List of common Chinese surnames

These are lists of the most common Chinese surnames in mainland China (People's Republic of China), Taiwan (Republic of China), and the Chinese diaspora overseas as provided by authoritative government or academic sources. Chinese names also form the basis for many common Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese surnames and to an extent Filipino surnames in both translation and transliteration into those languages.

The conception of China as consisting of the "old 100 families" (Chinese: 老百姓; pinyin: Lǎo Bǎi Xìng; lit.: 'Old Hundred Surnames') is an ancient and traditional one, the most notable tally being the Song-era Hundred Family Surnames (Chinese: 百家姓; pinyin: Bǎi Jiā Xìng). Even today, the number of surnames in China is a little over 4,000,[1] while the year 2000 US census found the number of American surnames held by at least 100 people to be more than 150,000[2] and more than 6.2 million surnames altogether.[3]

The Chinese expression "Three Zhang (or/and) Four Li" (simplified Chinese: 张三李四; traditional Chinese: 張三李四; pinyin: Zhāng Sān Lǐ Sì) is used to mean "anyone" or "everyone",[4] but the most common surnames are currently Wang in mainland China[5] and Chen in Taiwan.[6] A commonly cited factoid from the 1990 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records estimated that Zhang was the most common surname in the world,[7] but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim. However, Zhang Wei (张伟) is the most common full name in mainland China.[8]

Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and TaiwanEdit

This list of the 100 most common Chinese surnames derives from comprehensive surveys from 2018, 2007, and 1982. The first and second are derived from reports on the household registrations released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on 30 January 2019 and April 24, 2007 respectively.[9][5] The third is derived from the 1982 Chinese census whose zero hour was 00:00 on 1 July 1982. Although no list of surnames was published with the initial summaries, the State Post Bureau subsequently used the census data to release a series of commemorative stamps in honor of the then-most-common surnames in 2004.[10][11] Previous partial surveys proved less accurate, as many surnames are clustered regionally.

The summary of the 2007 survey revealed China had approximately 92,881,000 Wangs (7.25% of the general population), 92,074,000 Lis (7.19%), and 87,502,000 Zhangs (6.83%). These top three surnames alone accounted for more people than Indonesia, the fourth most populous country in the world.[12] Detailed numbers for the other surnames were not released, but it was noted that seven others – Liu, Chen, Yang, Huang, Zhao, Wu, and Zhou – were each shared by more than 20 million Chinese and twelve more – Xu, Sun, Ma, Zhu, Hu, Guo, He, Gao, Lin, Luo, Zheng, and Liang – were each shared by more than 10 million. All together, the top hundred surnames accounted for 84.77% of China's population.[5][13] By way of comparison, the 2000 census found the most common surname in the United States – Smith – had fewer than 2.4 million occurrences and made up only 0.84% of the general population. The top 100 surnames accounted for only 16.4% of the US population,[2] and reaching 89.8% of the US population required more than 150,000 surnames.[3]

Surname listEdit

Romanizations
Rank Character Mandarin Cantonese Min Nan Hakka Gan Other Former Pronunciation (according to Baxter)[14]
2018 2007 1982 Trad. Simp. Pinyin Wade Jyutping HK Other POJ[a] Other PFS Other GP Other Old Chinese[b] Middle Chinese
1 1 2 Wáng Wang2 Wong4 Wong Vang Ông Bong

Heng

Vòng Wong Uōng Wong Viet. Vương *‍ɢʷaŋ Hjwang
Kor. Wang ()
Phil. Ong, Wong, Wang, Heng
Jap. Ō
2 2 1 Li3 Lei5 Lee
Li
Ly Lee Lee Lee Viet. /Lí *‍C.rəʔ LiX
N. Kor. Ri ()
S. Kor. Yi, Lee, Rhee ()
Jap. Ri
Phil. Dy, Lee, Li, Dee, Dyson, Dizon, Deezon, Sy
Lat. Am. Ley
3 3 3 Zhāng Chang1 Zoeng1 Cheung Cheong
Chong
Tiuⁿ (X, Q, K, T)
Tioⁿ (Z)
Teo
Teoh
Tio
Chông Chong Tong Cheong
Thong
Viet. Trương *‍C.traŋ Trjang
Kor. Jang ()
Jap. Chō
Phil. Tiu, Tiong, Chong
Ina. Sutiono, Tjong
4 4 4 Liú Liu2 Lau4 Lau Lao
Lou
Lâu Lau
Low
Lao
Liù Liew Liu Lew
Lieu
Viet. Lưu *‍mə-ru Ljuw
Kor. Yu/Ryu (/)
Phil. Lao, Lew
Jap. Ryū
5 5 5 Chén Ch'en2 Can4 Chan Chun
Chean
Chin
Tân Tan
Tang
Ting
chhìn chin Thín Thin
Chin
Viet. Trần *‍lrin Drin
Kor. Jin ()
Phil. Tan, Chan, Tantoco, Tanteksi
Jap. Chin
6 6 6 Yáng Yang2 Joeng4 Yeung Yeong
Ieong
Young
Iûⁿ (X, Q, K, T)
Iôⁿ (Z)
Yeoh
Yeo
Yo
Nyo
Yòng Yong
Yeong
Iōng Yeong Viet. Dương *‍laŋ Yang
Kor. Yang ()
Phil. Yu, Young, Yung, Yang, Yongco, Auyong, Awyoung, Yuchengco
Jap.
7 7 8 Huáng Huang2 Wong4 Wong Wang
Vong
N̂g (X, Q, K, T)
Ûiⁿ (Z)
Ng
Ung
Ooi
Uy
Vòng Wong
Bong
Uōng Wong
Fong
Viet. Hoàng/Huỳnh *‍N-kʷˤaŋ Hwang
Kor. Hwang ()
Phil. Ng, Uy, Wee, Wong
Jap.
8 8 7 Zhào Chao2 Ziu6 Chiu Chu
Chio
Jiu
Tiō (X, Z, K, T)
Tiǒ (Q)
Teo
Teoh
Chhau Chau Thèu Cheu
Chew
Viet. Triệu
Kor. Jo ()
Phil. Tio, Chiu, Chio, Chu
Jap. Chō
9 9 10 Wu2 Ng4 Ng Ung, Eng Gô͘
Ngô͘ (X, Q, K, T)
Goh Ǹg Ng Ng Ng Viet. Ngô *‍ŋʷˤa Ngu
Kor. Oh ()
Jap. Go
Phil. Go, Ngo, Goh, Wu, Gozon, Gozum, Cinco, Gochian, Gokongwei, Gosiengfiao
Misc. Woo[disambiguation needed]
10 10 9 Zhōu Chou1 Zau1 Chow
Chau
Jao,
Chau,

Chao

Chiu Chew
Jew
Chiû Chew
Chiew
Tiu Chew
Cheu
Viet. Chu, Châu *‍tiw Tsyuw
Kor. Ju ()
Jap. Shū
Phil. Chiu, Jao, Chow
Misc. Joe
11 11 11 [17] Hsü2 Ceoi4 Tsui Choi
Chui
Tsua
Chhî (X, Z, K, T)
Sîr (Q)
Chee
Cher
Cheu
Swee
Ji
Jee
Chhì Chi Chhié Chee
Chui
Viet. Từ *‍sə.la Zjo
Kor. Seo ()
Jap. Sho
Phil. Choi
Ina. Dharmadjie
Christiadjie
12 12 12 Sūn Sun1 Syun1 Suen Sun Sng (X, Q, K, T)
Sun (X, Q, K, T)
Suiⁿ (Z)
Sng
Soon
Sûn Sun Sun Suen Viet. Tôn *‍sˤun Swon
Kor. Son ()
Jap. Son
Phil. Suan, Soon, Son
13 13 19 Ma3 Maa5 Ma Mah
Mar

(K, T)
Bey
Beh
Baey
Ma Viet. *‍mˤraʔ MaeX
Kor. Ma ()
Phil. Ma/Mapua[18]
Jap. Ba
14 14 14 Zhū Chu1 Zyu1 Chu Chue Chu Choo Chû Choo Tu Chu Viet. Châu *‍to Tsyu
Kor. Ju ()
Jap. Shu
Phil. Chu
Can. Gee
Misc. Ju
15 15 13 Hu2 Wu4 Wu Woo[disambiguation needed]
Vu
Ô͘ Oh
Ow
Aw
Foo Ū Wu
Foo
Viet. Hồ *‍gˤa Hu
Kor. Ho ()
Jap. Ko
Phil. Hu, Ho
16 16 18 Guō Kuo1 Gwok3 Kwok Kuok Koeh (Z, K, T)
Keh (X)
Kerh (Q)
Kueh
Koay
Quay
Kwek
Quek Kwik
Kwok Kwok
Kok
Kuok Kwok Viet. Quách *‍kʷˤak Kwak
Kor. Gwak ()
Jap. Kaku
Phil. Que, Cue, Quezon, Quison, Ker, Kho, Kwok, Kue
17 17 17 2
Ho2
Ho4 Ho Hoe Ho
Hor
Hou
Ho Ho Viet. *‍gˤaj Ha
Kor. Ha ()
Phil. Ho
Jap. Ka
18 19 16 Lín Lin2 Lam4 Lam Lum Lîm Lim Lìm Lim Līm Līm Viet. Lâm *‍k.rəm Lim
Kor. Lim/Im/Rim
(/)
Phil. Lim
Jap. Rin/Hayashi
19 18 15 Gāo Kao1 Gou1 Ko Kou
Go
Ko (X, Z, K, T)
Ko͘ (Q)
Ko
Kor

