557
  Lebanon 0.780 0.195
  Chad 0.772 0.727
  Indonesia 0.766 0.522
  Mozambique 0.765 0.285
  Gambia 0.764 0.548
  Sierra Leone 0.764 0.534
  Ethiopia 0.760 0.562
  Angola 0.756 0.242
  Mali 0.754 0.590
  Afghanistan 0.751 0.679
  Bolivia 0.743 0.662
  United Arab Emirates 0.737 0.650
  Senegal 0.727 0.402
  Zambia 0.726 0.189
  Namibia 0.724 0.589
  Soviet Union (1922–1991) 0.711 0.596
  Sudan (1955–2011) 0.708 0.698
  Kuwait 0.708 0.540
  Burkina Faso 0.704 0.354
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.681 0.146
  Kyrgyzstan 0.679 0.624
  Nepal 0.677 0.542
  Iran 0.669 0.542
  Guinea 0.669 0.490
  Kazakhstan 0.664 0.620
  Colombia 0.656 0.020
  Ecuador 0.655 0.480
  Eritrea 0.647 0.398
  Trinidad and Tobago 0.647 0.380
  Peru 0.638 0.506
  Niger 0.637 0.600
  Mauritius 0.632 0.448
  Mauritania 0.625 0.272
  Benin 0.622 0.400
  Guyana 0.620 0.460
  Djibouti 0.606 0.404
  Bhutan 0.605 0.518
  Malaysia 0.596 0.564
  Canada 0.596 0.499
  Latvia 0.585 0.441
  Syria 0.581 0.235
  Switzerland 0.575 0.418
  Yugoslavia (1918–1943) 0.575 0.392
  Belgium 0.567 0.462
  Fiji 0.566 0.553
  Saudi Arabia 0.553 0.413
  Bahrain 0.551 0.460
  Iraq 0.549 0.355
  Brazil 0.549 0.020
  Mexico 0.542 0.434
  North Macedonia 0.535 0.432
  Pakistan 0.532 0.289
  Israel 0.526 0.246
  Burma 0.522 0.419
  Tajikistan 0.513 0.492
  Estonia 0.511 0.492
  Moldova 0.510 0.401
  Jordan 0.509 0.049
  Panama 0.507 0.168
  Czechoslovakia (1918–1992) 0.505 0.290
  Spain 0.502 0.263
  Chile 0.497 0.167
  Guatemala 0.493 0.493
  United States 0.491 0.271
  Georgia 0.490 0.404
  Uzbekistan 0.485 0.442
  Venezuela 0.483 0.020
  Laos 0.481 0.020
  Morocco 0.479 0.360
  Oman 0.439 0.404
  Thailand 0.431 0.431
  Sri Lanka 0.428 0.386
  Ukraine 0.419 0.258
  Nicaragua 0.402 0.095
  Turkmenistan 0.392 0.328
  Singapore 0.388 0.388
  Dominican Republic 0.387 0.000
  Croatia 0.375 0.185
  Belarus 0.372 0.228
  Zimbabwe 0.366 0.141
  New Zealand 0.363 0.363
  Cyprus 0.359 0.359
  Botswana 0.351 0.161
  Lithuania 0.338 0.259
  Russia 0.333 0.311
  Slovakia 0.332 0.293
  Burundi 0.328 0.040
  United Kingdom 0.324 0.184
  Czech Republic 0.322 0.064
  Algeria 0.320 0.237
  Romania 0.300 0.265
  Turkey 0.299 0.299
  Bulgaria 0.299 0.250
  Swaziland 0.280 0.143
  Taiwan 0.274 0.169
  France 0.272 0.251
  Mongolia 0.272 0.227
  Lesotho 0.255 0.057
  Argentina 0.255 0.000
  Costa Rica 0.238 0.078
  Vietnam 0.233 0.210
  Slovenia 0.231 0.170
  Bangladesh 0.223 0.141
  Uruguay 0.218 0.000
  Cuba 0.213 0.020
  El Salvador 0.198 0.180
  Sweden 0.189 0.189
  Azerbaijan 0.188 0.187
  Hungary 0.186 0.185
  Cambodia 0.186 0.150
  Honduras 0.185 0.167
  Rwanda 0.180 0.000
  Ireland 0.171 0.157
  Jamaica 0.166 0.027
  Egypt 0.164 0.000
  Philippines 0.161 0.116
  China 0.154 0.154
  Libya 0.151 0.127
  Australia 0.149 0.147
  Armenia 0.134 0.124
  Finland 0.132 0.132
  Paraguay 0.132 0.039
  Denmark 0.128 0.128
  Austria 0.126 0.100
  Norway 0.098 0.098
  Albania 0.097 0.082
  Germany 0.095 0.090
  Haiti 0.095 0.000
  Yemen 0.078 0.078
  Netherlands 0.077 0.077
  Greece 0.059 0.050
  Poland 0.047 0.041
  Portugal 0.040 0.040
  Italy 0.040 0.040
  Tunisia 0.039 0.033
  Japan 0.012 0.012
  South Korea 0.004 0.004
  North Korea 0.002 0.002

List based on Alesina et al's analysisEdit

This list is based on the analysis of Alesina and others,[4] they develop fractionalization scores based on ethnicity, religious and linguistic data directly from the Encyclopædia Britannica lists. This list is biased by how the Britannica chooses to list ethnic groups, but it does not make a judgement call on which identities are more salient than others. According to Patsiurko et al.

