List of countries by intentional homicide rate

The list of countries by UNODC homicide rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 100,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 30 (out of 100,000) in a population of 100,000 would mean 30 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.03% out of the total.[1][2][3] The reliability of underlying national murder rate data may vary.[4][5] Only UNODC data is used in the main table below.[1] In some cases it may not be as up to date as other sources. See farther down as to why its data is used over other sources.

The 25 countries with the highest intentional homicide rates are generally less populous countries. Rates of the 25 most populous countries are shown in blue.[1]

Research suggests that intentional homicide demographics are affected by changes in trauma care, leading to changed lethality of violent assaults, so the intentional homicide rate may not necessarily indicate the overall level of societal violence.[6] They may also be under-reported for political reasons.[7][8][page needed]

A study undertaken by the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development estimated that there were approximately 490,000 intentional homicides in 2004. The study estimated that the global rate was 7.6 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants for 2004.[9] UNODC calculated a rate of 6.9 in 2010.[10] UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) reported a global average intentional homicide rate of 6.2 per 100,000 population for 2012 (in their report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013").[11][12] In the 2019 edition, the global rate was estimated at 6.1 per 100,000 for 2017. [4]

DefinitionEdit

 
The class of violent deaths documented in this article is intentional killing of others outside of war. Deaths occurring during situations of civil unrest are a grey area.

Intentional homicide is defined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in its Global Study on Homicide report[13] thus:

Within the broad range of violent deaths, the core element of intentional homicide is the complete liability of the direct perpetrator, which thus excludes killings directly related to war or conflicts, self-inflicted death (suicide), killings due to legal interventions or justifiable killings (such as self-defence), and those deaths caused when the perpetrator was reckless or negligent but did not intend to take a human life (non-intentional homicide).

Though some discrepancies exist in how specific categories of intentional killings are classified, the definitions used by countries to record data are generally close to the UNODC definition, making the homicide rates highly comparable at the international level.[14] UNODC uses the homicide rate as a proxy for overall violence, as this type of crime is one of the most accurately reported and internationally comparable indicators.[4]

Figures from the Global Study on Homicide are based on the UNODC Homicide Statistics dataset, which is derived from the criminal justice or public health systems of a variety of countries and territories.[4] The homicide rates derived from criminal justice data (typically recorded by police authorities) and the public health system data (recorded when the cause of death is established) may diverge substantially for some countries.[15] The two sources usually match in the Americas, Europe and Oceania, but there are large discrepancies for the three African countries reporting both sources.[16] For the 70 countries in which neither source was made available, figures were derived from WHO statistical models.[15]

Deaths resulting from an armed conflict between states are never included in the count.[17] Killings caused by a non-international armed conflict may or may not be included, depending on the intensity of hostilities and whether it is classified as 'civil unrest' or a clash between organized armed groups.[17]

UNODC's global studyEdit

 
United Nations geoscheme with region names in the UNODC data source used in table here
 
Map of countries by their most recent available intentional homicide rate (per 100,000 people)
  •   > 20
  •   15 to 20
  •   10 to 14.9
  •   5 to 9.9
  •   1.5 to 4.9
  •   1 to 1.4
  •   < 1
  •   Data unavailable

All data in this section comes from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) website.[1][2][3][4]

By regionEdit

UNODC 2017 murder rates per 100,000[4]
Region Rate Homicides
Americas 17.2 173,000
Africa 13.0 163,000
World 6.1 464,000
Europe 3.0 22,000
Oceania 2.8 1,000
Asia 2.3 104,000

By country, region, or dependent territoryEdit

The regions and subregions in the table are based on the United Nations geoscheme since the table sources are United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports. The U.N. recognizes that variabilities in the quality and integrity of data provided by certain countries may minimize country murder rates.[18][2]

There is a total yearly count of homicides for each country. Rates are calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. According to its most recent compilation of statistics, the report found that Nigeria was the country with the most homicides by count.[19]

* in Location column indicates a dedicated article about crime in the specific country or area.