Kau
Koo Kou Kou Viet. Cao *‍Cə.kˤaw Kaw
Kor. Go ()
Jap.
Phil. Caw, Co, Ko, Gao
20 20 20 Luó Lo2 Lo4 Lo Law
Loh, Lowe
Lor
Lo
Lor
Law
Law
Lo
Loh

Law
Viet. La *‍rˤaj La
Kor. Na/La/Ra
(/)
Phil. Lo
Jap. Ra
21 21 23 Zhèng Cheng4 Zeng6 Cheng Cheang
Chiang
Tēⁿ (K)
Tīⁿ (X, T)
Tìⁿ (Q)
Tēeⁿ (Z)
Tay
Teh
Chhang Chang Thàng Viet. Trịnh
Kor. Jeong ()
Jap. Tei
Phil. Ty, Tee, Cheng, Chiang
22 22 21 Liáng Liang2 Loeng4 Leung Leong
Lang
Leng
Niû (X, Q, K, T)
Niô͘ (Z)
Neo Liòng Leong Liōng Viet. Lương *‍raŋ Ljang
Kor. Yang/Ryang (/)
Phil. Leong, Liong, Leung, Niu
Jap. Ryō
23 23 24 Xiè Hsieh4 Ze6 Tse Che Chiā (Z, K)
Siā (X, T)
Sià (Q)
Chia
Cheah
Seah
Tshia Cheah Chhià Viet. Tạ *‍sə-lak-s ZjaeH
Kor. Sa ()
Jap. Sha
Can. Tsia
Phil. Sia, Saa, Sese, Chia, Tse
Misc. Shie
24 24 22 Sòng Sung4 Sung3 Sung Sòng
Sàng (K, T)
Song Sung Song
Soong
Sūng Viet. Tống
Kor. Song ()
Jap.
Phil. Song, Songco, Soong, Sung
Misc. Soong
25 25 26 Táng T'ang2 Tong4 Tong Tn̂g
Tông (X, Z, K, T)
Tng
Tang
Thòng Tong
Thong
Thóng Viet. Đường *‍N-rˤaŋ Dang
Kor. Dang ()
Phil. Teng
Jap.
26 26 35 [19] Hsü3 Heoi2 Hui Hoi Khó͘ Koh
Khoh
Ko
Hee Viet. Hái, Hứa *‍qʰaʔ XjoX
Kor. Heo ()
Jap. Kyo
Phil. Kho, Ko, Co, Kaw, Cojuangco
27 29 34 Dèng Teng2 Dang6 Tang Theng Tēng (X, Z, K, T)
Tèng (Q)
Teng Then Ten
Then
Thèn Viet. Đặng
Kor. Deung ()
Jap.
Phil. Deang/Teng, Tengco, Tangco
28 27 25 Hán Han2 Hon4 Hon Hân Hang
Han
Hòn Hon Hón Viet. Hàn *‍gˤar Han
Kor. Han ()
Jap. Kan
Misc. Hang
29 28 27 Féng Feng2 Fung4 Fung Fong Pâng Pang Fùng
Phùng
Foong Fūng Viet. Phùng *‍Cə.bəŋ Bjuwng
Kor. Pung ()
Jap.
Phil. Fung, Pangco, Pang
30 30 32 Cáo Ts'ao2 Cou4 Cho
Tso
Chaw Chô (X, Z, K, T)
Chô͘ (Q)
Chow Tshò
Tshàu
Cho
Chaw
Chhóu Viet. Tào *‍N-tsˤu Dzaw
Kor. Jo ()
Jap.
31 31 39 Péng P'eng2 Pang4 Pang Banh Phêⁿ (K)
Phîⁿ (X, Q, T)
Phêeⁿ (Z)
Peh
Phe
Phàng Phang Pháng Viet. Bành *‍C.bˤraŋ Baeng
Kor. Paeng ()
Jap.
Phil. Beng, Pang, Pangco
Khmer Pay
32 32 38 Zēng Tseng1 Zang1 Tsang Chang
Dong
Chan Chan Tsên Chen Chen Viet. Tăng *‍tsˤəŋ Tsong
Kor. Jeung ()
Jap.
Ina. Tjan
Phil. Chan, Chang
Misc. Tzeng
33 33 30 Xiāo Hsiao1 Siu1 Siu
Shiu
Sio Siau (X, Z, K, T)
Sio (X, Q, K, T)
Seow
Siau
Siow
Siâu Siew
Siaw
Sieu Viet. Tiêu *‍sˤiw Sew
Kor. So ()
Phil. Siao, Syaw, Shau, Shao, Shaw
Jap. Shō
34 34 58 Tián T'ien2 Tin4 Tin Chan Tiân Chan
Chang
Thièn Thien
Then
Thién Viet. Điền *‍lˤiŋ Den
Kor. Jeon (전)
Phil. Tian, Tien
Jap. Ten
35 35 29 Dǒng Tung3 Dung2 Tung Tong Táng
Tóng (Z)
Tong Túng Tung Tûng Viet. Đổng
Kor. Dong ()
Phil. Tong, Tung
Jap.
36 37 52 Pān P'an1 Pun1 Poon
Pun
Pun Phoaⁿ Phua Phân Pan
Phan
Phon Viet. Phan
Kor. Ban ()
Jap. Han
Phil. Pua, Pan, Poon
37 36 33 Yuán Yüan2 Jyun4 Yuen Wan Oân Wang Yèn Yen Iōn Viet. Viên *‍ɢʷan Hjwon
Kor. Won ()
Jap. En
Phil. Yan
38 40 44 Cài Ts'ai4 Coi3 Choi Choy
Tsoi
Toy
Chhoà Chua Chhai Chai
Choi
Chhói Viet. Thái
Sái
*‍s.r̥ˤat-s TshajH
Kor. Chae ()
Jap. Sai
Can. Chai
Phil. Chua, Chuah, Cua, Choa, Choi, Chai, Tsai
Misc. Tsay
39 39 43 Jiǎng Chiang3 Zoeng2 Tseung Cheung Chiúⁿ (X, Q, K, T)
Chióⁿ (Z)
Cheoh
Chioh
Tsiòng Cheong Chiông Viet. Tưởng
Kor. Jang ()
Jap. Shō
Phil. Chio, Chiu, Chung
40 41 51 2 Jyu4 Yu
Yue
U
Yee
Î (Z, K, T)
Û (X, K, T)
Îr (Q)
Ee
Eu
Yee Viet. *‍la Yo
Kor. Yeo ()
Jap. Yo
Ina. Ie, Iman, Oe
Phil. Yee, Yu
41 38 28 2 Jyu1 Yue U Î (Z)
Û (X)
U (Q, K, T)
Yee Yee Viet. Vu *‍ɢʷa Hju
Kor. U ()
Jap. U
42 42 53 Tu4 Dou6 To Do
Tou
Tō͘ (X, Z, K, T)
Tǒ͘ (Q)
Toh Thu To
Toh
Thù Viet. Đỗ
Kor. Du ()
Jap. To
Phil. To
43 43 49 Yeh4 Jip6 Yip Ip
Yeap
Ia̍p Yap Ya̍p Yap Iep Viet. Diệp *‍lap Yep
Kor. Seob/Yeop
(/)
Jap.
Phil. Yap, Ip
Misc. Yee, Ee
44 44 31 Chéng Ch'eng2 Cing4 Ching Cheng Thiâⁿ (X, Q, K, T)
Thêeⁿ (Z)
Thia Chhàng
Chhìn
Chang
Chin
Tháng Viet. Trình *‍C.lreŋ Drjeng
Kor. Jeong ()
Jap. Tei
45 46 47 Wèi Wei4 Ngai6 Ngai   Gūi (X, Z, K, T)
Gùi (Q)
Ngwee
Ngui
Ngui Ngui
Wee
Ngùi Viet. Nguỵ
Ngụy
*‍N-qʰuj Ngjw+j
Kor. Wi ()
Jap. Gi
Phil. Wee
46 45 41 Su1 Sou1 So
Sou So͘ Soh Soo Su Viet. *‍s.ŋˤa Su
Kor. So ()
Jap. So
Phil. So, Solon
Misc. Soo
47 47 40 3 Leoi5 Lui Loi (X, T)
(Z, K)
Lǐr (Q)
Lee
Leu
Ler
Loo
Lee Liê Viet. Lữ
*‍raʔ LjoX
Kor. Yeo/Ryeo
(/)
Jap. Ryo
Phil. Lu, Loo, Luy
48 48 46 Dīng Ting1 Ding1
Teng4
Ting Ding