"One of the most ambitious and widely used of these new [fractionalization] indices was created by Alesina et al. (2003) who developed measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in 190 countries using more current data from the Encyclopædia Britannica Book of the Year (2001) ... and other sources. But again scholars offered criticisms (e.g. Fearon 2003; Posner 2004). First, there is inconsistency in terms of the years covered. For instance, the Encyclopædia Britannica provides ethnicity data for only 124 of 190 countries, so Alesina had to resort to other sources for the rest. Hence, his ethnicity data covered years ranging from 1979 to 2001, depending on the country. Second, he offered one-time measures of fractionalization, thereby being unable to say anything about change over time"[2]


Ethnic, Linguistic and Religious Fractionalization[4]
Rank
1
2
3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
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15
16
17
18
19
20
21
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28
29
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31
32
33
34
35
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37
38
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40
41
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43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
Country Ethnic
Fractionalization
Linguistic
Fractionalization
Religious
Fractionalization
  Afghanistan 0.769300 0.614100 0.271700
  Albania 0.220400 0.039900 0.471900
  Algeria 0.339400 0.442700 0.009100
  American Samoa 0.000000 0.173300 0.639500
  Andorra 0.713900 0.684800 0.232600
  Angola 0.786700 0.787000 0.627600
  Antigua and Barbuda 0.164300 0.106300 0.684000
  Argentina 0.255000 0.061800 0.223600
  Armenia 0.127200 0.129100 0.457600
  Aruba 0.000000 0.388900 0.410700
  Australia 0.092900 0.334900 0.821100
  Austria 0.106800 0.152200 0.414600
  Azerbaijan 0.204700 0.205400 0.489900
  Bahamas 0.422800 0.185500 0.681500
  Bahrain 0.502100 0.434400 0.552800
  Bangladesh 0.045400 0.092500 0.209000
  Barbados 0.142300 0.092600 0.693400
  Belarus 0.322200 0.466600 0.611600
  Belgium 0.555400 0.540900 0.212700
  Belize 0.701500 0.630300 0.581300
  Benin 0.787200 0.790500 0.554400
  Bermuda 0.000000 0.000000 0.711200
  Bhutan 0.605000 0.605600 0.378700
  Bolivia 0.739600 0.224000 0.208500
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.630000 0.675100 0.685100
  Botswana 0.410200 0.411000 0.598600
  Brazil 0.540800 0.046800 0.605400
  Brunei 0.541600 0.343800 0.440400
  Bulgaria 0.402100 0.303100 0.596500
  Burkina Faso 0.737700 0.722800 0.579800
  Burundi 0.295100 0.297700 0.515800
  Cambodia 0.210500 0.210400 0.096500
  Cameroon 0.863500 0.889800 0.733800
  Canada 0.712400 0.577200 0.695800
  Cape Verde 0.417400 0.000000 0.076600
  Central African Republic 0.829500 0.833400 0.791600
  Chad 0.862000 0.863500 0.641100
  Chile 0.186100 0.187100 0.384100
  China 0.153800 0.132700 0.664300
  Colombia 0.601400 0.019300 0.147800
  Comoros 0.000000 0.010300 0.013700
  Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.874700 0.870500 0.702100
  Congo 0.874700 0.687100 0.664200
  Costa Rica 0.236800 0.048900 0.241000
  Ivory Coast 0.820400 0.784200 0.755100
  Croatia 0.369000 0.076300 0.444700
  Cuba 0.590800 0.000000 0.505900
  Cyprus 0.093900 0.396200 0.396200
  Czech Republic 0.322200 0.323300 0.659100
  Denmark 0.081900 0.104900 0.233300
  Djibouti 0.796200 0.655800 0.043500
  Dominica 0.200300 0.000000 0.462800
  Dominican Republic 0.429400 0.039500 0.311800
  East Timor 0.000000 0.526100 0.425400
