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List of countries by intentional homicide rate

Suicide vs violent deaths 2016

List of countries by UNODC homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.[1][note 1] The reliability of underlying national murder rate data may vary.[2] Only UNODC data is used in the main table below.[1] In some cases it is not as up to date as other sources. See farther down as to why its data is used over other sources.

Research suggests that intentional homicide demographics are affected by changes in trauma care, leading to changed lethality of violent assaults, so the intentional homicide rate may not necessarily indicate the overall level of societal violence.[3] They may also be under-reported for political reasons.[4][5][page needed]

A study undertaken by the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development estimated that there were approximately 490,000 intentional homicides in 2004. The study estimated that the global rate was 7.6 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants for 2004.[6] UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) reported a global average intentional homicide rate of 6.2 per 100,000 population for 2012 (in their report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013").[7][8] UNODC calculated a rate of 6.9 in 2010.[9]

Contents

DefinitionEdit

 
UNODC statistics only include the intentional killing of others outside of war. Deaths occurring during situations of civil unrest are a grey area.

Intentional homicide is defined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in its Global Study on Homicide report:[10]

Within the broad range of violent deaths, the core element of intentional homicide is the complete liability of the direct perpetrator, which thus excludes killings directly related to war or conflicts, self-inflicted death (suicide), killings due to legal interventions or justifiable killings (such as self-defence), and those deaths caused when the perpetrator was reckless or negligent but did not intend to take a human life (non-intentional homicide).

Though some discrepancies exist in how specific categories of intentional killings are classified, the definitions used by countries to record data are generally close to the UNODC definition, making the homicide rates highly comparable at the international level.[11] UNODC uses the homicide rate as a proxy for overall violence, as this type of crime is one of the most accurately reported and internationally comparable indicators.[12]

Figures from the Global Study on Homicide are based on the UNODC Homicide Statistics dataset, which is derived from the criminal justice or public health systems of a variety of countries and territories.[13] The homicide rates derived from criminal justice data (typically recorded by police authorities) and the public health system data (recorded when the cause of death is established) may diverge substantially for some countries.[14] The two sources usually match in the Americas, Europe and Oceania, but there are large discrepancies for the three African countries reporting both sources.[15] For the 70 countries in which neither source was made available, figures were derived from WHO statistical models.[14]

Deaths resulting from an armed conflict between states are never included in the count.[16] Killings caused by a non-international armed conflict may or may not be included, depending on the intensity of hostilities and whether it is classified as 'civil unrest' or a clash between organized armed groups.[16]

UNODC's global studyEdit

All data in this section comes from the Statistics Online website of the Research and Analysis Branch of UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime).[17]

By regionEdit

 
United Nations geoscheme with region names used in table here.

Rates are calculated per 100,000 inhabitants.

UNODC murder rates, most recent year[1][note 2]
Region Rate Count
  Americas 16.3 157,000
  Africa 12.5 135,000
  World 6.2 437,000
  Europe 3.0 22,000
  Oceania 3.0 1,100
  Asia 2.9 122,000

By countryEdit

The regions and region names in the table are based on the United Nations geoscheme since the table sources are United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports.[18][19]

There is a total yearly count of homicides for each country. Rates are calculated per 100,000 inhabitants.
Subregion names are based on the United Nations geoscheme.
Row numbers on the left are fixed.

TableEdit

UNODC intentional homicide victims: intentional homicide victims per 100,000 inhabitants.[1]





1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230

Country (or dependent territory,
subnational area, etc.)
Region Subregion Rate Count Year
listed
Source