Teng Teng Tén Ten Tiang Viet. Đinh *‍tˤeŋ Teng
Kor. Jeong ()
Jap. Tei
Phil. Ting, Tin
49 49 59 Rén Jen4 Jam6 Yam Iam
Yum
Jîm (Z, K)
Lîm (X, Q)
Līm (T)
Jim Ngim Ngim
Yim
Nìm Viet. Nhiệm
Nhậm
*‍nəm-s NyimH
Kor. Im ()
Jap. Jin
50 52 42 Lu2 Lou4 Lo Lou Lô͘ Loh Loo Viet.
Kor. No/Ro
(/)
Jap. Ro
51 51 64 Yáo Yao2 Jiu4 Yiu Yeow
Io
Iu
Iâu Yeo Yào Yow Iēu Yau Viet. Diêu
Kor. Yo ()
Jap.
Phil. Yao
52 50 37 Shěn Shen3 Sam2 Shum
Sum
Sham
Sam
Shum
Sím Sim Shím
Sím
Sim Sím Viet. Thẩm
Trầm
*‍l̥əmʔ SyimX
Kor. Shim ()
Jap. Shin
53 55 56 Zhōng Chung1 Zung1 Chung Chong Chiong
Cheng (K, T)
Cheng Chûng
Tsung
Chong
Chung
Tung Viet. Chung
Kor. Jong ()
Jap. Shō
Phil. Chiong, Chong, Chung
54 53 60 Jiāng Chiang1 Goeng1 Keung Geung
Keong
Khiang (Z)
Khiong (X, K, T)
Khiuⁿ (Q)
Kiang Kiông Keong Kiong Viet. Khương *‍C.qaŋ Kjang
Kor. Kang ()
Jap. Kyō
55 54 74 Cuī Ts'ui1 Ceoi1 Chui Choi Chhui Chui
Chwee
Tshûi Chooi Chhoi Viet. Thôi *‍dzˤuj Dzwoj
Kor. Choi ()
Jap. Sai
Misc. Tseui
56 56 65 Tán T'an2 Taam4 Tam Tom
Ham
Hom
Thâm Tham Thàm Tham Thóm Viet. Đàm
Kor. Dam ()
Jap. Tan
Phil. Tam
57 57 70 Lu4 Luk6 Luk Lok Lio̍k Loke
Lek
Liu̍k Luk Liuk Viet. Lục *‍ruk Ljuwk
Kor. Yuk/Ryuk
(/)
Jap. Riku
Phil. Diokno
58 58 57 Wāng Wang1 Wong1 Wong   Ong (X, Q, K, T)
Óng (Z)
Wang Vong Wong Uong Viet. Uông *‍qʷˤaŋ 'Wang
Kor. Wang ()
Jap. Ō
Phil. Ong, Ang
59 59 61 Fàn Fan4 Faan6 Fan   Hoān (X, Z, K, T)
Hoǎn (Q)Hwan
Huang
Hoan
Hwan
Fam Fam
Hoan
Hwan
Fàn Viet. Phạm *‍bomʔ BjomX
Kor. Beom ()
Jap. Han
Phil. Juan, Hwan
60 62 66 Liào Liao4 Liu6 Liu Lew
Leow
Liew
Lio
Liāu (X, Z, K, T)
Liàu (Q)
Leow
Liau
Liow
Liau Liew
Liau
Lièu Viet. Liêu
Liệu
Kor. Ryo ()
Jap. Ryō
61 61 63 Shí Shih2 Sek6 Shek Sek
Seac
Seak
Chio̍h Chioh
Cheoh
Sha̍k
Sak
Shak Sak Viet. Thạch *‍dak Dzyek
Kor. Seok (석)
Jap. Seki
62 60 69 Jīn Chin1 Gam1 Kam Gum Kim Kim Kîm Kim Kim Viet. Kim *‍kəm Kim
Kor. Kim ()
Jap. Kin
63 65   Wéi Wei2 Wai4 Wai Vai Ûi (X, Q, K, T)
Úi (Z)
Wee Vúi
Wooi
Wee
Viet. Vi
Kor. Wi ()
Jap. I
Phil. Wee, Uy
64 63 45 Jiǎ Chia3 Gaa2 Ka Ga  (X, Q, K, T)
Kée (Z)
Kia Ka Viet. Giả *‍C.qˤ<r>aʔ-s KaeH
Kor. Ga ()
Go ()
Jap. Ka
65 64 55 Xià Hsia2 Haa6 Ha   (K, T)
(X, K, T)
(Q)
Hēe (Z)
Hah
Hay
Ha Ha Viet. Hạ
Kor. Ha ()
Jap. Ka
66 66 36 Fu4 Fu6 Fu
Foo
  Pò͘ Poh Fu Fu Viet. Phó *‍pa-s PjuH
Kor. Bu ()
Jap. Fu
Phil. Po
67 67 62 Fāng Fang1 Fong1 Fong   Hong (X, Q, K, T)
Png (X, Q, K, T)
Puiⁿ (Z)
Pung Fông Fong Fong Viet. Phương *‍C.paŋ Pjang
Kor. Bang ()
Jap.
68 69 67 Zōu Tsou1 Zau1 Chau
Chow
Jao
Chau
Chau (K, T)
Cho͘ (X, Z, K, T)
Cho (Q)
Che (Z)
Chou
Choh
Tsêu Chew
Chiew
Chiu Viet. Châu
Kor. Chu ()
Jap. Shū
Phil. Chou
69 71 68 Xióng Hsiung2 Hung4 Hung Hong Hîm Him Yùng Yoong Hiūng Viet. Hùng
Kor. Ung ()
Jap.
Phil. Hung
70 68 73 Bái Pai2 Baak6 Pak Bahk Pe̍h
Pe̍k (Z)
Peh Pha̍k Pak
Phak
Phak Viet. Bạch *‍bˤrak Baek
Kor. Baek ()
Jap. Haku
Misc. Bo
71 70 84 Mèng Meng4 Maang6 Mang   Bēng (X, Z, K, T)
Bèng (Q)
Meng Men Mang Màng Viet. Mạnh *‍mˤraŋ-s MaengH
Kor. Maeng ()
Mang ()
Jap.
72 72 78 Qín Ch'in2 Ceon4 Chun Tseun
Tseon
Chon
Chîn Ching Tshìn Chin Chhín Viet. Tần *‍dzin Dzin
Kor. Jin ()
Jap. Shin
Phil. Ching
73 73 77 Qiū1 Ch'iu1 Jau1 Yau Iao
Iau
Khu Khoo Khiû
Hiû
Hew
Khew
Khiu Viet. Khâu
Kor. Koo ()
Jap. Kyū
Mal. Hew, Hiew
Chiew
Phil. Coo, Khoo
Misc. Chiou
74 80 82 Hóu Hou2 Hau4 Hau Hao Hô͘ (X, Z)
Hâu (Q, K, T)
Kâu (X, Q, Z)
Hoh
Hau
Hèu Hew Héu Viet. Hầu
Kor. Hu
(, )
Jap.
Phil. Caw, Ho
75 74 79 Jiāng Chiang1 Gong1 Kong   Kang Kang Kông Kong Kong Viet. Giang *‍kˤroŋ Kaewng
Kor. Gang ()
Jap.
Phil. Kang
Misc. Kiang
76 75 91 Yǐn Yin3 Wan5 Wan   Ún (K, T)
Ín (X, Q, Z)
Un
Eun
Eung
Yún Yoon Ín Viet. Doãn *‍m-qurʔ YwinX
Kor. Yun ()
Jap. In
Phil. Unson
77 76 48 Xuē Hsüeh1 Sit3 Sit   Sih Siet Set Siot Viet. Tiết
Kor. Seol ()
Jap. Setsu
78 77 50 Yán Yen2 Jim4 Yim Im Giâm Ngiam Ngiàm Ngiam
Yam
Iēm Viet. Diêm
Kor. Yeom ()
Jap. En
79 79 88 Léi Lei2 Leoi4 Lui Loi Lûi Lui Lùi Looi
Lui
Lōi Viet. Lôi *‍C.rˤuj Lwoj
Kor. Roe ()
Noe ()
Jap. Rai
Phil. Lui, Luy
Hoisan Louie, Louis
80 81 85 Lóng Lung2 Lung4 Lung
Loong
Long Lêng (K, T)
Liông
Leng
Liong
Liùng Loong Liūng Viet. Long
Kor. Yong/Ryong
(/)
Rong ()
Nong ()
Bang ()
Jap. Ryō
Phil. Leong, Liong, Wee
81 84 93 Li2 Lai4 Lai   Loy
Loi