Intentional homicide victims per 100,000 inhabitants. From UNODC.[1][2][3]
Location Region Subregion Rate Count Year Source
 
  Afghanistan * Asia Southern Asia 6.7 2,474 2018 NSO
  Albania * Europe Southern Europe 2.1 61 2020 NSO
  Algeria Africa Northern Africa 1.3 580 2020 CTS
  Andorra Europe Southern Europe 2.6 2 2020 CTS
  Angola Africa Middle Africa 4.8 1,217 2012 NSO
  Anguilla Americas Caribbean 28.3 4 2014 SDG
  Antigua and Barbuda Americas Caribbean 11.1 10 2012 OAS
  Argentina * Americas South America 5.3 2,362 2018 MoS
  Armenia * Asia Western Asia 1.8 52 2020 CTS
  Aruba Americas Caribbean 1.9 2 2014 MD
  Australia * Oceania Australia, New Zealand 0.9 221 2020 CTS
  Austria * Europe Western Europe 0.7 65 2020 CTS
  Azerbaijan Asia Western Asia 2.3 230 2020 CTS
  Bahamas Americas Caribbean 18.6 73 2020 CTS
  Bahrain * Asia Western Asia 0.5 7 2014 MD
  Bangladesh * Asia Southern Asia 2.4 3,830 2018 NP
  Barbados Americas Caribbean 9.8 28 2018 CTS
  Belarus Europe Eastern Europe 2.4 226 2018 CTS
  Belgium * Europe Western Europe 1.7 193 2017 CTS
  Belize * Americas Central America 25.7 102 2020 CTS
  Benin * Africa Western Africa 1.1 126 2017 CTS
  Bermuda Americas Northern America 8.1 5 2017 CTS
  Bhutan * Asia Southern Asia 2.5 19 2020 CTS
  Bolivia * Americas South America 6.2 686 2016 CTS
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Southern Europe 1.2 39 2018 CTS
  Botswana Africa Southern Africa 15.2 303 2010 WHO
  Brazil * Americas South America 20.9 44,033 2019 DATASUS
  British Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 8.3 2 2006 MD
  Brunei Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.5 2 2013 WHO
  Bulgaria * Europe Eastern Europe 1.0 69 2020 CTS
  Burkina Faso Africa Western Africa 1.3 240 2017 MoJ
  Burundi Africa Eastern Africa 6.1 635 2016 SDG
  Cape Verde * Africa Western Africa 6.5 36 2020 CTS
  Cambodia * Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.8 268 2011 WHO
  Cameroon Africa Middle Africa 1.4 341 2017 CTS
  Canada * Americas Northern America 2.0 743 2020 NP
  Cayman Islands Americas Caribbean 8.2 5 2014 NSO
  Central African Republic Africa Middle Africa 20.1 913 2016 CTS
  Channel Islands Europe Northern Europe 0 0 2010 NP
  Chile * Americas South America 4.4 825 2018 CTS
  China * Asia Eastern Asia 0.5 7,525 2018 NSO
  Colombia * Americas South America 22.6 11,520 2020 CTS
  Costa Rica * Americas Central America 11.2 570 2020 CTS
  Croatia Europe Southern Europe 1.0 39 2020 CTS
  Cuba * Americas Caribbean 5.0 572 2016 MoH
  Curaçao Americas Caribbean 19 26 2007 PAHO
  Cyprus Asia Western Asia 1.2 15 2020 CTS
  Czech Republic * Europe Eastern Europe 0.7 77 2020 CTS
  Denmark * Europe Northern Europe 1.0 55 2020 CTS
  Dominica Americas Caribbean 20.8 15 2020 CTS
  Dominican Republic * Americas Caribbean 8.9 961 2020 CTS
  Ecuador * Americas South America 7.8 1,372 2020 CTS
  Egypt * Africa Northern Africa 2.6 2,207 2012 CTS
  El Salvador * Americas Central America 37.2 2,398 2019 CTS
  England and Wales * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 726 2017 CTS
  Estonia * Europe Northern Europe 3.2 42 2020 CTS
  Eswatini Africa Southern Africa 11.6 130 2017 GSH Revision
  Ethiopia * Africa Eastern Africa 8.8 8,153 2012 GOV Adjusted
  Finland * Europe Northern Europe 1.6 91 2020 CTS
  France * Europe Western Europe 1.2 779 2018 CTS
  French Guiana Americas South America 13.2 30 2009 NP
  Georgia Asia Western Asia 2.2 89 2018 CTS
  Germany * Europe Western Europe 0.8 782 2020 CTS
  Ghana * Africa Western Africa 2.1 609 2017 NP
