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List of countries by economic complexity

Map and Scatterplot of Countries by Economic Complexity

This list orders countries by their economic complexity index (ECI), as it was defined and calculated by Cesar A. Hidalgo and Ricardo Hausmann. The ECI was calculated with trade data from the UN Comtrade,[1] thus the information is only based on exports (and not goods produced). The 2009 rankings includes Products Exports Treemaps, also built by the Observatory of Economic Complexity.

Contents

2016 rankingsEdit

Rank Country/Territory ECI
1   Japan 2.229
2    Switzerland 2.054
3   Germany 1.956
4   South Korea 1.799
5   Sweden 1.755
6   Singapore 1.716
7   Austria 1.612
8   United Kingdom 1.593
9   United States 1.581
10   Czech Republic 1.577
11   Finland 1.555
12   Slovenia 1.447
13   Ireland 1.444
14   France 1.350
15   Hungary 1.300
16   Slovakia 1.284
17   Denmark 1.236
18   Belgium 1.219
19   Italy 1.214
20   Israel 1.186
21   Poland 1.147
22   Netherlands 1.107
23   Norway 1.034
24   Estonia 1.029
25   Mexico 0.933
Source: Observatory of Economic Complexity, MIT

The list is incomplete and only includes the top 25 out of 126 countries.

2014 rankingsEdit

Rank Country/Territory ECI ECI Change over 2013 Rank Change over 2013
1   Japan 2.25   0.04  
2    Switzerland 2.10   0.06  
3   Germany 2.05   0.1  
4   Sweden 1.89   0.06  
5   United States 1.80   0.22   6
6   South Korea 1.74   0.04   1
7   Finland 1.74   0.1   1
8   Singapore 1.73   0.1   2
9   Czech Republic 1.70   0.01   3
10   Austria 1.65   0.01   1
11   Brazil 1.62   0.04   12
12   United Kingdom 1.60   0.12   6
13   Slovenia 1.50   0.06  
14   France 1.46   0.01  
15   Hungary 1.43   0.09   1
16   Netherlands 1.37   0.24   5
17   Slovakia 1.35     2
18   Ireland 1.32   0.05   1
19   Denmark 1.26   0.07   1
20   Israel 1.24   0.02   1
21   Mexico 1.23   0.24   3
22   Norway 1.23   0.28   3
23   Italy 1.21   0.01   5
24   Canada 1.20   0.5   10
25   Poland 1.19   0.07   3
Source: Observatory of Economic Complexity, MIT

The list is incomplete and only includes the top 25 out of 124 countries.

2013 rankingsEdit

Rank Country/Territory ECI
1   Japan 2.29
2    Switzerland 2.16
3   Germany 1.95
4   Sweden 1.83
5   United Kingdom 1.72
6   Czech Republic 1.71
7   South Korea 1.70
8   Finland 1.64
9   Austria 1.64
10   Singapore 1.63
11   United States 1.58
12   Slovenia 1.56
13   Brazil 1.50
14   France 1.47
15   Slovakia 1.35
16   Hungary 1.34
17   Ireland 1.27
18   Italy 1.25
19   Israel 1.22
20   Denmark 1.19
21   Netherlands 1.15
22   Poland 1.13
23   China 1.02
24   Mexico 0.97
25   Norway 0.96
Source: Observatory of Economic Complexity, MIT

The list is incomplete and only includes the top 25 out of 124 countries.