  Ecuador 0.655000 0.130800 0.141700
  Egypt 0.183600 0.023700 0.197900
  El Salvador 0.197800 0.000000 0.355900
  Equatorial Guinea 0.346700 0.322000 0.119500
  Eritrea 0.652400 0.653000 0.425300
  Estonia 0.506200 0.494400 0.498500
  Ethiopia 0.723500 0.807300 0.624900
  Faroe Islands 0.000000 0.000000 0.314700
  Fiji 0.547900 0.547900 0.568200
  Finland 0.131500 0.141200 0.253100
  France 0.103200 0.122100 0.402900
  French Guiana 0.000000 0.115400 0.495900
  French Polynesia 0.000000 0.607800 0.581300
  Gabon 0.769000 0.782100 0.667400
  Gambia 0.786400 0.807600 0.097000
  Gaza Strip 0.000000 0.010400 0.034200
  Georgia 0.492300 0.474900 0.654300
  Germany 0.168200 0.164200 0.657100
  Ghana 0.673300 0.673100 0.798700
  Greece 0.157600 0.030000 0.153000
  Greenland 0.000000 0.218800 0.459200
  Grenada 0.266100 0.000000 0.589800
  Guadeloupe 0.000000 0.093300 0.306900
  Guam 0.000000 0.732000 0.408200
  Guatemala 0.512200 0.458600 0.375300
  Guinea 0.738900 0.772500 0.264900
  Guinea-Bissau 0.808200 0.814100 0.612800
  Guyana 0.619500 0.068800 0.787600
  Haiti 0.095000 0.000000 0.470400
  Honduras 0.186700 0.055300 0.235700
  Hong Kong 0.062000 0.212800 0.419100
  Hungary 0.152200 0.029700 0.524400
  Iceland 0.079800 0.082000 0.191300
  India 0.418200 0.806900 0.326000
  Indonesia 0.735100 0.768000 0.234000
  Iran 0.668400 0.746200 0.115200
  Iraq 0.368900 0.369400 0.484400
  Ireland 0.120600 0.031200 0.155000
  Isle of Man 0.000000 0.000000 0.472900
  Israel 0.343600 0.552500 0.346900
  Italy 0.114500 0.114700 0.302700
  Jamaica 0.412900 0.109800 0.616000
  Japan 0.011900 0.017800 0.540600
  Jersey 0.000000 0.000000 0.547900
  Jordan 0.592600 0.039600 0.065900
  Kazakhstan 0.617100 0.662100 0.589800
  Kenya 0.858800 0.886000 0.776500
  Kiribati 0.051100 0.023700 0.554100
  South Korea 0.039200 0.002800 0.489100
  North Korea 0.002000 0.002100 0.660400
  Kyrgyzstan 0.675200 0.594900 0.447000
  Kuwait 0.660400 0.344400 0.674500
  Laos 0.513900 0.638200 0.545300
  Latvia 0.586700 0.579500 0.555600
  Lebanon 0.131400 0.131200 0.788600
  Lesotho 0.255000 0.254300 0.721100
  Liberia 0.908400 0.903800 0.488300
  Libya 0.792000 0.075800 0.057000
  Liechtenstein 0.572600 0.224600 0.334300
  Lithuania 0.322300 0.321900 0.414100
  Luxembourg 0.530200 0.644000 0.091100
  Macau 0.000000 0.251900 0.551100
  Macedonia 0.502300 0.502100 0.589900
  Madagascar 0.879100 0.020400 0.519100
  Malawi 0.674400 0.602300 0.819200
  Malaysia 0.588000 0.597000 0.665700
  Mali 0.690600 0.838800 0.182000
  Malta 0.041400 0.090700 0.122300
  Marshall Islands 0.060300 0.073400 0.520700
  Martinique 0.000000 0.000000 0.233600
  Mauritania 0.615000 0.326000 0.014900
  Mauritius 0.463400 0.454700 0.638500
  Mayotte 0.000000 0.721200 0.062000
  Mexico 0.541800 0.151100 0.179600
  Federated States of Micronesia 0.700500 0.748300 0.646900
  Moldova 0.553500 0.553300 0.560300
  Monaco 0.683800 0.730500 0.304700
  Mongolia 0.368200 0.373400 0.079900
  Morocco 0.484100 0.468300 0.003500
  Mozambique 0.693200 0.812500 0.675900
  Burma 0.506200 0.507200 0.197400
  Namibia 0.632900 0.700500 0.662600
  Nauru 0.583200 0.616100 0.619400
  Nepal 0.663200 0.716700 0.141700
  Netherlands Antilles 0.000000 0.250800 0.386600
  Netherlands 0.105400 0.514300 0.722200
  New Caledonia 0.000000 0.663300 0.546200
  New Zealand 0.396900 0.165700 0.811000
  Nicaragua 0.484400 0.047300 0.429000
  Niger 0.651800 0.651900 0.201300
  Nigeria 0.850500 0.831600 0.742100
  Northern Mariana Islands 0.000000 0.775400 0.481100
  Norway 0.058600 0.067300 0.204800
  Oman 0.437300 0.356700 0.432200