  Gibraltar * Europe Southern Europe 3.0 1 2010 NP
  Greece * Europe Southern Europe 0.8 78 2020 CTS
  Greenland Americas Northern America 5.3 3 2016 NSO
  Grenada Americas Caribbean 10.8 12 2017 CTS
  Guadeloupe * Americas Caribbean 5.8 23 2016 GOV
  Guatemala * Americas Central America 22.5 3,881 2018 NP
  Guinea-Bissau Africa Western Africa 1.1 21 2017 CTS
  Guyana * Americas South America 20.0 157 2020 CTS
  Haiti * Americas Caribbean 6.7 743 2018 DPKO
  Holy See Europe Southern Europe 0 0 2015 CTS
  Honduras * Americas Central America 36.3 3,598 2020 CTS
  Hong Kong * Asia Eastern Asia 0.3 22 2020 CTS
  Hungary * Europe Eastern Europe 0.8 80 2020 CTS
  Iceland Europe Northern Europe 1.5 5 2020 CTS
  India * Asia Southern Asia 3.0 40,651 2020 CTS
  Indonesia * Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.4 1,150 2017 CTS
  Iran * Asia Southern Asia 2.5 1,936 2014 MD
  Iraq Asia Western Asia 10.1 3,339 2013 CTS
  Iraq (excluding Kurdistan) Asia Western Asia 10.1 3,029 2014 CTS
  Ireland Europe Northern Europe 0.7 34 2020 CTS
  Isle of Man Europe Northern Europe 0 0 2016 NP
  Israel * Asia Western Asia 1.5 123 2017 NSO
  Italy * Europe Southern Europe 0.5 285 2020 CTS
  Jamaica * Americas Caribbean 44.7 1,323 2020 CTS
  Japan * Asia Eastern Asia 0.3 334 2018 MoI
  Jordan Asia Western Asia 1.0 99 2020 CTS
  Kazakhstan Asia Central Asia 3.2 606 2020 CTS
  Kenya * Africa Eastern Africa 4.0 2,151 2020 CTS
  Kosovo * Europe Southern Europe 2.4 44 2018 CTS
  Kurdistan Region (Iraq) Asia Western Asia 2.2 111 2013 CTS
  Kuwait * Asia Western Asia 1.8 61 2012 CTS
  Kyrgyzstan Asia Central Asia 2.2 138 2018 CTS
  Latvia * Europe Northern Europe 2.6 49 2020 CTS
  Lebanon Asia Western Asia 1.9 128 2020 CTS
  Lesotho * Africa Southern Africa 43.6 897 2015 NSO
  Liberia * Africa Western Africa 3.3 135 2012 UNMIL
  Liechtenstein Europe Western Europe 2.6 1 2018 NSO
  Lithuania Europe Northern Europe 3.7 101 2020 CTS
  Luxembourg Europe Western Europe 0.2 1 2020 CTS
  Macau * Asia Eastern Asia 0.3 2 2020 CTS
  Malawi Africa Eastern Africa 1.8 279 2012 NP
  Malaysia * Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.1 627 2013 NP
  Maldives * Asia Southern Asia 0.7 3 2013 CTS
  Malta Europe Southern Europe 1.6 7 2020 CTS
  Martinique Americas Caribbean 2.8 11 2009 NP
  Mauritius * Africa Eastern Africa 2.9 37 2018 NSO
  Mayotte Africa Eastern Africa 5.9 12 2009 NP
  Mexico * Americas Central America 28.4 36,579 2020 CTS
  Monaco Europe Western Europe 0 0 2015 CTS
  Mongolia Asia Eastern Asia 6.0 196 2020 CTS
  Montenegro * Europe Southern Europe 2.9 18 2020 CTS
  Montserrat Americas Caribbean 20.3 1 2012 MD
  Morocco Africa Northern Africa 1.3 487 2020 CTS
  Mozambique Africa Eastern Africa 3.5 849 2011 SDG
  Myanmar * Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.3 1,198 2016 CTS
  Namibia * Africa Southern Africa 11.9 303 2020 CTS
  Nepal * Asia Southern Asia 2.3 627 2016 CTS
  Netherlands Europe Western Europe 0.6 107 2020 CTS
  New Zealand * Oceania Australia, New Zealand 2.6 126 2019 CTS
  Nicaragua Americas Central America 7.2 453 2016 NP
  Niger Africa Western Africa 4.4 788 2012 WHO
  Nigeria * Africa Western Africa 34.5 64,201 2016 UNODC Estimate
  Northern Ireland * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 23 2018 CTS
  Norway * Europe Northern Europe 0.6 31 2020 CTS
  Oman * Asia Western Asia 0.3 13 2018 CTS
  Pakistan * Asia Southern Asia 3.9 8,241 2018 NP
  Panama * Americas Central America 11.1 480 2020 CTS
  Paraguay * Americas South America 6.7 481 2020 CTS