2009 rankingsEdit

Rank Country/Territory ECI ECI Increase ('98-'08) Rank Increase ('98-'08) Treemap
1   Japan 2.316   0.11   0
2   Germany 2.0125   -0.20   0
3    Switzerland 1.935   -0.14   0
4   Sweden 1.859   -0.17   0
5   Austria 1.807   0.01   3
6   Finland 1.715   -0.13   0
7   Singapore 1.639   0.42   12
8   Czech Republic 1.628   0.10   6
9   United Kingdom 1.558   -0.37   -4
10   Slovenia 1.523   0.09   5
11   France 1.473   -0.20   -2
12   South Korea 1.469   0.53   13
13   United States 1.447   -0.36   -6
14   Hungary 1.43   0.42   9
15   Slovakia 1.379   0.05   2
16   Italy 1.308   -0.23   -3
17   Denmark 1.267   -0.27   -5
18   Ireland 1.231   -0.34   -7
19   Israel 1.219   -0.08   -1
20   Mexico 1.210   0.35   7
21   Brazil 1.209   0.59   14
22   Belgium 1.087   -0.52   -12
23   Netherlands 1.044   -0.33   -7
24   Hong Kong 1.023   0.60   18
25   Poland 1.02   0.00   -3
26   Croatia 0.989   0.20   2
27   Romania 0.936   0.29   5
28   Spain 0.933   -0.19   -8
29   China 0.894   0.57   18
30   Panama 0.831   0.96   36
31   Thailand 0.814   0.65   26
32   Estonia 0.791   0.24   2
33   Norway 0.777   -0.21   -9
34   Malaysia 0.759   0.28   4
35   Portugal 0.696   0.13   -2
36   Lithuania 0.683   0.27   7
37   Serbia 0.644
38   Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.453   0.08   -2
39   Latvia 0.594   0.37   13
40   Bulgaria 0.587   -0.06   -9
41   Canada 0.571   -0.45   -20
42   Ukraine 0.559   -0.33   -16
43   Turkey 0.444   0.17   6
44   Lebanon 0.403   0.32   17
45   Jordan 0.325   -0.11   -4
46   Russia 0.324   -0.36   -17
47   Tunisia 0.294   0.31   16
48   New Zealand 0.287   -0.18   -9
49   Costa Rica 0.278   0.81   29
50   Moldova 0.266   0.15   9
51   India 0.247   0.04   3
52   Belarus 0.244   -0.43   -22
53   Greece 0.214   -0.04   -3
54   Colombia 0.2   -0.08   -6
55   South Africa 0.131   -0.28   -11
56   Uruguay 0.109   -0.33   -16
57   Argentina 0.106   -0.28   -12
58   Albania 0.087   0.46   17
59   Philippines 0.032   0.34   14
60   El Salvador 0.026   1.05   45
61   Indonesia -0.007   0.18   7
62   North Macedonia -0.018   -0.02   0
63   Egypt -0.021   0.28   9
64   Dominican Republic -0.064   0.66   26
65   Guatemala -0.099   0.76   33
66   United Arab Emirates -0.106   -0.08   -2
67   Vietnam -0.181   0.41   16
68   Saudi Arabia -0.201   -0.42   -15
69   Kyrgyzstan -0.24   -0.33   -9
70   Georgia -0.263   -0.74   -33
71   Sri Lanka -0.265   0.37   16
72   Namibia -0.271
73   Kenya -0.276   0.84   36
74   Senegal -0.287   0.68   27
75   Syria -0.29   0.69   27
76   Trinidad and Tobago -0.306   -0.25   -11
77   Mauritius -0.307   0.32   9
78   Chile -0.312   -0.44   -20
79   Australia -0.321   -0.50   -23
80   Zimbabwe -0.327   0.23   2
81   Jamaica -0.343   0.44   12
82   Pakistan -0.398   0.33   10
83   Morocco -0.4   0.11   -6
84   Cuba -0.426   0.19   1
85   Qatar -0.438   0.35   9
86   Paraguay -0.474   -0.25   -17
87   Uganda -0.488   0.65   24
88   Honduras -0.518   0.57   20
89   Peru -0.576   -0.32   -18
90   Madagascar -0.594   0.54   20
91   Oman -0.604   -0.27   -17
92   Kazakhstan -0.608   -0.82   -37
93   Ecuador -0.619   0.23   4
94   Botswana -0.62
95   Tanzania -0.637   0.61   20
96   Uzbekistan -0.658   -0.51   -29
97   Nicaragua -0.661   0.66   20
98   Cambodia -0.702   0.48   16
99   Ivory Coast -0.868   0.56   20
100   Ghana -0.868   0.31   13
101   Bolivia -0.879   -0.32   -20
102   Laos -0.88   -0.05   -6
103   Bangladesh -0.887   0.11   0
104   Ethiopia -0.892   0.17   2
105   Zambia -0.933   0.03   -5
106   Malawi -1.024   0.28   10
107   Yemen -1.042   0.33   11
108   Tajikistan -1.054   -0.81   -38
109   Mozambique -1.077   -0.70   -33
110   Mali -1.103   0.38   10
111   Venezuela -1.109   -1.36   -60
112   Liberia -1.128   -0.52   -28
113   Mongolia -1.166   -0.46   -24
114   Algeria -1.213   -0.40   -19
115   Turkmenistan -1.217   -0.67   -35
116   Kuwait -1.219   -0.67   -37
117   Azerbaijan -1.223   -1.60   -71
118   Iran -1.229   -0.54   -30
119   Libya -1.304   -0.58   -28
120   Gabon -1.364   -0.44   -21
121   Cameroon -1.403   0.32   3
122   Nigeria -1.418   0.23   1
123   Guinea -1.444   0.34   2
124   Papua New Guinea -1.577   -0.02   -3
125   Congo -1.707   -0.12   -3
126   Sudan -1.768   -0.69   -19
127   Angola -1.793   -0.64   -15
128   Mauritania -1.907   -0.89   -24

Factors affecting differences between countriesEdit

As an illustration, we can observe the differences between Egypt and Thailand in ECI ranking between the years of 1995 and 2015, let us use the below figures as an example:

Rank Country ECI Value Year
45 Thailand 0.30 1995
75 Egypt -0.41 1995
24 Thailand 1.06 2015
68 Egypt -0.23 2015
  • Difference in 1995: 0.71 ECI points for Thailand
  • Difference in 2015: 1.28824 ECI points for Thailand
  • Increase for Egypt 1995-2015: 0.18037 ECI Points
  • Increase for Thailand 1995-2015: 0.7575 ECI Points

When we dig deeper into the export data of both countries, we can deduce that the differences were mainly in the composition of their relative export baskets. The more countries direct their efforts to more sophisticated products, the more it is reflected in the ECI score, and hence their potential economic growth.

For example, from 1995-2015, Thailand appears to have phased away from largely ubiquitous products “fur: 0.1 on the Product Complexity Index ("PCI"), Leather: 0.9 PCI, footwear: -0.7 PCI”, and focused their exports into products that few other countries can make “Cars: 2.47 PCI, parts and accessories of motor vehicles: 3.18 PCI, motor vehicles for transporting good: 1.87 PCI”.

Egypt, on the other hand, also experienced an increase in complexity, albeit much less than the one experienced by Thailand. They had a relatively high growth as a share of their total export portfolio in monitors and projectors: 0.9 PCI, but they also had a growth in insulated wires which has a PCI of -0.48.

So, in general, we can observe that Thailand has expanded in products with higher PCI than the ones they phased out from, while Egypt expanded in some higher PCI products, and also some lower ones hence the difference in ECI growth between the two.

For reference data, please go to http://atlas.cid.harvard.edu.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "UN Comtrade".