Lài
Lee
Lai
Viet.
Kor. Yeo/Ryeo
(/)
Jap. Rei
82 82 80 Shǐ Shih3 Si2 Sze Si (X, Z, K, T)
Sái (X, Q)
Sír (Q)
Ser
Seu
Sze
Sṳ́ Soo
Sze
Viet. Sử
Kor. Sa ()
Jap. Shi
Phil. Sze
83 83   Táo T'ao2 Tou4 To
Tao
Tow (X, Z, K, T)
Tô͘ (Q)
Thô (Q)
Tow Thàu
Thò
Tao
Tow
Thóu Viet. Đào
Kor. Do ()
Jap.
Phil. To
84 85 97 4
Ho4
Ho6 Ho   (X, Z, K, T)
(Q)
Hor Ho
Fo
Ho Viet. Hạ
Kor. Ha ()
Jap. Ka
85 87 76 Máo Mao2 Mou4 Mo Mou Mô͘ Mor
Mâu
Mo
Mao
Mōu Viet. Mao
Kor. Mo (모)
Jap.
86 78 87 Duàn Tuan4 Dyun6 Tuen Tun Toān (X, Z, K, T)
Toàn (Q)
Tng
Teung
Thon Ton
Thon
Thòn Viet. Đoàn
Kor. Dan ()
Jap. Dan
87 88 71 Hǎo Hao3 Kok3 Kok   Hok Hak Khok   Hok Viet. Hác
Kor. Hak ()
Jap. Kaku
88 86 81 Ku4 Gu3 Ku Goo
Gu
Khoo
Kò͘ Koh Ku Koo Viet. Cố
Kor. Go ()
Jap. Ko
Phil. Coo, Khoo, Gu
89 89 99 Gōng Kung1 Gung1 Kung Kwong Kéng (X, Q, K, T)
Kiong (Z)
Kiûng Kong Kiung Viet. Cung
Kor. Gong ()
Jap. Kyō
90 90 83 Shào Shao4 Siu6 Siu
Shiu
Shaw
Sio
Siō (X, K, T)
Siāu (Z, K, T)
Siàu (Q)
Seow
Sioh
Shau
Sau
Shao Sèu Viet. Thiệu
Kor. So ()
Jap. Shō
Phil. Siao, Syaw, Shau, Shao, Shaw
91 94   Tán / Qín T'an2 Taam4 Tam Thâm   Thàm   Thóm Viet. Tán *‍N-r[a]mʔ YemX
Kor. Dam ()
Jap. Tan
Phil. Tam
92 95 95 Wu3 Mou5 Mo Mou Boo Moo
Woo
Viet.
*‍maʔ MjuX
Kor. Mu ()
Jap. Bu
93 92 89 Qián Ch'ien2 Cin4 Chin Chee Chîⁿ Chee Tshièn Chen Chhién Viet. Tiền
Kor. Jeon ()
Jap. Sen
Phil. Chi
94 96 54 Dài Tai4 Daai3 Tai (X, Z, K, T)
Tèr (Q)
Tai Tai Tai Thài Viet. Đái
Đới
*‍Cə.tˤək-s TojH
Kor. Dae ()
Jap. Tai
Phil. Te
95 93   Yán Yen2 Jim4 Yim Im Giâm Ngiam Ngiàm Yam Ngiēm Viet. Nghiêm
Kor. Eom ()
Jap. Gen
Phil. Gan
96 97   Mo4 Mok6  Mok Bo̍h (K, T)
Bo̍k
Mok Mo̍k Mok Mok Viet. Mạc *‍mˤak Mak
Kor. Mo ()
Jap. Baku
97 98 72 Kǒng K'ung3 Hung2 Hung Khóng Kong
Khong
Khúng Koong
Khoong
Khúng Viet. Khổng *‍kʰˤoŋʔ KhuwngX
Kor. Kong ()
Jap. Kyō
Phil. Consunji, Kong, Hung
98 99   Xiàng Hsiang4 Hoeng3  Heung  Hiòng (X, Q, K, T)
Hiàng (Z)
Hiang Hióng Hiòng Viet. Hưởng *‍qʰaŋ-s
*‍n̥aŋʔ-s
XjangH
Kor. Hyang ()
Jap. Kyō
99   94 Cháng Ch'ang2 Soeng4  Sheung Siông (X, Q, K, T)
Siâng (Z)
Sioh
Seoh
Sòng Song Sōng Viet. Thường *‍daŋ Dzyang
Kor. Sang ()
Jap. Shō
Misc. Sōng, Thōng
100 100 90 Tāng T'ang1 Tong1  Tong Thng Tng
Teung
Thông Thong
Tong
Thong Viet. Thang *‍l̥ˤaŋ Thang
Jap.  Tō
Phil. Tang
91 86 Wàn Wan4 Maan6 Man Meng  Bān (X, Z, K, T)
Bàn (Q)
Buang Van Wan
Man
Màn Viet. Vạn
Kor. Man ()
Jap. Ban
Phil. Man
  75 Kāng Kang1 Hong1  Hong Khng Kang
Khang
Không Khong
Kong
Khong Viet. Khang *‍k-l̥ˤaŋ Khang
Kor. Gang ()
Jap.
Phil. Kang
  92 I4 Yi6
Yik6 
Yik    E̍k (X, Z, K, T)
Ia̍k (Q)
Ek Yit   Iak Viet. Dịch *‍lek-s YeH
Kor. Yee ()
Jap.  Eki, I
  96 Qiáo Ch'iao2 Kiu4   Kiu Kiâu Keow
Kiao
Khiàu Kiew
Khiew
Khiéu Viet. Kiều *‍N-kaw Gjew
Kor. Kyo ()
Jap. Kyō
  98 Lài Lai4 Laai6 Lay Lai Lōa (X, Z, K, T)
Lòa (Q)
Nai Lai Lài Lài Viet. Lại *‍rˤat-s LajH
Kor. Roe ()
Noe ()
Jap. Rai
  100 Wén Wen2 Man4  Man Bûn Boon Vùn Voon Mūn Viet. Văn *‍mən Mjun
Kor. Moon ()
Jap. Bun 
    Shī Shih1 Si1  Si Xi Si
Soa
Sy
Sua
Sṳ̂ Sii´ Viet. Thí *‍l̥aj ɕiɛ
Kor. Si (), I ()
Jap. Shi, I 
Phil. Sy, See, Sze
    Hóng Hung2 Hung4  Hung Huhng Âng
Hông
Ang
Hong
Fùng Fung Viet. Hồng, Hòng *‍ɡloːŋ ɦuŋ
Kor. Hong ()
Jap. Kō 
Phil. Ang, Hong
    Xīn Hsin1 San1  San Sen Sîn Sin Sîn Xin´ Sîng Viet. Tân *‍s[I]n-s s[I]n
Kor. Shin ()
Jap. Shin 
Phil. Sin, Sing, Singson
    kʻo1 O1  O Ngo Koa, 

Kho

Ko, 

Ker, 

Quah, 

Kwa

Khô Ko´ Viet. Kha *‍*[k]ˁar ka
Kor. Ga ()
Jap. Ka 
Phil. Cua, Kua, Kho, Ko, Co, Coson
    Zhuāng Chuang1 Zong1  Tsong Chong, 

Jong

Chng, 

Chong

Cheng Chông Zong´ Viet. Trang, Đồ, Dưa, Chan, Chang *‍*[ts]raŋ tsrjang
Kor. Jang ()
Jap. Shō, Sō, Chan
Phil. Cheng, Ching, Chung, Chong
Notes
  1. ^ Pronunciations are based on the Xiamen (X), Zhangzhou (Z), Quanzhou (Q),[15] Kaohsiung (K) and Taipei (T) varieties.[16]
  2. ^ See article Reconstruction of Old Chinese for more information
Other surveys
  • 2006 multi-year survey and study conducted by Yuan Yida, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences's Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, using a sample size of 296 million spread across 1,110 counties and cities and recording around 4,100 surnames.[20]
  • 1990: Ji Yuwen Publishing House, based on a sample size of 174,900.
  • 1987 study conducted by Yuan Yida with a sample size of 570,000.
  • 1977 study published by Li Dongming, a Chinese historian, as "Surname" (《姓》) in Dongfang Magazine.