  Burundi Africa Eastern Africa 6.02 635 2016 CTS/SDG
  Comoros Africa Eastern Africa 7.70 60 2015 WHO Estimate
  Djibouti Africa Eastern Africa 6.48 60 2015 WHO Estimate
  Eritrea Africa Eastern Africa 8.04 390 2015 WHO Estimate
  Ethiopia Africa Eastern Africa 7.56 7,552 2015 WHO Estimate
  Kenya Africa Eastern Africa 4.87 2,363 2016 CTS
  Madagascar Africa Eastern Africa 7.69 1,863 2015 WHO Estimate
  Malawi Africa Eastern Africa 1.73 279 2012 NP
  Mauritius Africa Eastern Africa 1.82 23 2016 UNSDC/CTS/NSO
  Mayotte Africa Eastern Africa 5.93 12 2009 NP
  Mozambique Africa Eastern Africa 3.40 849 2011 WHO/SDG
  Réunion Africa Eastern Africa 1.82 15 2009 NP
  Rwanda Africa Eastern Africa 2.52 293 2015 NSO
  Seychelles Africa Eastern Africa 12.74 12 2016 INTP/NSO
  Somalia Africa Eastern Africa 4.31 599 2015 WHO Estimate
  South Sudan Africa Eastern Africa 13.90 1,504 2012 NP
  Uganda Africa Eastern Africa 11.52 4,473 2014 CTS/NP
  Tanzania Africa Eastern Africa 6.95 3,746 2015 INTP/CTS
  Zambia Africa Eastern Africa 5.30 853 2015 UNSDC/WHO/NP
  Zimbabwe Africa Eastern Africa 6.67 981 2012 WHO
  Angola Africa Middle Africa 4.85 1,217 2012 NSO
  Cameroon Africa Middle Africa 4.17 880 2012 NSO/SDG
  Central African Republic Africa Middle Africa 19.76 913 2016 CTS
  Chad Africa Middle Africa 9.04 1,266 2015 WHO Estimate
  Congo Africa Middle Africa 9.32 466 2015 WHO Estimate
  D. R. Congo Africa Middle Africa 13.55 10,322 2015 WHO Estimate
  Equatorial Guinea Africa Middle Africa 2.31 27 2015 WHO Estimate
  Gabon Africa Middle Africa 8.04 155 2015 WHO Estimate
  São Tomé and Príncipe Africa Middle Africa 3.36 6 2011 CTS
  Algeria Africa Northern Africa 1.36 542 2015 CTS
  Egypt Africa Northern Africa 2.51 2,207 2012 CTS
  Libya Africa Northern Africa 2.50 156 2015 WHO Estimate
  Morocco Africa Northern Africa 1.24 431 2015 UNSDC/CTS
  Sudan Africa Northern Africa 5.16 1,702 2008 CTS
  Tunisia Africa Northern Africa 3.05 332 2012 WHO
  Botswana Africa Southern Africa 15.04 303 2010 WHO
  Lesotho Africa Southern Africa 41.25 897 2015 CTS/NSO
  Namibia Africa Southern Africa 17.14 388 2012 NP/INTP
  South Africa Africa Southern Africa 33.97 19,016 2016 NP
  Swaziland Africa Southern Africa 17.29 208 2010 WHO
  Benin Africa Western Africa 6.18 654 2015 WHO Estimate
  Burkina Faso Africa Western Africa 0.37 67 2015 NSO
  Cape Verde Africa Western Africa 11.49 62 2016 NP/CTS
  Ivory Coast Africa Western Africa 11.63 2,688 2015 WHO Estimate
  Gambia Africa Western Africa 9.13 181 2015 WHO Estimate
  Ghana Africa Western Africa 1.68 423 2011 WHO
  Guinea Africa Western Africa 8.82 1,067 2015 WHO Estimate
  Guinea-Bissau Africa Western Africa 9.55 169 2015 WHO Estimate
  Liberia Africa Western Africa 3.23 135 2012 UNMIL
  Mali Africa Western Africa 10.90 1,905 2015 WHO Estimate
  Mauritania Africa Western Africa 9.94 416 2015 WHO Estimate
  Niger Africa Western Africa 4.44 788 2012 WHO
  Nigeria Africa Western Africa 9.85 17,843 2015 WHO Estimate
  Saint Helena Africa Western Africa 0.00 0 2009 NSO
  Senegal Africa Western Africa 7.38 1,105 2015 WHO Estimate
  Sierra Leone Africa Western Africa 1.71 124 2015 UNSDC/NP/SDG
  Togo Africa Western Africa 9.00 668 2015 WHO Estimate
  Anguilla Americas Caribbean 27.66 4 2014 NSO/SDG/PAHO
  Antigua and Barbuda Americas Caribbean 10.33 10 2012 OAS
  Aruba Americas Caribbean 1.93 2 2014 MD
  Bahamas Americas Caribbean 28.40 111 2016 OAS/CTS/NP
  Barbados Americas Caribbean 10.91 31 2015 OAS/CTS