  Peru * Americas South America 7.9 2,487 2017 CTS
  Philippines * Asia South-Eastern Asia 4.4 4,764 2019 CTS
  Poland * Europe Eastern Europe 0.7 268 2020 CTS
  Portugal * Europe Southern Europe 0.9 93 2020 CTS
  Puerto Rico * Americas Caribbean 18.5 529 2020 CTS
  Qatar * Asia Western Asia 0.4 9 2014 MD
  South Korea * Asia Eastern Asia 0.6 308 2020 CTS
  Moldova * Europe Eastern Europe 4.1 166 2018 NSO
  North Macedonia Europe Southern Europe 1.2 25 2018 CTS
  Réunion Africa Eastern Africa 1.8 15 2009 NP
  Romania * Europe Eastern Europe 1.5 281 2020 CTS
  Russia * Europe Eastern Europe 7.3 10,697 2020 CTS
  Rwanda Africa Eastern Africa 2.6 293 2015 NSO
  Saint Helena Africa Western Africa 0 0 2009 NSO
  Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas Caribbean 36.1 18 2012 OAS
  Saint Lucia * Americas Caribbean 21.4 39 2018 NSO
  Saint Martin (French part) Americas Caribbean 27.7 10 2016 GOV
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Americas Northern America 15.8 1 2009 NP
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas Caribbean 36.5 40 2016 CTS
  San Marino Europe Southern Europe 0 0 2011 WHO
  São Tomé and Príncipe Africa Middle Africa 3.3 6 2011 CTS
  Saudi Arabia * Asia Western Asia 1.3 419 2017 CTS
  Scotland * Europe Northern Europe 1.1 61 2018 CTS
  Senegal Africa Western Africa 0.3 39 2015 CTS
  Serbia * Europe Southern Europe 1.0 89 2020 CTS
  Seychelles Africa Eastern Africa 12.5 12 2016 NSO
  Sierra Leone Africa Western Africa 1.7 124 2015 SDG
  Singapore * Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.2 10 2020 CTS
  Slovakia * Europe Eastern Europe 1.2 63 2020 CTS
  Slovenia * Europe Southern Europe 0.5 11 2020 CTS
  South Africa * Africa Southern Africa 33.5 19,846 2020 CTS
  South Sudan Africa Eastern Africa 14.9 1,504 2012 NP
  Spain * Europe Southern Europe 0.6 298 2020 CTS
  Sri Lanka * Asia Southern Asia 2.4 514 2018 CTS
  Palestine * Asia Western Asia 1.0 48 2020 CTS
  Sudan Africa Northern Africa 5.1 1,702 2008 CTS
  Suriname * Americas South America 5.4 31 2017 CTS
  Sweden * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 124 2020 CTS
  Switzerland * Europe Western Europe 0.5 47 2020 CTS
  Syria Asia Western Asia 0.9 149 2018 CTS
  Taiwan * Asia Eastern Asia 0.8 192 2015 SDG
  Tajikistan Asia Central Asia 0.9 87 2020 CTS
  Thailand * Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.6 1,787 2017 CTS
  East Timor Asia South-Eastern Asia 4.1 49 2015 NSO
  Trinidad and Tobago * Americas Caribbean 30.6 420 2015 CTS
  Tunisia Africa Northern Africa 4.8 562 2020 WHO
  Turkey * Asia Western Asia 2.6 2,154 2018 CTS
  Turkmenistan Asia Central Asia 4.2 203 2006 TransMonEE
  Turks and Caicos Islands Americas Caribbean 5.7 2 2014 MD
  Uganda Africa Eastern Africa 9.7 4,460 2020 CTS
  Ukraine * Europe Eastern Europe 6.2 2,751 2017 CTS
  United Arab Emirates * Asia Western Asia 0.5 44 2017 CTS
  United Kingdom * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 809 2018 CTS Adjusted
  Tanzania Africa Eastern Africa 6.5 3,439 2016 NSO
  United States * Americas Northern America 6.3 20,982 2020 CTS
  U.S. Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 49.3 52 2012 MD
  Uruguay Americas South America 12.1 416 2018 CTS
  Uzbekistan Asia Central Asia 1.1 363 2017 CTS
  Venezuela * Americas South America 36.7 10,598 2018 CTS
  Vietnam * Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.5 1,358 2011 WHO
  Yemen * Asia Western Asia 6.8 1,703 2013 NSO
  Zambia Africa Eastern Africa 5.4 853 2015 NP
  Zimbabwe * Africa Eastern Africa 7.5 981 2012 WHO