400 character listEdit

In 2013 the Fuxi Culture Research Association compiled a ranking of the 400 most common surnames.[21]

400 character list
400 most common surnames in China
Rank Name % of pop. No.(10,000's) Province with most
1 7.170% 9520.00 Henan
2 7.000% 9340.00 Henan
3 6.740% 8960.00 Henan
4 5.100% 6770.00 Shandong
5 4.610% 6130.00 Guangdong
6 3.220% 4270.00 Sichuan
7 2.450% 3260.00 Guangdong
8 2.000% 2680.00 Guangdong
9 2.000% 2670.00 Henan
10 1.900% 2520.00 Hunan
11 1.450% 1930.00 Jiangsu
12 1.380% 1830.00 Shandong
13 1.290% 1720.00 Henan
14 1.280% 1700.00 Jiangsu
15 1.160% 1550.00 Hubei
16 1.130% 1510.00 Guangdong
17 1.130% 1500.00 Henan
18 1.060% 1400.00 Sichuan
19 1.000% 1330.00 Shandong
20 0.950% 1260.00 Sichuan
21 0.930% 1240.00 Guangdong
22 0.850% 1130.00 Guangdong
23 0.760% 1010.00 Guangdong
24 0.700% 932.00 Shandong
25 0.690% 917.00 Hunan
26 0.660% 881.00 Guangdong
27 0.620% 821.00 Guangdong
28 0.620% 818.00 Guangdong
29 0.610% 815.00 Henan
30 0.600% 791.00 Henan
31 0.580% 772.00 Guangdong
32 0.580% 766.00 Hunan
33 0.560% 739.00 Hunan
34 0.530% 701.00 Guangdong
35 0.520% 687.00 Guangdong
36 0.520% 685.00 Henan
37 0.510% 677.00 Shandong
38 0.500% 667.00 Sichuan
39 0.480% 642.00 Shandong
40 0.480% 633.00 Hubei
41 0.480% 632.00 Guangdong
42 0.480% 632.00 Sichuan
43 0.470% 619.00 Henan
44 0.460% 606.00 Guangdong
45 0.450% 603.00 Henan
46 0.450% 601.00 Anhui
47 0.450% 596.00 Shandong
48 0.430% 576.00 Jiangsu
49 0.410% 550.00 Jiangsu
50 0.410% 547.00 Henan
51 0.400% 538.00 Jiangsu
52 0.400% 536.00 Guangdong
53 0.400% 536.00 Henan
54 0.400% 533.00 Guangdong
55 0.390% 523.00 Shandong
56 0.380% 509.00 Shandong
57 0.380% 499.00 Hunan
58 0.370% 487.00 Guangdong
59 0.360% 485.00 Henan
60 0.360% 483.00 Anhui
61 0.360% 480.00 Guangxi
62 0.350% 467.00 Zhejiang
63 0.340% 455.00 Henan
64 0.340% 449.00 Jiangsu
65 0.330% 439.00 Henan
66 0.320% 430.00 Guangxi
67 0.320% 426.00 Jiangsu
68 0.320% 423.00 Guangdong
69 0.310% 413.00 Anhui
70 0.300% 401.00 Henan
71 0.300% 394.00 Jiangxi
72 0.290% 384.00 Jiangxi
73 0.290% 383.00 Shandong
74 0.290% 379.00 Henan
75 0.280% 374.00 Hebei
76 0.280% 369.00 Guangdong
77 0.270% 360.00 Henan
78 0.260% 347.00 Jiangsu
79 0.260% 346.00 Hunan
80 0.240% 320.00 Henan
81 0.240% 319.00 Sichuan
82 0.220% 288.00 Guangdong
83 0.210% 285.00 Henan
84 0.210% 281.00 Hunan
85 0.210% 274.00 Anhui
86 0.210% 274.00 Hunan
87 0.200% 272.00 Jiangsu
88 0.200% 264.00 Zhejiang
89 0.200% 264.00 Hebei
90 0.200% 264.00 Hunan
91 0.200% 262.00 Shandong
92 0.190% 254.00 Jiangxi
93 0.190% 249.00 Jiangsu
94 0.190% 246.00 Jiangsu
95 0.180% 240.00 Guangdong
96 0.180% 240.00 Guangxi
97 0.180% 240.00 Taiwan
98 0.180% 239.00 Shanxi
99 0.180% 233.00 Guangxi
100 0.170% 231.00 Shandong
101 0.170% 227.00 Jiangsu
102 0.170% 226.00 Hunan
103 0.160% 218.00 Henan
104 0.160% 217.00 Guangdong
105 0.160% 211.00 Hebei
106 0.150% 206.00 Jiangsu
107 0.150% 204.00 Sichuan
108 0.150% 202.00 Henan
109 0.150% 200.00 Henan
110 0.150% 195.00 Jiangsu
111 0.140% 192.00 Shandong
112 0.130% 179.00 Hebei
113 0.130% 176.00 Hebei
114 0.130% 175.00 Hunan
115 0.130% 173.00 Henan
116 0.130% 171.00 Guangdong
117 0.130% 167.00 Guangxi
118 0.120% 164.00 Hunan
119 0.120% 163.00 Jiangsu
120 0.120% 162.00 Guangdong
121 0.120% 159.00 Jiangxi
122 0.120% 157.00 Zhejiang
123 0.110% 151.00 Henan
124 0.110% 149.00 Henan
125 0.110% 149.00 Henan
126 0.110% 147.00 Jiangsu
127 0.110% 147.00 Guangdong
128 0.110% 147.00 Henan
129 0.110% 146.00 Guangdong
130 0.110% 140.00 Henan
131 0.100% 137.00 Guangdong
132 0.100% 134.00 Sichuan
133 0.100% 133.00 Henan
134 0.100% 132.00 Zhejiang
135 0.100% 131.00 Henan
136 0.100% 129.00 Hubei
137 0.095% 126.00 Guangxi
138 0.090% 120.00 Zhejiang
139 0.087% 115.00 Inner Mongolia
140 0.083% 110.00 Guangxi
141 0.082% 109.00 Henan
142 0.082% 109.00 Hainan
143 0.082% 109.00 Hunan
144 0.082% 109.00 Guangdong
145 0.080% 106.00 Hubei
146 0.080% 106.00 Shandong
147 0.079% 105.00 Hubei
148 0.079% 105.00 Zhejiang
149 0.078% 103.00 Guangdong
150 0.078% 103.00 Shandong
151 0.076% 101.00 Jiangsu
152 0.076% 101.00 Jiangsu
153 0.076% 100.00 Henan
154 0.075% 100.00 Hebei
155 0.075% 100.00 Jiangxi
156 0.075% 100.00 Jiangsu
157 0.075% 100.00 Henan
158 0.075% 99.00 Henan
159 0.074% 98.00 Anhui
160 0.074% 98.00 Shandong
161 0.073% 97.00 Fujian
162 0.073% 97.00 Chongqing
163 0.073% 96.00 Guangdong
164 0.072% 96.00 Guangxi
165 0.072% 95.00 Henan
166 0.071% 94.00 Fujian
167 0.070% 92.00 Shandong
168 0.069% 92.00 Henan
169 欧阳 0.068% 91.00 Hunan
170 0.065% 87.00 Shandong
171 0.065% 86.00 Henan
172 0.062% 83.00 Guangxi
173 0.062% 82.00 Anhui
174 0.061% 82.00 Jiangsu
175 0.061% 81.00 Hunan
176 0.061% 80.00 Jiangsu
177 0.056% 75.00 Sichuan
178 0.056% 75.00 Shandong
179 0.055% 74.00 Shandong
180 0.055% 73.00 Shaanxi
181 0.055% 73.00 Jiangxi
182 0.053% 71.00 Shandong
183 0.053% 70.00 Sichuan
184 0.052% 69.00 Hubei
185 0.052% 68.00 Jiangsu
186 0.050% 67.00 Hunan
187 0.050% 67.00 Henan
188 0.048% 64.00 Guizhou
189 0.047% 62.00 Guangxi
190 0.044% 59.00 Henan
191 0.043% 58.00 Guangdong
192 0.043% 58.00 Guangdong
193 0.043% 58.00 Jiangsu
194 0.043% 57.00 Jiangsu
195 0.043% 57.00 Taiwan
196 0.043% 57.00 Shandong