  British Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 8.37 2 2006 MD
  Cayman Islands Americas Caribbean 8.45 5 2014 MD/WHO/NSO
  Cuba Americas Caribbean 4.99 572 2016 MD/MOH
  Curaçao Americas Caribbean 19.19 26 2007 PAHO
  Dominica Americas Caribbean 8.37 6 2011 UNSDC/OAS
  Dominican Republic Americas Caribbean 15.18 1,616 2016 NGO/SES/CTS/RIC
  Grenada Americas Caribbean 10.25 11 2016 OAS/CTS
  Guadeloupe Americas Caribbean 8.01 36 2009 NP
  Haiti Americas Caribbean 10.04 1,033 2012 OAS
  Jamaica Americas Caribbean 47.01 1,354 2016 OAS/CTS
  Martinique Americas Caribbean 2.78 11 2009 NP
  Montserrat Americas Caribbean 19.88 1 2012 PAHO/WHO/MD
  Puerto Rico Americas Caribbean 18.51 679 2016 NP/NSO
  Saint Kitts and Nevis Americas Caribbean 34.23 18 2012 OAS/CTS
  Saint Lucia Americas Caribbean 19.27 34 2014 OAS/MD
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas Caribbean 36.46 40 2016 OAS/CTS
  Trinidad and Tobago Americas Caribbean 30.88 420 2015 OAS/CTS
  Turks and Caicos Islands Americas Caribbean 5.93 2 2014 PAHO/MD
  Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 49.26 52 2012 MD
  Belize Americas Central America 37.60 138 2016 OAS/CTS
  Costa Rica Americas Central America 11.90 578 2016 UNSDC/MOJ/CTS
  El Salvador Americas Central America 82.84 5,257 2016 OAS/CTS/RSC
  Guatemala Americas Central America 27.26 4,520 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
  Honduras Americas Central America 56.52 5,150 2016 OCAVI/NSO/CTS
  Mexico Americas Central America 19.26 24,559 2016 NSO
  Nicaragua Americas Central America 7.37 453 2016 NP
  Panama Americas Central America 9.67 390 2016 NSO/CTS
  Bermuda Americas Northern America 12.96 8 2016 NP/CTS
  Canada Americas Northern America 1.68 611 2016 OAS/CTS/SDG
  Greenland Americas Northern America 5.31 3 2016 NSO
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Americas Northern America 15.93 1 2009 NP
  United States Americas Northern America 5.35 17,250 2016 NP/UNSDC/CTS
  Argentina Americas South America 5.94 2,605 2016 CTS
  Bolivia Americas South America 6.30 686 2016 CTS
  Brazil Americas South America 29.53 61,283 2016 MD Adjusted/NGO
  Chile Americas South America 3.46 620 2016 CTS/OAS
  Colombia Americas South America 25.50 12,402 2016 UNSDC/OAS/CTS
  Ecuador Americas South America 5.85 959 2016 OAS/CTS
  French Guiana Americas South America 13.15 30 2009 NP
  Guyana Americas South America 18.37 142 2016 OAS/CTS/NSO
  Paraguay Americas South America 9.29 617 2015 OAS/CTS
  Peru Americas South America 7.67 2,435 2016 CTS
  Suriname Americas South America 8.35 43 2008 OAS
  Uruguay Americas South America 7.69 265 2016 MOI/CTS
  Venezuela Americas South America 56.33 17,778 2016 UNSDC/NGO/OAS/AG
  Kazakhstan Asia Central Asia 4.81 853 2015 TSMNEE/CTS
  Kyrgyzstan Asia Central Asia 4.49 267 2016 UNECE/CTS
  Tajikistan Asia Central Asia 1.61 126 2011 TSMNEE/CTS
  Turkmenistan Asia Central Asia 4.22 203 2006 TSMNEE
  Uzbekistan Asia Central Asia 3.00 831 2008 TSMNEE/NSO
  China Asia Eastern Asia 0.62 8,634 2016 NSO Adjusted/NSO
  Hong Kong Asia Eastern Asia 0.38 28 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
  Macau Asia Eastern Asia 0.16 1 2016 NP/CTS
  Taiwan Asia Eastern Asia 0.82 192 2015 SDG
  North Korea Asia Eastern Asia 4.40 1,110 2015 WHO Estimate
  Japan Asia Eastern Asia 0.28 362 2016 SDG/CTS
  Mongolia Asia Eastern Asia 5.66 171 2016 CTS
