List of countries by research and development spending

This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

ListEdit

Only those nations which annually spend more than 50 million dollars have been included. The world's total nominal R&D spending was approximately one trillion dollars in 2010.[1]

Country/Region Expenditures on R&D
(billions of US$, PPP)
% of GDP PPP Expenditures on R&D per capita
(US$ PPP)
Year Source
1   United States 612.714 3.1 1,866 2019 [2]
2   China 514.798 2.2 368 2019 [2]
3   Japan 172.614 3.2 1,375 2019 [2]
4   Germany 131.932 3.2 1,586 2019 [2]
5   South Korea 100.055 4.6 1,935 2019 [2]
6   France 63.658 2.2 944 2019 [2]
7   India 58.691 0.65 43 2018 [3]
8   United Kingdom 51.702 1.8 762 2019 [2]
9   Taiwan 42.945 3.5 1,822 2019 [2]
10   Russia 38.549 1.0 263 2019 [2]
11   Brazil 38.0 1.3 181 2017 [4]
12   Italy 33.840 1.4 561 2019 [2]
13   Canada 26.636 1.5 700 2019 [2]
14   Turkey 24.827 1.1 297 2019 [2]
15   Australia 23.3 2.1 987 2014 [5]
16   Spain 22.468 1.3 473 2019 [2]
17   Netherlands 20.167 2.2 1154 2019 [2]
18   Sweden 17.722 3.4 1,707 2019 [2]
19   Israel 16.888 4.9 1,810 2019 [2]
20   Poland 16.086 1.3 420 2019 [2]
21   Belgium 16.043 2.9 1,395 2019 [2]
22   Austria 14.945 3.2 1,672 2019 [2]
23    Switzerland 13.1 3.0 1,648 2012 [6]
24   Thailand 12.4 1.0 180 2017 [7]
25   Malaysia 10.6 1.3 344 2015 [8]
26   Singapore 10.0 2.2 1,832 2014 [4]
27   Mexico 9.0 0.9 238 2014 [6]
28   Denmark 8.2 3.1 1,450 2014 [4]
29   Finland 7.2 2.8 1,318 2018 [4]
30   Czech Republic 6.3 2.0 600 2014 [6]
31   Egypt 6.2 0.7 73 2013 [8]
32   South Africa 6.1 0.8 108 2016 [7]
33   Norway 5.8 1.7 1,124 2014 [4]
34   Argentina 5.0 0.5 112 2018 [6][7][9][10]
35   United Arab Emirates 4.3 0.7 471 2014 [4]
36   Ireland 3.6 1.5 779 2014 [4]
37   Portugal 3.6 1.3 348 2014 [6]
38   Hungary 3.4 1.4 343 2014 [6]
39   Ukraine 3.0 0.8 74 2013 [8]
40   Hong Kong 2.7 0.7 373 2012 [8]
41   Greece 2.4 1.0 217 2014 [6][11][9]
42   Pakistan 2.4 0.3 13 2013 [8]
43   Romania 2.3 0.5 114 2016 [7]
44   Indonesia 2.0 0.1 8 2013 [8]
45   New Zealand 1.8 1.2 401 2013 [6]
46   Saudi Arabia 1.8 0.3 60 2012 [12][13]
47   Colombia 1.6 0.2 31 2014 [8][7][9]
48   Chile 1.5 0.4 87 2014 [6][7][9]
49   Slovenia 1.5 2.4 713 2014 [6]
50   Morocco 1.5 0.7 48 2010 [8]
51   Slovakia 1.4 0.9 251 2014 [6]
52   Qatar 1.3 0.5 699 2012 [8]
53   Belarus 1.1 0.7 118 2013 [8]
54   Vietnam 0.9 0.2 10 2011 [14]
55   Kuwait 0.8 0.3 214 2013 [8]
56   Bulgaria 0.8 0.7 112 2013 [15]
57   Ecuador 0.8 0.4 50 2016 [7][9]
58   Ethiopia 0.8 0.6 9 2013 [8]
59   Tunisia 0.8 0.7 73 2012 [8]
60   Lithuania 0.8 0.9 245 2017 [15]
61   Luxembourg 0.7 1.3 1,253 2014 [4]
62   Croatia 0.7 0.8 167 2013 [15]
63   Serbia 0.7 0.7 98 2013 [15]
64   Iran 0.7 0.1 9 2014 [16]
65   Kazakhstan 0.7 0.2 39 2013 [8]
66   Philippines 0.5 0.1 5 2007 [8]
67   Peru 0.4 0.1 13 2015 [11][7][9]
68   Estonia 0.3 1.6 453 2019 [17]
69   Azerbaijan 0.3 0.2 36 2013 [8]
70   Latvia 0.3 0.5 137 2017 [15]
71   Uganda 0.3 0.5 8 2010 [8]
72   Costa Rica 0.3 0.5 62 2011 [8]
73   Iceland 0.3 1.9 831 2014 [4]
74   Mongolia 0.3 0.2 74 2013 [8]
75   Uruguay 0.2 0.3 70 2015 [8][7][9]
76   Sudan 0.2 0.2 5 2007 [11]
77   Algeria 0.2 0.1 4 2007 [11]
78   Cyprus 0.1 0.5 151 2013 [15]
79   North Macedonia 0.1 0.4 56 2013 [8]
80   Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.1 0.3 32 2013 [8]
81   Malta 0.1 0.9 271 2013 [15]
82   Bolivia 0.1 0.2 7 2012 [7][9]
83   Botswana 0.1 0.3 37 2012 [8]
84   Oman 0.1 0.2 25 2013 [8]
85   Macau 0.1 0.1 122 2014 [4]
86   Moldova 0.1 0.4 16 2013 [8]
87   Bahrain 0.1 0.1 45 2014 [4]
88   Paraguay 0.1 0.1 9 2015 [7][9]
89   Georgia 0.1 0.2 15 2014 [8]
90   Montenegro 0.0 0.4 56 2013 [15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "- Royal Society" (PDF). royalsociety.org.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "OECD data: Gross domestic spending on R&D".
  3. ^ "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) - India". worldbank.org.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  5. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics – Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD)". www.abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2015-10-28. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Research and development (R&D) – Gross domestic spending on R&D – OECD Data". data.oecd.org. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "How Much Does Your Country Invest in R&D?". UNESCO.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Science, technology and innovation". UNESCO.
  10. ^ "Inversión en I+D". Argentina.gob.ar. Retrieved 2020-11-07.
  11. ^ a b c d "UNESCO science report, 2010: the current status of science around the world; 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  12. ^ "2012 Global R&D Funding Forecast: R&D Spending Growth Continues While Globalization Accelerates". 16 December 2011.
  13. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.natureasia.com.
  14. ^ vietnamnet.vn. "How much does Vietnam spend on R&D? – News VietNamNet". english.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h "File:Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, 2003–13 (% of GDP) YB15.png – Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu.
  16. ^ "مصاحبه تفصیلی فارس با قائم‌مقام معاون تحقیقات وزارت بهداشت/۱ رشد علمی کشور پارسال منفی شد/ تحقیقات پزشکی بدون بودجه درجا می‌زند". Farsnews.com. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  17. ^ "TD052: Research and development expenditures and their financing from state and local budgets". Eesti Statistkaamet. Retrieved 2018-11-13.