197 0.043% 57.00 Zhejiang
198 0.043% 57.00 Fujian
199 0.042% 57.00 Henan
200 0.041% 55.00 Guangdong
201 [disambiguation needed] 0.041% 54.00 Shandong
202 0.040% 53.00 Henan
203 0.040% 53.00 Shandong
204 0.040% 53.00 Jiangsu
205 0.039% 52.00 Guangxi
206 0.039% 52.00 Shanxi
207 0.039% 52.00 Shaanxi
208 0.039% 52.00 Shandong
209 0.039% 51.00 Jiangsu
210 0.038% 51.00 Jiangsu
211 0.038% 50.00 Sichuan
212 0.038% 50.00 Jiangxi
213 0.036% 48.00 Henan
214 0.036% 48.00 Shanxi
215 0.035% 46.00 Hebei
216 0.035% 46.00 Jiangsu
217 0.034% 45.00 Jiangsu
218 0.033% 44.00 Hunan
219 0.033% 44.00 Anhui
220 0.033% 44.00 Hunan
221 0.033% 43.00 Liaoning
222 0.033% 43.00 Zhejiang
223 0.032% 43.00 Shandong
224 0.032% 43.00 Hubei
225 0.032% 43.00 Sichuan
226 0.032% 42.00 Zhejiang
227 0.032% 42.00 Hebei
228 0.032% 42.00 Jiangsu
229 0.032% 42.00 Henan
230 0.031% 41.00 Henan
231 0.031% 41.00 Yunnan
232 0.030% 40.00 Jiangsu
233 0.030% 40.00 Shandong
234 0.030% 40.00 Shandong
235 0.030% 39.00 Shandong
236 0.030% 39.00 Shandong
237 0.030% 39.00 Jiangsu
238 0.029% 38.00 Shandong
239 0.029% 38.00 Guangdong
240 0.029% 38.00 Henan
241 0.028% 37.00 Shandong
242 0.028% 37.00 Hebei
243 0.027% 36.00 Hebei
244 0.027% 36.00 Shandong
245 0.027% 35.00 Jiangsu
246 0.026% 35.00 Zhejiang
247 0.026% 35.00 Guizhou
248 0.026% 34.00 Shandong
249 0.026% 34.00 Hubei
250 0.025% 34.00 Hunan
251 0.025% 34.00 Fujian
252 0.025% 33.00 Anhui
253 0.025% 33.00 Zhejiang
254 0.025% 33.00 Hebei
255 0.024% 32.00 Shandong
256 0.024% 32.00 Guangdong
257 0.023% 31.00 Guangdong
258 0.023% 31.00 Jiangsu
259 0.023% 31.00 Jiangsu
260 0.023% 30.00 Hunan
261 0.230% 30.00 Shandong
262 0.022% 29.80 Shaanxi
263 0.022% 28.90 Shandong
264 0.022% 28.80 Jiangxi
265 0.021% 28.50 Hebei
266 0.021% 28.50 Jiangsu
267 0.021% 28.50 Sichuan
268 0.021% 27.70 Shaanxi
269 0.021% 27.30 Guangxi
270 0.021% 27.20 Anhui
271 0.020% 27.00 Shanxi
272 0.020% 26.60 Henan
273 0.020% 26.40 Shandong
274 0.020% 26.30 Henan
275 0.020% 26.30 Hubei
276 0.019% 25.90 Guangxi
277 0.019% 24.80 Hunan
278 0.017% 23.10 Jiangsu
279 0.017% 22.90 Hunan
280 0.017% 22.80 Hunan
281 0.017% 22.80 Guangdong
282 0.017% 22.80 Shandong
283 0.017% 22.80 Zhejiang
284 0.017% 22.50 Guangxi
285 0.016% 21.90 Shandong
286 0.016% 21.70 Anhui
287 0.016% 20.80 Henan
289 0.016% 20.60 Zhejiang
289 0.016% 20.60 Shandong
290 0.015% 20.00 Henan
291 0.015% 19.90 Guangdong
292 0.015% 19.80 Henan
293 0.015% 19.70 Ningxia
294 0.015% 19.60 Anhui
295 0.015% 19.50 Jiangsu
296 0.014% 19.10 Shaanxi
297 0.014% 19.00 Shaanxi
298 0.014% 19.00 Sichuan
299 0.014% 18.90 Zhejiang
300 0.014% 18.80 Henan
301 0.014% 18.70 Jilin
302 0.014% 18.60 Shandong
303 0.014% 18.50 Guangdong
304 0.014% 18.40 Henan
305 0.014% 18.20 Henan
306 0.013% 17.90 Shandong
307 0.013% 17.70 Hebei
308 0.013% 17.70 Sichuan
309 0.013% 17.70 Inner Mongolia
310 0.013% 17.60 Shandong
311 0.013% 17.30 Jiangsu
312 0.013% 17.20 Sichuan
313 0.013% 17.10 Shandong
314 0.013% 16.80 Jiangsu
315 0.013% 16.60 Henan
316 0.012% 16.50 Anhui
317 0.012% 16.50 Henan
318 0.012% 16.40 Zhejiang
319 0.012% 16.20 Henan
320 0.012% 16.20 Shandong
321 0.012% 15.90 Shandong
322 0.012% 15.90 Shandong
323 0.012% 15.60 Inner Mongolia
324 0.012% 15.40 Guangdong
325 0.011% 15.0 Sichuan
326 0.011% 14.80 Zhejiang
327 0.011% 14.70 Henan
328 0.011% 14.60 Henan
329 0.011% 14.60 Jiangsu
330 0.011% 14.60 Shandong
331 0.011% 14.50 Yunnan
332 0.011% 14.50 Fujian
333 0.011% 14.40 Jiangsu
334 0.011% 14.40 Jiangsu
335 0.011% 14.30 Sichuan
336 鹿 0.011% 14.00 Shandong
337 0.011% 14.00 Shandong
338 0.011% 13.90 Hebei
339 0.010% 13.90 Sichuan
340 0.010% 13.80 Sichuan
341 0.010% 13.60 Hainan
342 0.010% 13.60 Inner Mongolia
343 0.010% 13.50 Inner Mongolia
344 0.010% 13.50 Sichuan
345 0.010% 13.40 Zhejiang
346 0.010% 13.40 Shandong
347 0.010% 13.30 Shandong
348 0.010% 13.00 Guizhou
349 0.010% 12.80 Liaoning
350 0.010% 12.80 Jiangsu
351 0.0094% 12.40 Chongqing
352 0.0093% 12.40 Inner Mongolia
353 宿 0.0093% 12.30 Shandong
354 0.0092% 12.20 Sichuan
355 0.0091% 12.10 Jiangsu
356 0.0091% 12.10 Shandong
357 0.0090% 12.00 Hunan
358 0.0090% 11.90 Henan
359 0.0089% 11.80 Zhejiang
360 0.0088% 11.70 Shandong
361 0.0086% 11.50 Gansu
362 0.0084% 11.20 Jiangxi
363 0.0084% 11.20 Guangxi
364 0.0084% 11.10 Guangxi
365 0.0083% 11.00 Henan
366 0.0082% 10.90 Jiangsu
367 0.0082% 10.90 Shandong
368 0.0081% 10.70 Inner Mongolia
369 0.0079% 10.50 Hunan
370 0.0077% 10.20 Guangxi
371 0.0076% 10.10 Jiangsu
372 0.0076% 10.10 Sichuan
373 0.0076% 10.10 Jiangsu
374 0.0076% 10.00 Guangdong
375 0.0074% 9.90 Jiangsu
376 0.0074% 9.80 Inner Mongolia
377 0.0074% 9.80 Jiangsu
378 0.0073% 9.60 Jiangxi
379 0.0072% 9.60 Zhejiang
380 0.0072% 9.50 Sichuan
381 0.0071% 9.50 Shanxi
382 0.0071% 9.40 Qinghai
383 0.0070% 9.30 Inner Mongolia
384 0.0069% 9.20 Henan
385 0.0068% 9.10 Jiangsu
386 0.0068% 9.00 Anhui
387 0.0067% 9.00 Shandong
388 0.0067% 8.90 Shandong
389 0.0067% 8.90 Shandong
390 0.0067% 8.90 Shanxi
391 0.0066% 8.70 Sichuan
392 0.0065% 8.70 Henan
393 0.0065% 8.60 Chongqing
394 0.0064% 8.50 Hunan
395 0.0064% 8.50 Guangdong
396 0.0063% 8.40 Jiangsu
397 0.0063% 8.40 Liaoning
398 0.0060% 8.00 Jiangxi
399 0.0060% 8.00 Guangxi
400 0.0060% 8.00 Shandong