  South Korea Asia Eastern Asia 0.70 356 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
  Brunei Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.49 2 2013 WHO/MD
  Cambodia Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.84 268 2011 JP/WHO
  Indonesia Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.50 1,292 2016 UNSDC/INTP/CTS
  Laos Asia South-Eastern Asia 7.01 467 2015 WHO Estimate
  Malaysia Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.11 627 2013 UNSDC/WHO/NP
  Myanmar Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.27 1,198 2016 NSO/CTS
  Philippines Asia South-Eastern Asia 11.02 11,385 2016 UNSDC/CTS/NSO
  Singapore Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.32 18 2016 UNSDC/NP/CTS
  Thailand Asia South-Eastern Asia 3.24 2,229 2016 NP/CTS
  Timor-Leste Asia South-Eastern Asia 3.95 49 2015 UNMIT/NSO
  Vietnam Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.52 1,358 2011 WHO
  Afghanistan Asia Southern Asia 6.35 1,948 2012 NSO
  Bangladesh Asia Southern Asia 2.50 4,035 2015 NP
  Bhutan Asia Southern Asia 1.13 9 2016 NSO/CTS
  India Asia Southern Asia 3.22 42,678 2016 MOI
  Iran Asia Southern Asia 2.47 1,936 2014 CTS/NSO/MD
  Maldives Asia Southern Asia 0.75 3 2013 UNSDC/CTS
    Nepal Asia Southern Asia 2.16 627 2016 NSO/CTS
  Pakistan Asia Southern Asia 4.41 8,516 2016 NSO
  Sri Lanka Asia Southern Asia 2.55 530 2016 CTS/NP
  Armenia Asia Western Asia 2.98 87 2016 TSMNEE/CTS
  Azerbaijan Asia Western Asia 2.14 208 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Bahrain Asia Western Asia 0.52 7 2014 UNSDC/CTS/NP/MD
  Cyprus Asia Western Asia 1.11 13 2016 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
  Georgia Asia Western Asia 0.99 39 2016 UNSDC/TSMNEE/CTS
  Iraq Asia Western Asia 9.85 3,339 2013 CTS
  Central Iraq Asia Western Asia 10.08 3,029 2014 CTS
  Kurdistan Region (Iraq) Asia Western Asia 2.20 111 2013 CTS
  Israel Asia Western Asia 1.36 110 2015 NSO/CTS/SDG
  Jordan Asia Western Asia 1.55 145 2016 CTS/SDG/NP
  Kuwait Asia Western Asia 1.80 61 2012 UNSDC/NP/CTS
  Lebanon Asia Western Asia 3.99 235 2016 CTS
  Oman Asia Western Asia 0.66 26 2014 NSO
  Qatar Asia Western Asia 0.38 9 2014 UNSDC/MD
  Saudi Arabia Asia Western Asia 1.50 472 2015 NSO/CTS
  Palestine Asia Western Asia 0.69 33 2016 CTS/SDG
  Syria Asia Western Asia 2.20 463 2010 NSO
  Turkey Asia Western Asia 4.31 3,216 2012 CTS
  United Arab Emirates Asia Western Asia 0.89 83 2016 CTS
  Yemen Asia Western Asia 6.66 1,703 2013 UNSDC/NSO/CTS
  Belarus Europe Eastern Europe 3.58 340 2014 UNSDC/CTS
  Bulgaria Europe Eastern Europe 1.14 81 2016 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
  Czech Republic Europe Eastern Europe 0.61 65 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Hungary Europe Eastern Europe 2.07 202 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Poland Europe Eastern Europe 0.67 256 2016 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
  Moldova Europe Eastern Europe 3.19 130 2014 UNSDC/CTS
  Romania Europe Eastern Europe 1.25 247 2016 SDG/UNSDC/CTS
  Russia Europe Eastern Europe 10.82 15,561 2016 NSO/CTS
  Slovakia Europe Eastern Europe 1.05 57 2016 SDG
  Ukraine Europe Eastern Europe 6.34 2,845 2014 UNSDC/TSMNEE/CTS/DMDB
Channel Islands Europe Northern Europe 0.00 0 2010 NP
  Denmark Europe Northern Europe 0.98 56 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Estonia Europe Northern Europe 3.19 42 2015 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