Source abbreviations explainedEdit

Source abbreviations explained
Abbreviation Source
ABSP Anuario Brasileiro de Seguranca Publica
AG Attorney General
CTS United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (UN-CTS)
DMDB European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB)
DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN)
EUR Eurostat
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
GEN User Generated
GEO Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean
GHD Estimate Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx, IHME)
GOV Government
IHME Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
INTP International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; Interpol)
JP Judicial police
MD World Health Organization Mortality Database
MNS Ministry of National Security
MNTH United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
MOH Ministry of Health
MOI Ministry of Interior
MOJ Ministry of Justice
MSCO United Nations Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO)
NBHW National Board of Health and Welfare
NCCP National Council for Crime Prevention
NGO Non-governmental Organization
NIFM National Institute of Forensic Medicine
NP National Police
NSO National Statistical Organization
OAS Organization of American States (OAS)
OCAVI Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia (OCAVI)
PAHO Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
PPR Public Prosecution
RIC Regional System of Standardized Indicators in Peaceful Coexistence and Citizen Security (IDB)
RSC Research Center
SDG Sustainable Development Goals
SES Sistema Regional de Indicadores Estandarizados en Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana (SES)
SO Statistical Organization
TSMNEE Transformative Monitoring for Enhanced Equity (TransMonEE)
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
UNMIT United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)
UNMIL United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
UNSDC UNODC Special Data Collection
VAL Validated
WHO World Health Organization (WHO)
WPP World Population Prospects 2017
Adjusted Obtained based on an adjusted value from an external source
Attempt Indicates that the data may include attempted homicides
_N Indicates data obtained in the 2017 search for external sources
CTS_N Indicates that the disaggregation was partially or completely updated with data from the CTS 2017

Other studiesEdit

A 2020 study by InSight Crime found that Jamaica had the highest homicide rate in Latin America and the Caribbean, while Venezuela had the second highest rate.[20]