TaiwanEdit

According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior's Department of Population in 2016, Taiwan has only 1,503 surnames.[6] The top ten surnames in Taiwan accounted for 52.77% of the general population, and the top 100 accounted for 96.56%.

Rank Character Romanizations % of total pop.
Mandarin Min Nan Hakka Cantonese
2016 Trad. Simp. Wade Pinyin POJ Other PFS Other Jyutping HK Other
1 Ch'en2 Chén Tân Tan Chin Thin Can4 Chan Chin 11.14%
2 Lin2 Lín Lîm Lim
Liem
Lim Lim Lam4 Lam Lum 8.31%
3 Huang2 Huáng Ng Eng
Ung
Uy
Wee
Vòng Wong
Bong
Wong4 Wong Wang
Vang
6.05%
4 Chang1 Zhāng Tiuⁿ Teo
Teoh
Thio
Tiew
Chông Chong Zoeng1 Cheung Chong
Cheong
5.27%
5 Li3 Lee
Dee
Lee Lei5 Lee
Li
Lei
Ly
5.13%
6 Wang2 Wáng Ông Heng
Bong
Vòng Wong Wong4 Wong Vang 4.11%
7 Wu2
Ngô
Goh
Gouw
Ǹg Ng Ng4 Ng Ung
Eng
4.04%
8 Liu2 Liú Lâu Lao Liù Liew Lau4 Lau Lao 3.16%
9 Ts'ai4 Cài Chhoà Chua
Choa
Tjoa
Chhai Chai
Choi
Coi3 Choi Choy
Tsoi
Toy
2.91%
10 Yang2 Yáng Iûⁿ Eaw
Joe
Nyo
Yong
Yòng Yong
Yeong
Joeng4 Yeung Yeong
Ieong
2.66%
11 Hsü3 Khó͘ Ko
Koh
Hi Hee Heoi2 Hui Hoi
12 Cheng4 Zhèng Tīⁿ
Tēⁿ
Teh Chhang Chang Zeng6 Cheng Cheang
Chiang
13 Hsieh4 Xiè Siā Chiā
Seah
Tshia Cheah Ze6 Tse Che
14 Hung2 Hóng Hông Ang
Hong
Fùng Fung Hung4 Hung Huhng
15 Kuo1 Guō Koeh Kueh Kwok Kok Gwok3 Kwok Kuok
16 Ch’iu1 Qiū Khu Khoo Hiû
Khiû
Hew
Khew
Jau1 Yau Iao
Iau
17 Tseng1 Zēng Chan Tsên Chen Zang1 Tsang Chang
Dong
18 Liao4 Liào Liāu Leow
Liow
Liau Lieu Liu6 Liu Lew
Leow
Lio
19 Lai4 Lài Lōa Nai Lài Laai6 Lay Lai
20 Hsü Chhî Chee
Jee
Ji
Chhì Chi Ceoi4 Tsui Choi
Chui
Tsua
21 Chou1 Zhōu Chiu Chew Chiû Cher
Chiew
Zau1 Chow
Chau
Jao
Chao
22 Yeh4 Iap Yap Yap Jip6 Yip Ip
Yeap
23 Su1 So Soh Soo Sou1 So Sou
24 Chuang1 Zhuāng Chong Cheng Chông Zong Zong1 Tsong Chong
Jong
25 3
Lee
Leu
Loo
Lee Leoi5 Lui Loi
26 Chiang1 Jiāng Kang Kông Kong Gong1 Kong
27 2
Ho2
Ho
Hou
Ho Ho4 Ho Hoe
28 Hsiao1 Xiāo Siau
Sio
Seow
Siow
Siâu Siaw
Siew
Siu1 Siu
Shiu
Sio
29 Lo2 Luó Lo
Law
Law
Lo
Loh
Lo4 Lo Law
Loh
Lowe
Lor
30 Kao1 Gāo Ko Koh
Kau
Koo Gou1
Ko Kou
Go
Other surveys
  • 1994–2011: The American researcher Chih-Hao Tsai has compiled unauthoritative annual surveys of the most common surnames on Taiwan[22] based on published lists of all successful applicants taking Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Exam.[23] The test was mandatory for college entrance until 2002 and is still quite common, with more than a hundred thousand successful applicants a year and a pass rate for all test takers between 60 and 90%.[23]

PhilippinesEdit

Chinese Filipinos whose ancestors came to the Philippines from 1898 onward usually have single syllable Chinese surnames. On the other hand, most Chinese Filipinos whose ancestors came to the Philippines prior to 1898 usually have multiple syllable Chinese surnames such as Gokongwei, Ongpin, Pempengco, Yuchengco, Teehankee, and Yaptinchay among such others. These were originally full Chinese names which were transliterated in Spanish orthography and adopted as surnames.

There are also multiple syllable Chinese surnames that are Spanish transliterations of Hokkien words. Surnames like Tuazon (Eldest Grandson, 大孫), Dizon (Second Grandson, 二孫), Samson/Sanson (Third Grandson, 三孫), Sison (Fourth Grandson, 四孫), Gozon/Goson/Gozum (Fifth Grandson, 五孫), Lacson (Sixth Grandson, 六孫) are examples of transliterations of designations that use the Hokkien suffix -son (孫) used as surnames for some Chinese Filipinos who trace their ancestry from Chinese immigrants to the Philippines during the Spanish Colonial Period. The surname "Son/Sun" (孫) is listed in the classic Chinese text Hundred Family Surnames, perhaps shedding light on the Hokkien suffix -son used here as a surname alongside some sort of accompanying enumeration scheme.

Rank

(2020)[24][25]

Name Character(s) Total Number

(2020)[24]

1 Tan 123,290
2 Dizon 106,507
3 Lim 96,874
4 Samson 66,516
5 Sison 57,840
6 Chua 51,380
7 Uy 47,832
8 Ong 39,649
9 Yap 37,703
10 Go 37,354
11 Tuazon 36,543
12 Cinco 新哥 29,718
13 Sy , 28,038
14 Yu , 27,732
15 Sayson /西 26,833
16 Quiambao / 25,555
17 Chan , 24,837
18 Cuizon / 23,732
19 Ang 23,341
20 Tecson 22,679

CanadaEdit

Statistics Canada has not released a list of common surnames for any of its recent censuses, but much of the Canadian Chinese population is clustered in Metro Vancouver and Greater Victoria in British Columbia and the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Ottawa-Gatineau Area in Ontario, as well as in some emerging major clusters, such as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta, Montreal, and the Communauté métropolitaine de Québec (Quebec Community Metropolitan Area) in Quebec.

OntarioEdit

A 2010 study by Baiju Shah & al data-mined the Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients in the province of Ontario for a particularly Chinese-Canadian name list. Ignoring potentially non-Chinese spellings such as Lee (49,898 total),[26]:Table 1 they found that the most common Chinese names in Ontario were:[26]

Rank Name Total Number Character(s) Romanization
Trad. Simp.
1 Wong 34,567 Wáng, Wong
Huáng, Hwang, Wang, Whang, Wong
Wāng, Wong
2 Chan 32,692 Chan, Chén
3 Li 27,608 Ly, Lee, Lei, Lǐ
Lai, Ly, Lee, Lei, Lí
4 Chen 25,618 Chan, Chén
5 Wang 22,548 Wáng, Wong
Wāng, Wong
6 Liu 18,784 Lau, Liew, Liú, Low
Lau, Lew, Liào, Lieu, Liew, Liu
7 Zhang 18,003 Chang, Chong, Chung, Cheung, Teo, Zhāng, Zheung
8 Lam 15,910 Lam, Lín
Lán
9 Leung 13,696 Leung, Liáng
10 Ho 12,830 Hé, Ho
Hè, Ho

IndonesiaEdit

Nearly as large is the Chinese Indonesian community. The 2010 Indonesian census reported more than 2.8 million self-identified Chinese, or about 1% of the general population.[27] Just as in Thailand, though, previous legislation (in this case, 127/U/Kep/12/1966) had banned ethnic Chinese surnames throughout the country. This law was abolished after the removal of Suharto, but Chinese Indonesian names remain a mix of Indonesian, pinyin, peh-oe-ji, and Dutch-spelled Hokkien.

MalaysiaEdit

During the 2010 Malaysian Census, approximately 6,960,000 Malaysians of Chinese race.[28] Chinese is the second largest race in Malaysia, after the Malays.

SingaporeEdit

 
Chinese Singaporean surnames by frequency:

Ethnic Chinese make up almost three-fourths (2009) of Singapore's resident population of nearly four million (2011).