  Finland Europe Northern Europe 1.42 78 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Iceland Europe Northern Europe 0.30 1 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Ireland Europe Northern Europe 0.80 38 2016 NP/NSO/CTS
  Isle of Man Europe Northern Europe 0.00 0 2016 NP
  Latvia Europe Northern Europe 3.36 67 2015 UNSDC/CTS
  Lithuania Europe Northern Europe 5.25 153 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Norway Europe Northern Europe 0.51 27 2016 SDG/EUR/CTS
  Sweden Europe Northern Europe 1.08 106 2016 NCCP/CTS
  England and Wales Europe Northern Europe 1.22 709 2016 UNSDC/SDG/CTS
  Northern Ireland Europe Northern Europe 0.97 18 2016 SDG/CTS
  Scotland Europe Northern Europe 1.18 64 2016 SDG/CTS
  United Kingdom Europe Northern Europe 1.20 791 2016 CTS
  Albania Europe Southern Europe 2.70 79 2016 MD/CTS
  Andorra Europe Southern Europe 0.00 0 2015 INTP/CTS
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Southern Europe 1.28 45 2016 UNECE/INTP/CTS
  Croatia Europe Southern Europe 1.04 44 2016 MOI/CTS
  Gibraltar Europe Southern Europe 3.01 1 2010 NP
  Greece Europe Southern Europe 0.75 84 2016 EUR/CTS
   Vatican City Europe Southern Europe 0.00 0 2015 CTS
  Italy Europe Southern Europe 0.67 400 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Kosovo Europe Southern Europe 1.60 29 2016 CTS
  Malta Europe Southern Europe 0.94 4 2015 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
  Montenegro Europe Southern Europe 4.46 28 2016 EUR/CTS
  Portugal Europe Southern Europe 0.64 66 2016 EUR/CTS/SDG
  San Marino Europe Southern Europe 0.00 0 2011 WHO
  Serbia Europe Southern Europe 1.39 123 2016 EUR/CTS
  Slovenia Europe Southern Europe 0.48 10 2016 UNSDC/CTS/SDG
  Spain Europe Southern Europe 0.63 294 2016 EUR/CTS
  North Macedonia Europe Southern Europe 1.59 33 2014 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
  Austria Europe Western Europe 0.66 57 2016 EUR/UNSDC/CTS
  Belgium Europe Western Europe 1.95 220 2015 EUR/CTS
  France Europe Western Europe 1.35 875 2016 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
  Germany Europe Western Europe 1.18 963 2016 UNSDC/CTS
  Liechtenstein Europe Western Europe 0.00 0 2016 EUR/CTS
  Luxembourg Europe Western Europe 0.72 4 2014 EUR/UNECE/CTS
  Monaco Europe Western Europe 0.00 0 2015 UNSDC/CTS
  Netherlands Europe Western Europe 0.55 94 2016 NSO/CTS
   Switzerland Europe Western Europe 0.54 45 2016 UNSDC/EUR/CTS
  Australia Oceania Australia and New Zealand 0.94 227 2016 EUR/CTS/UNSDC
  New Zealand Oceania Australia and New Zealand 0.99 45 2014 NP/CTS
  Fiji Oceania Melanesia 2.26 20 2014 INTP/NSO
  New Caledonia Oceania Melanesia 3.23 8 2009 NP
  Papua New Guinea Oceania Melanesia 7.85 520 2007 UNSDC/NP
  Solomon Islands Oceania Melanesia 3.77 19 2008 CTS
  Vanuatu Oceania Melanesia 2.13 6 2015 WHO Estimate
  Guam Oceania Micronesia 2.51 4 2011 NP
  Kiribati Oceania Micronesia 7.50 8 2012 MD/WHO
  F.S. Micronesia Oceania Micronesia 4.67 5 2015 WHO Estimate
  Nauru Oceania Micronesia 0.00 0 2012 WHO Estimate
  Palau Oceania Micronesia 3.11 1 2012 WHO Estimate
  American Samoa Oceania Polynesia 5.40 3 2016 NSO/SDG
  Cook Islands Oceania Polynesia 3.49 1 2012 SDG
  French Polynesia Oceania Polynesia 0.38 1 2009 NP
  Niue Oceania Polynesia 0.00 0 2012 WHO Estimate
  Samoa Oceania Polynesia 3.15 6 2013 WHO
  Tonga Oceania Polynesia 0.95 1 2012 NP
  Tuvalu Oceania Polynesia 18.65 2 2012 WHO