  Pakistan 0.709800 0.719000 0.384800
  Palau 0.431200 0.315700 0.714700
  Panama 0.552800 0.387300 0.333800
  Papua New Guinea 0.271800 0.352600 0.552300
  Paraguay 0.168900 0.597500 0.212300
  Peru 0.656600 0.335800 0.198800
  Philippines 0.238500 0.836000 0.305600
  Poland 0.118300 0.046800 0.171200
  Portugal 0.046800 0.019800 0.143800
  Puerto Rico 0.000000 0.035200 0.495200
  Qatar 0.745600 0.480000 0.095000
  Réunion 0.000000 0.157800 0.195200
  Romania 0.306900 0.172300 0.237300
  Russia 0.245200 0.248500 0.439800
  Rwanda 0.323800 0.000000 0.506600
  Saint Lucia 0.176900 0.316900 0.332000
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.306600 0.017500 0.702800
  Samoa 0.137600 0.011100 0.787100
  San Marino 0.292700 0.000000 0.197500
  São Tomé and Príncipe 0.000000 0.232200 0.186600
  Saudi Arabia 0.180000 0.094900 0.127000
  Senegal 0.693900 0.708100 0.149700
  Serbia 0.573600 0.000000 0.000000
  Seychelles 0.202500 0.160600 0.232300
  Sierra Leone 0.819100 0.763400 0.539500
  Singapore 0.385700 0.383500 0.656100
  Slovakia 0.253900 0.255100 0.565500
  Slovenia 0.221600 0.220100 0.286800
  Solomon Islands 0.111000 0.525400 0.670800
  Somalia 0.811700 0.032600 0.002800
  South Africa 0.751700 0.865200 0.860300
  Spain 0.416500 0.413200 0.451400
  Sri Lanka 0.415000 0.464500 0.485300
  Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.184200 0.000000 0.661400
  Sudan 0.714700 0.719000 0.430700
  Suriname 0.733200 0.331000 0.791000
  Swaziland 0.058200 0.172200 0.444400
  Sweden 0.060000 0.196800 0.234200
  Switzerland 0.531400 0.544100 0.608300
  Syria 0.539900 0.181700 0.431000
  Taiwan 0.274400 0.502800 0.684500
  Tajikistan 0.510700 0.547300 0.338600
  Tanzania 0.735300 0.898300 0.633400
  Thailand 0.633800 0.634400 0.099400
  Togo 0.709900 0.898000 0.659600
  Tonga 0.086900 0.378200 0.621400
  Trinidad and Tobago 0.647500 0.125100 0.793600
  Tunisia 0.039400 0.012400 0.010400
  Turkey 0.320000 0.221600 0.004900
  Turkmenistan 0.391800 0.398400 0.232700
  Tuvalu 0.162900 0.137200 0.252400
  Uganda 0.930200 0.922700 0.633200
  Ukraine 0.473700 0.474100 0.615700
  United Arab Emirates 0.625200 0.487400 0.331000
  United Kingdom 0.121100 0.053200 0.694400
  United States 0.490100 0.564700 0.824100
  Uruguay 0.250400 0.081700 0.354800
  Uzbekistan 0.412500 0.412000 0.213300
  Vanuatu 0.041300 0.579400 0.704400
  Venezuela 0.496600 0.068600 0.135000
  Vietnam 0.238300 0.237700 0.508000
  U.S. Virgin Islands 0.000000 0.314000 0.635900
  West Bank 0.000000 0.143800 0.309500
  Yemen 0.000000 0.008000 0.002300
  Yugoslavia 0.809200 0.606400 0.553000
  Zambia 0.780800 0.873400 0.735900
  Zimbabwe 0.387400 0.447200 0.736300

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b A. Alesina, E. La Ferrara (2005). "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance" (PDF). Journal of Economic Literature: 762–800. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Natalka Patsiurko, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall (2012). "Measuring cultural diversity: ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in the OECD" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35 (2): 195–217. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.579136. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d James Fearon (2003). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country". Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867.
  4. ^ a b c d Alberto Alesina; et al. (2003). "Fractionalization" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth. 8: 155–194. doi:10.1023/a:1024471506938. Retrieved September 13, 2012.