According to Statistics Singapore, as of the year 2000, the most common Chinese Singaporean names were:[29]

Rank Name Origin Total Number
(2000)
%
(Chinese population)
Character(s) Pinyin Other Forms Notes
Trad. Simp.
1 Tan Hokkien
Teochew
Hainanese
237,800 9.5 Chén Chan for Cantonese , Chin for Hakka
2 Lim Hokkien
Teochew
Hainanese
Hakka
166,000 6.6 Lín
3 Lee Hokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
Hainanese
Hakka
112,600 4.5
4 Ng Hokkien
Teochew
106,200 4.2 Huáng
Hakka
Cantonese
5 Ong Hokkien 66,700 2.7 Wáng
Wāng
6 Wong Cantonese
Hainanese
Hakka
65,000 2.6 Wáng
Wāng
Huáng
7 Goh Hokkien
Teochew
56,200 2.2
8 Chua Hokkien
Teochew
54,600 2.2 Cài
9 Chan Cantonese
Hokkien
Teochew
48,400 1.9 Chén
Zēng
10 Koh Hokkien
Teochew
48,100 1.9
11 Teo Hokkien
Teochew
46,800 1.9 Zhāng
12 Ang Hokkien
Teochew
43,600 1.7 Hóng
13 Yeo Hokkien
Teochew
36,600 1.5 Yáng
14 Tay Hokkien
Teochew
35,800 1.4 Zhèng
15 Ho Hokkien
Teochew
Cantonese
Hakka
Hainanese
35,000 1.4
16 Low Teochew
Hokkien
31,600 1.3 Liú
17 Toh Teochew
Hokkien
25,300 1.0
Zhuó
18 Sim Teochew
Hokkien
23,800 0.9 Shěn
19 Chong Hakka 23,100 0.9 Zhuāng
Zhāng
20 Chia
Hakka
Teochew
22,600 0.9 Xiè
  • Do take note that the 7th most common surname in China, 趙/赵, is extremely rare in Singapore.
  • The surname list is not accurate, as the English surnames may actually have many variants not listed above. E.g. The 16th surname 'Low' can be 劉/刘, 廖,卢 or 羅/罗 in Chinese. The 1st surname Tan (陳/陈) is also a pinyin romanisation for the locally rare surname (谈/談) or (譚/谭).

ThailandEdit

The largest Chinese diaspora community in the world are the Chinese Thais (or Sino-Thais), who make up 12–14%[30][31] of the total Thai population. However, very few of the Chinese Thais have Chinese surnames, after the 1913 Surname Act that required the adoption of Thai surnames in order to enjoy Thai citizenship. Moreover, the same law requires that those possessing the same surname be related, meaning that immigrant Chinese may not adopt the surname of their clansmen unless they can show actual kinship.

United StatesEdit

The 2010 US Census found 3,794,673 self-identified Chinese Americans and 230,382 self-identified Taiwanese Americans,[32] up from 2,734,841 Chinese Americans and 144,795 Taiwanese Americans in 2000.[33]

Although the Chinese make up the largest segment of the U.S. Asian and Pacific Islander population,[34] the most common Chinese-derived surname during the 2000 census was not itself Chinese but the Vietnamese Nguyễn (Chinese: , Ruǎn).[2]

During the 2000 census, the 10 most common Chinese American names were:[35]

Rank Name Ethnicity
[36]
Total Number
(2000 census; API only)
Character(s) Pinyin
Among
API
Across
All Names
Trad. Simp.
2 24 Lee Chinese 229,200
Korean
6 262 Chen Chinese 100,700 Chén
7 279 Wong Chinese
(Cantonese)
88,000 Wáng
Huáng
Wāng
9 399 Yang Chinese
(Mandarin)
69,000 Yáng
10 440 Wang Chinese 63,800 Wáng
Wāng
11 426 Chang Chinese 62,900 Zhāng
Cháng
12 461 Chan Chinese
(Cantonese)
59,800 Chén
14 521 Li Chinese 55,700
17 626 Lin Chinese 47,000 Lín
18 652 Liu Chinese 45,500 Liú
Liào
Other surveys
  • 2002: study by Matthew Falkenstein, data-mining the 2000 US Census for a particularly Asian & Pacific Islander name list,[37] omitting those like Lee that are common among other ethnicities
  • 2000: study by Diane Lauderdale, et al., data-mining Social Security card applications by persons born abroad before 1941 for a particularly Chinese-American name list[36]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "我国汉族公民最长姓名达15字 公安部:起名不规范会有不便" [My Country's Han Citizens' Longest Name Reaches 15 Characters.]. Xinhua Net (in Chinese). 12 December 2007. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  2. ^ a b c United States Census Bureau. "Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000" Archived 2009-12-21 at the Wayback Machine. 27 September 2011. Accessed 29 March 2012.
  3. ^ a b Word, David L. & al. "Demographic Aspects of Surnames from Census 2000" Archived 2010-10-13 at the Wayback Machine. 26 June 2001. Accessed 3 February 2012.
  4. ^ Prest, Kevin. "X三Y四: Similar Chinese Idioms (Chengyu)" Archived 2014-07-20 at Wikiwix. 4 March 2011. Accessed 5 April 2012.
  5. ^ a b c "公安部统计:'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]. 24 April 2007. Accessed 27 March 2012.(in Chinese)
  6. ^ a b 全國姓名統計分析. Ministry of the Interior, R.O.C. (Taiwan). 2016. ISBN 9789860503043. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017.
  7. ^ McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records. Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 189205101X.
  8. ^ Beijing News. "一个“张伟”找到29万人" Archived 2007-09-14 at the Wayback Machine [One Name 'Zhang Wei' Covers 290,000 People]. 26 July 2007. Accessed 16 March 2012. (in Chinese)
  9. ^ "公安部发布去年全国姓名报告,"王、李、张"姓排前三". 30 January 2019.
  10. ^ People's Daily Online. "China issues first set of stamps of Chinese family names" Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine. 19 November 2004. Accessed 28 March 2012.
  11. ^ 挑灯看剑 踏雪寻梅. "新'百家姓'图腾,快来看看您的尊姓啥模样" Archived 2012-04-01 at Wikiwix [The New Hundred Family Surnames's Totems: Quick, Come Look at Your Honorable Surname's Picture]. 12 December 2011. Accessed 28 March 2012. (in Chinese)
  12. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik. "Population of Indonesia by Province 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2010" Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. 2009. Accessed 29 March 2012.
  13. ^ Lafraniere, Sharon (21 April 2009). "Name Not on Our List? Change It, China Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017.
  14. ^ Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. (1.93 MB). 2011. Accessed 17 March 2013.
  15. ^ 周长楫; 王建设; 陈荣翰; 林美治; 郭锦标, eds. (2006). Minnan Fangyan Da Cidian (in Chinese) (1st ed.). Fuzhou City: Fujian People's Publishing House. ISBN 7-211-03896-9.
  16. ^ Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan (in traditional Chinese). Ministry of Education, R.O.C. "臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典". Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  17. ^ Links to same page as 许
  18. ^ historian, Al Raposas is a Filipino Christian; world, writer In his eagerness to write history for all the people around the; appearances, he began the Filipino Historian in 2012 Due to his; Philippines, invitations to various media stations in the; Facebook, he is becoming known as the nation's "youngest historian " Follow him on; Twitter; Copyright © 2012-2019, Instagram. "Catalogo alfabetico de apellidos: List of Chinese surnames". Filipino Historian. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  19. ^ Links to same page as 徐
  20. ^ "人口数据统计". Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  21. ^ Yuan Yida (袁义达), Qiu Jiaru, 邱家儒. 中国四百大姓. Beijing Book Co. Inc., 1 January 2013
  22. ^ Tsai, Chih-Hao. "Common Chinese Names" Archived 2014-10-18 at the Wayback Machine. 8 August 2011. Accessed 30 March 2012.
  23. ^ a b Tsai, Chih-Hao. "A List of Chinese Names" Archived 2012-04-15 at the Wayback Machine. 8 August 2011. Accessed 30 March 2012.
  24. ^ a b "Philippines Genealogical Resources". Forebears.
  25. ^ "Philippines Genealogical Resources". Forebears. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016.
  26. ^ a b Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology. 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC 2877682. PMID 20470433.
  27. ^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 9789790644175. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Population and Housing Census, Malaysia 2010 (2010 Census)". Malaysia: Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  29. ^ Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
  30. ^ US State Department. "Background Note: Thailand". 3 January 2012. Accessed 4 April 2012.
  31. ^ US Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. "Thailand" Archived 2015-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. 20 March 2012. Accessed 4 April 2012.
  32. ^ United States Census Bureau. "QT-P8" . Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010 2010. Census Summary File 1. 2010. Accessed 3 April 2012.
  33. ^ United States Census Bureau. "The Asian Population: 2000" Archived 2010-06-01 at the Wayback Machine. February 2002. Accessed 3 April 2012.
  34. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census 2000: Chinese Largest Asian Group in the United States" Archived 2017-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. 4 March 2002. Accessed 29 March 2012.
  35. ^ Other popular Asian & Pacific Islander names are the Vietnamese names Nguyen (#1), Tran (#5), Le (#8), and Pham (#13); the Korean names Kim (#3) and Park (#15); and the Indian names Patel (#4) and Singh (#16).
  36. ^ a b Lauderdale, Diane S.; et al. (2000). "Asian American ethnic identification by surname" (PDF). Population Research and Policy Review. 19 (3): 283–300. doi:10.1023/A:1026582308352. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2013..
  37. ^ Falkenstein, Matthew R. "The Asian & Pacific Islander surname list: as developed from Census 2000" Archived 2013-03-07 at the Wayback Machine. Joint Statistical Meetings 2002. (New York), 2002.

External linksEdit

Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, hosted at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. (~700 surnames)