Country subdivisionsEdit

The following is a list of rates. Click the "show" links next to the country names at the top left of each chart. The references are linked from the sources column.

AustraliaEdit

BrazilEdit

CanadaEdit

MexicoEdit

United StatesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The 2013 PDF full report (Global Study on Homicide) has a methodological annex (pages 109ff) and a statistical annex (pages 121ff). The statistical annex has detailed charts for homicide counts and rates by country with data from 2000–2012. Map 7.2 on page 112 is a world map showing the homicide count for each country or territory. Page 21 states estimated total homicides of 437,000 worldwide. Figures 1.1 and 1.2 (pages 21 and 22) have exact rates and counts by regions. Figure 1.3 on page 23 is a bar chart of homicide rates for the subregions. Figure 1.16 on page 34 shows timeline graphs by subregion.
  2. ^ The UNODC report has bar charts and timeline graphs of homicide rates for subregions. But the report does not list exact rate numbers. Subregion counts are not found in the report, but may be calculated by manually totaling the counts for each country in a subregion.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "UNODC Statistics Online". United Nations Office On Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 12 May 2018.".
  2. ^ Richards, Patsy (27 May 1999). "Homicide statistics, research paper 99/56" (PDF). London, UK: House of Commons of the United Kingdom library, Social and general statistics section. See page 7 for section called "Definition of the offence of homicide". See page 29 for table of nations and homicide rates for the years 1994-97. It also has further info on how homicide is defined across countries.
  3. ^ Harris, Anthony R.; Stephen H. Thomas; Gene A. Fisher; David J. Hirsch (May 2002). "Murder and medicine: the lethality of criminal assault 1960–1999" (fee required). Homicide Studies. 6 (2): 128–166. doi:10.1177/1088767902006002003. In three analyses of lethality trends, over time, by type of weapon and across counties, we have garnered considerable support for the hypothesis that advances in emergency medical care have greatly and increasingly reduced the lethality of violent assaults, with observed annual drops in such lethality ranging from 2.5% to 4.5%. This finding is thoroughly consistent with general medical findings on trauma that, while rigorously controlling for severity of injury, find annual drops in trauma mortality ranging from 3% to more than 16%...
  4. ^ Fry, Don. (1985). Believing the news. ISBN 978-0-935742-11-4.
  5. ^ Vizzard, William J. (2000). Shots in the dark. ISBN 978-0-8476-9560-7.
  6. ^ Global Burden of Armed Violence Report (PDF) (report). Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67ff. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. data from 2004-2007. The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.
  7. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 12.
  8. ^ Intentional homicide count and rate per 100,000 population, by country/territory (2000-2012). Data (in spreadsheet format) for UNODC report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Linked from Global Study on Homicide - Data: UNODC Homicide Statistics 2013
  9. ^ 2011 Global Study on Homicide: Trends, Contexts, Data. "data from 2010 or latest available year". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Vienna, Austria.
  10. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 10.
  11. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 102-103.
  12. ^ "Note of clarification about the Global Study on Homicide 2013". UNODC. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Global Study on Homicide 2013: Executive Summary" (PDF). UNODC. p. 19. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  14. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 99.
  15. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 101.
  16. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 104.
  17. ^ "Intentional homicide victims | Statistics and Data". dataunodc.un.org. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  18. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 7-8.
  19. ^ "Intentional Homicide Victims". UNODC. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Dearden, Jack; Jones, Warwick. Homicide in Australia: 2006-07 National Homicide Monitoring Program annual report (PDF) (Report). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. p. 113. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Homicide Statistics: 2011 Australian Government report (Report). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Archived from the original on 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Recorded Crime-Victims (PDF) (Report). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  23. ^ "Lista de unidades federativas do Brasil por taxa de homicídios", Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre (in Portuguese), 2018-08-13, retrieved 2018-09-28
  24. ^ "Homicide in Canada, 2017". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Crime rates per 100,000 ihnabitants 1997-2017" (PDF) (in Spanish). Executive Secretariat of the National System for Public Security. 20 January 2018. p. 3. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay "State-by-state and National Crime Estimates by Year(s)". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
  28. ^ "UNODC Homicide Statistics". Universidad de Puerto Rico.
  29. ^ "Homicide Trends 2003–2008". UNODC. Retrieved 2016-02-15.

External linksEdit