On the other side, Asturias region, in Northern Spain, has one of world's lowest homicide rates. With a population of 1 million people, it registered only 1 homicide during full year 2021.[21] Its biggest city, Gijón, with more than 250,000 inhabitants, has not registered a homicide since February 2020 (as of June 2022), before COVID-19 lockdown.[22][23]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Homicide Country Data". dataunodc.un.org. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Latest available data for some countries is for 2020. There is a "Download dataset" link to get all the data.
  2. ^ a b c d "Victims of Intentional Homicide: 2018". UNODC. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Map and table of rates and counts. Pick a country (or countries) in the sidebar "Country" dropdown menu. Then pick a year (1990-2018). Click that country on the map to see a timeline graph of homicide rates. Below the map see a timeline table of the rates and counts for that country or countries. There is a "Bulk data download" link at top right (hover to see name). May need to click twice to download.
  3. ^ a b c "Homicide rate | dataUNODC". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Timeline graph of "Victims of intentional homicide 1990-2018". Can select a country and a region. Table below graph shows data 1990-2018. Download link icon below table offers multiple formats just for selected country and region. Click "bulk data download" link icon twice at top of page to get Excel file that covers years 1990-2018 for all countries.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Global Study on Homicide 2019. Booklet 2. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). See page 11 for global rate. See page 9 about homicide rates as proxy for overall violence. See Box 1 on page 14 for criminal justice data sources versus public health sources. See figure 2 on page 14 for regional homicide rates in 2017. See figure 3 on page 16 for regional number of homicides. See page 85 about the six-booklet format of this study. Look for page numbers on the bottom of pages, and ignore the incorrect page numbers provided by your PDF reader.
  5. ^ Richards, Patsy (27 May 1999). "Homicide statistics, research paper 99/56" (PDF). London, UK: House of Commons of the United Kingdom library, Social and general statistics section. See page 7 for section called "Definition of the offence of homicide". See page 29 for table of nations and homicide rates for the years 1994–97. It also has further info on how homicide is defined across countries.
  6. ^ Harris, Anthony R.; Stephen H. Thomas; Gene A. Fisher; David J. Hirsch (May 2002). "Murder and medicine: the lethality of criminal assault 1960–1999". Homicide Studies. 6 (2): 128–166. doi:10.1177/1088767902006002003. From the abstract: "we assembled evidence from national data sources to show that the principal explanation of the downward trend in lethality involves parallel developments in medical technology and related medical support services that have suppressed the homicide rate compared to what it would be had such progress not been made."
  7. ^ Fry, Don. (1985). Believing the news. ISBN 978-0-935742-11-4.
  8. ^ Vizzard, William J. (2000). Shots in the dark. ISBN 978-0-8476-9560-7.
  9. ^ Global Burden of Armed Violence Report (PDF) (report). Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67ff. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. data from 2004-2007. The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.
  10. ^ 2011 Global Study on Homicide: Trends, Contexts, Data. "data from 2010 or latest available year". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Vienna, Austria.
  11. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 12.
  12. ^ Intentional homicide count and rate per 100,000 population, by country/territory (2000–2012). Data (in spreadsheet format) for UNODC report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Linked from Global Study on Homicide – Data: UNODC Homicide Statistics 2013
  13. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 10.
  14. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 102–103.
  15. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 99.
  16. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 101.
  17. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 104.
  18. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 7–8.
  19. ^ "dp-intentional-homicide-victims | dataUNODC". Dataunodc.un.org. Retrieved 2022-08-27.
  20. ^ "InSight Crime's 2020 Homicide Round-Up". January 29, 2021.
  21. ^ "Asturias registró en 2021 la segunda tasa de criminalidad más baja del país (in Spanish)". www.rtpa.es.
  22. ^ "Gijón - Crimen: asesinatos, robos, secuestros y otros delitos registrados en cada municipio (in Spanish)". www.epdata.es.
  23. ^ Peláez, I. (2022-05-06). "El asesino de la gijonesa Lorena Dacuña, condenado a 20 años de cárcel y cinco de libertad vigilada". La Nueva España (in Spanish).

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit