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List of colonial buildings in Medan

Dutch colonial buildings around the vicinity of the Esplanade (now Lapangan Merdeka) in the 1920s.

Colonial buildings in Medan include those that were constructed in Medan during the colonial period of Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. Following the establishment of the Deli Company in 1869, Medan was transformed rapidly from a small kampong of few hundred people in 1869 into the largest city in Sumatra. When the Sultan of Deli moved their residence there in 1891, Medan became the capital of North Sumatra.[1] Rapid development ushered a western-centric development in Medan, and hence a number of colonial buildings appear in Medan.[2][3] Despite its relatively late modernization compared to older established cities like Jakarta and Makassar, Medan contains abundant colonial architecture heritages. 42 buildings has been declared of significant historical value.[4]

Urban planningEdit

Kesawan is one area of Medan which showed heavy influence of tropical British architecture found in the Straits Settlements, especially Penang.

Morphologically, the urban center of Medan is divided into three area: the colonial district, the Chinese district, and the sprawling native settlements. The colonial district is the core of the city and contains the most important government buildings and infrastructures. The shopping street in Kesawan, the military area between Deli River and Babura River, the affluent "tropical garden city" of Polonia, the central market, churches, hospitals, schools, factories, train station, and airport are all located in the colonial district. The Chinese district is a dense area located on the eastern side of Deli River, intersected with the Colonial area in Kesawan. The sprawling Muslim native settlement is located around the Istana Maimun (1888), Istana Lama (late 19th-century, now demolished) and the Great Mosque (1907) at the southern end of the city next to Kesawan business district and the Chinese area. The main buildings in this largely Muslim area were redesigned by the Dutch in Orientalistic-Imperialist architectural style, an expression of the dominance of the colony's cultural and political control.[5]

The development of Medan was closely linked with city development of Penang Island, not just in trading activities but also in urban design and architecture. British planners and architects from the Straits Settlements (as well as Dutch architects) were hired by wealthy residents of Medan or by the colonial government to be involved in the city planning and construction. The open plaza at the middle of colonial Medan was referred as "Esplanade", similar with the one in George Town. Shophouse's facade and building typology mimic those found in the Straits Settlements. In Kesawan, the architectural style was a fusion of Dutch-British Tropical style. Unfortunately, many of these shophouses have been demolished.[5]

In colonial Medan, junctions were designed as nodes, where the corner buildings were planned to have a unique facade or architectural elements facing the junction, e.g. towered, rounded, obliqued, or set-back, giving a unique identity to different urban nodes. One of the example of the surviving corner buildings were AVROS building (now BKS-PPS building) and Medan warenhuis (now the largely abandoned Angkatan Muda Pembaharuan Indonesia building). This urban design rule is similar to other Dutch colonial modern cities in the Indies e.g. Bandung, Semarang, and Malang.[5]

List of buildingsEdit

Below is a list of colonial buildings found in Medan. The list is divided into the colonial architectural styles: Eclecticism (before 20th century), Dutch Rationalism and Traditionalism (1900s-1920s), and Modernism (1920s-1930s). The list is sorted alphabetically according to its official (local) name. The list can also be sorted to each category.

Eclecticism (before 20th century)Edit

Some of the first colonial buildings of Medan were concentrated around the Esplanade (now Lapangan Merdeka) and the station area; and around the Sultan's palace. Many of the first buildings were of simple wooden structure, such as the hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij te Medan which during the time of its opening in 1870 was also used for church, administration building, hospital and a feast hall;[6] and the large wooden Old Sultan's Palace.

Last official name Former names Year Architect Location Latest image Oldest image
Agentschap van de NHM (demolished in 1930, on its site the Nederlands-Indische Handelsbank (now Bank Mandiri) was constructed) Agentschap van de NHM 1888[7] anonymous 3°35′20″N 98°40′41″E / 3.588925°N 98.677956°E / 3.588925; 98.677956
Dharma Deli Hotel Hotel De Boer[8] 1896[9]-1898[8][10] 3°35′30″N 98°40′37″E / 3.591598°N 98.676851°E / 3.591598; 98.676851
Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, "Department of Culture and Tourism" Deli vrijmetselaarsloge 1892[11] anonymous 3°35′39″N 98°40′50″E / 3.594070°N 98.680533°E / 3.594070; 98.680533
Grand Hotel Medan (demolished, now Bank Negara Indonesia - KCP Medan Pulau Pinang)[12] Hotel de Vink[12] 1884[12] 3°35′22″N 98°40′47″E / 3.589329°N 98.679815°E / 3.589329; 98.679815
Hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij (demolished, and replaced with larger office in 1910)[10] Hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij 1869-1870[10] anonymous 3°35′35″N 98°40′31″E / 3.592962°N 98.675214°E / 3.592962; 98.675214
Istana Maimun Istana Maimun 26 August 1888 - 18 May 1891[13] Theo van Erp,[13] Ferrari[13] 3°34′31″N 98°41′02″E / 3.575234°N 98.683829°E / 3.575234; 98.683829
Kerapatan Deli, first building (demolished)[14] Delische Rijksraadgebouw[14] anonymous 3°34′47″N 98°41′04″E / 3.579600°N 98.684417°E / 3.579600; 98.684417
Lapangan Merdeka de Esplanade 1880 anonymous
Masjid Raya Al-Osmani 1872 3°43′56″N 98°40′34″E / 3.732337°N 98.676074°E / 3.732337; 98.676074
Old Sultan's Palace (razed to ground in 1946) Istana Lama late 19th-century 3°34′37″N 98°41′20″E / 3.577059°N 98.688879°E / 3.577059; 98.688879
Paleis van de Tengku Besar van Deli (destroyed by fire in 1921)[14] Istana Tengku Besar Deli late 19th-century
Piaggio/Vespa (revamped, only the facade persisted) 1900s[15] 3°35′11″N 98°40′46″E / 3.586291°N 98.679437°E / 3.586291; 98.679437
Seng Hap (abandoned, deteriorates) 生合[16] 1900[16] anonymous 3°35′19″N 98°40′43″E / 3.588479°N 98.678514°E / 3.588479; 98.678514
Rumah Sakit PT Perkebunan Nusantara II Tembakau Deli, "PT Perkebunan Nusantara II Deli Tobacco Hospital" Hospitaal Deli Maatschappij[17] 1885
Rumah Tjong A Fie 張阿輝 故居 1900s[18] 3°35′08″N 98°40′50″E / 3.585519°N 98.680507°E / 3.585519; 98.680507
Sociëteit De Witte (first form, demolished)[12] Sociëteit De Witte (first form) 1882[12]
Standard Chartered Bank Ambtswoning van de resident van het Oostkust van Sumatra (1898),[19] Gouverneurshuis te Medan 1898[19] anonymous 3°35′00″N 98°40′33″E / 3.583471°N 98.675941°E / 3.583471; 98.675941

Rationalism and Traditionalism (1900s – 1920s)Edit

New technological possibilities gradually transformed the architectural style into a modern form. Two architectural movements appeared in the Netherlands and the Netherlands East Indies: the Dutch Rationalism and Traditionalism.[20]

Dutch Rationalism was mainly inspired by the works of Berlage; the subsequent style in the tropical climate of Indonesia is known as New Indies Style.[21] The style is the result of the attempt to develop new solutions to integrate traditional precedents with new technological possibilities. The best example in Medan is the Medan Post Office, a fusion of Romanesque arch, Traditional Dutch-styled gables, and new technology.

The Traditionalist movement appeared in the 1910s. It is basically the revival of the late 19th-century eclecticism, but was mainly inspired by classicism. The best examples in Medan are Bank Indonesia (the former Javasche Bank, 1909) and the old Medan City Hall (1909). Unlike the earlier low-quality architecture, the new traditionalist movement make use of modern materials e.g. reinforced concrete and steel frames behind its classical facade. The classical facades are mostly of natural stone. The monumental character of this style is popular for offices, warehouses and garages.[20]

Last official name Former names Year Architect Location Latest image Oldest image
Chung Chow School 祌州学校
Abandoned building (2004-now)[10] Hoofdkantoor van Deli Maatschappij, head office of the Deli Company,[6] Director's Office of PT Perkebunan IX (1959) 1910[6] D. Berendse[6] 3°35′35″N 98°40′31″E / 3.592962°N 98.675214°E / 3.592962; 98.675214
Angkatan Muda Pembaharuan Indonesia (neglected, heavily deteriorates) Medan's Warenhuis (1919), Kantor Departemen Tenaga Kerja Tk. I Sumut 1919[22] G. Bos[22] 3°35′18″N 98°40′37″E / 3.588343°N 98.676836°E / 3.588343; 98.676836
Asuransi Jasindo Stoormvaartmaatschappij Nederland en Rotterdamse Lloyd; Nederlands-Indische Handelsbank, NIH (until 1940) early 20th-century 3°35′19″N 98°40′42″E / 3.588661°N 98.678436°E / 3.588661; 98.678436
Asuransi Jiwasraya NILLMIJ 1919[22] Thomas Karsten[22] 3°35′03″N 98°40′48″E / 3.584277°N 98.680138°E / 3.584277; 98.680138
Bank Indonesia De Javasche Bank[6] 1909[6] Cuypers[23] 3°35′27″N 98°40′37″E / 3.590752°N 98.676977°E / 3.590752; 98.676977
Bioskop Bali (demolished, now Vihara Medan) Oranje Bioscoop; Gedung Kesenian;[24] Restoran April Mop;[24] Bioskop Bali (post-independence)[24] 1908[24] possibly BOW 3°35′24″N 98°40′52″E / 3.589886°N 98.681097°E / 3.589886; 98.681097
BKS PPS (Badan Kerja-sama Perusahaan Perkebunan Sumatera), "Sumatra Planters Association" (1967) AVROS (Algemeene Vereeniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatera)[25] 1918[22] G.H. Mulder[22] 3°35′04″N 98°40′50″E / 3.584420°N 98.680551°E / 3.584420; 98.680551
Dharma Niaga Carl Schlieper 1919[26] 3°35′06″N 98°40′49″E / 3.585066°N 98.680220°E / 3.585066; 98.680220
Ford Motors Reparatie Werkplaats (abandoned, dilapidated) Ford Motors Reparatie Werkplaats 3°35′14″N 98°40′33″E / 3.587162°N 98.675871°E / 3.587162; 98.675871
Gedung Balai Kota Lama Raadhuis, Gemeentehuis Medan[6] 1908-1909[6] Ch. M. Boon[6][27] 3°35′25″N 98°40′38″E / 3.590380°N 98.677188°E / 3.590380; 98.677188
Gereja Kristen Indonesia Sumatera Utara Gereformeerde Kerk 1918 Tj. Kuipers 3°35′02″N 98°40′18″E / 3.583877°N 98.671651°E / 3.583877; 98.671651
HKBP Sudirman Medan Elisabethkerk[28] August 1, 1912[29] 3°34′39″N 98°40′39″E / 3.577416°N 98.677558°E / 3.577416; 98.677558
Kantor Gubernur Sumatera Utara Proefstation Deli Tabak[30] 1913[30] 3°34′50″N 98°40′20″E / 3.580418°N 98.672145°E / 3.580418; 98.672145
Kantor Pos Medan, "Medan Post Office" Medan Post- en telegraafkantoor 1909[10]-1911 S. Snuyf (from BOW)[10] 3°35′31″N 98°40′39″E / 3.591851°N 98.677404°E / 3.591851; 98.677404
Katholiek schoolinternaat, "Roman Catholic boarding school" 1920[31] anonymous 3°35′20″N 98°40′07″E / 3.589017°N 98.668682°E / 3.589017; 98.668682
Kerapatan Deli, second building (demolished in 1946's social revolution)[14] Delische Rijksraadgebouw[14] 1912[32] 3°34′36″N 98°41′06″E / 3.576757°N 98.684962°E / 3.576757; 98.684962
Kereta Api (Persero) Divisi Regional I Sumatera Utara Hoofdkantoor van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij[11] 1918[11] Th. Karsten[11] 3°35′38″N 98°40′47″E / 3.593770°N 98.679736°E / 3.593770; 98.679736
London Sumatera Harrisons & Crossfield[16] 1909 3°35′19″N 98°40′41″E / 3.588613°N 98.678080°E / 3.588613; 98.678080
Masjid Raya Medan Grote Moskee
Masjid Raya
1909 Van Erp, JA Tingdeman 3°34′30″N 98°41′14″E / 3.575111°N 98.687321°E / 3.575111; 98.687321
Mega Eltra Lindeteves-Stokvis (1912); BPM (1952) 1912
Tirtanadi Water Tower Watertoren van Ajer Beresih Waterleiding Maatschappij en omgeving[33] 1908[33] 3°34′56″N 98°41′06″E / 3.582158°N 98.685049°E / 3.582158; 98.685049
Pasar Boender, "Round Market" (demolished, on its site stands the monument of Guru Patimpus) Pasar Petissah, Pasar Petisah 1915[31] anonymous 3°35′29″N 98°40′16″E / 3.591469°N 98.671103°E / 3.591469; 98.671103
Pengadilan Negeri Medan dan Pengadilan Tinggi Sumatera Utara, "Medan State Court and North Sumatra High Court" Raad van Justitie 1911[34] 3°35′16″N 98°40′21″E / 3.587658°N 98.672572°E / 3.587658; 98.672572
Petodjo Ice Factory (demolished, on its site stands commercial complex Medan Bisnis Center) N.V. IJsmaatschappij 'Petodjo' 1920[31] anonymous 3°35′16″N 98°40′04″E / 3.587797°N 98.667875°E / 3.587797; 98.667875
Pusat Penelitian Kelapa Sawit Medan, "Medan Oil Palm Research Center" AVROS-proetstation voor de rubbercultuur te Kampong Baroe[22] 1918[22] 3°33′24″N 98°41′17″E / 3.556535°N 98.687995°E / 3.556535; 98.687995
Telkom Telefoondienst van de DSM[35][11] 3°35′39″N 98°40′46″E / 3.594281°N 98.679577°E / 3.594281; 98.679577

Modernism (1920s-1940s)Edit

The period saw the emergence of Modernism and its varieties, namely Art Deco, Nieuwe Bouwen, Amsterdam School and other variations. Art Deco evolved from earlier Dutch Rationalism. The form is symmetrical and exudes technological progress and glamour, with rich color and bold geometric shapes.

In the following period between the late 1930s and 1940s, Art Deco evolved into a new style known as Nieuwe Bouwen (Dutch term for Modernism) or Functionalism. Instead of creating decorative style on the facade, the architect creates style in the clear arrangement of space. These Nieuwe Bouwen buildings were less symmetrical and more expressive in form, using simple universal form such as cylinder or tube, apparent in buildings such as the de Rex cinema building, now the Ria Restaurant (which was clumsily restored as Art Deco style buildings) and the new building of the Medan railway station. Architect J.M. Groenewegen has made his mark in many of Medan's Nieuwe Bouwen buildings.[36]

Medan also became the ground for implementation of Amsterdam School-styled buildings not found in many parts of Indonesia. The St. Elizabeth's hospital (1929) by J.M. Groenewegen and the original plan of Centrale Pasar (destroyed in fire) shows influence of Amsterdam School.

Last official name Former names Year Architect Location Latest image Oldest image
Gemeentelijke Vismarkt
Stork[15] 1920s[15] 3°35′16″N 98°40′43″E / 3.587723°N 98.678539°E / 3.587723; 98.678539
Bank BNI Kesawan Chartered Bank of India, China and Australia[15] 3°35′12″N 98°40′45″E / 3.586742°N 98.679050°E / 3.586742; 98.679050
Bank Danamon Kesawan Bank of China
1930[15] 3°35′12″N 98°40′45″E / 3.586637°N 98.679211°E / 3.586637; 98.679211
Bank Mandiri Nederlandsch-Indische Escompto Maatschappij[26] 1927 Fermont-Cuypers 3°35′06″N 98°40′50″E / 3.584934°N 98.680689°E / 3.584934; 98.680689
Bank Mandiri Nederlands-Indische Handelsbank (NIH)[23] 1940[23] C.P. Wolff Schoemaker[23] 3°35′20″N 98°40′41″E / 3.588925°N 98.677956°E / 3.588925; 98.677956
Bank Mandiri Medan Lapangan Merdeka (1998) de Factorij, Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij (1929);[37] Gunseikanbu (Japanese occupation);[9] Bank Exim[9] 1929[22] J. de Bruijn [22][23] 3°35′22″N 98°40′40″E / 3.589581°N 98.677737°E / 3.589581; 98.677737
Bata Warenhuis Cornfield[15] 1951[15] H. van den Heuvel[15] 3°35′11″N 98°40′45″E / 3.586502°N 98.679300°E / 3.586502; 98.679300
Pusat Pasar Centrale Pasar
大巴刹 Toa Pa Sat
J.H. Valk[38] 3°35′25″N 98°41′09″E / 3.590330°N 98.685849°E / 3.590330; 98.685849
Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, "Department of Culture and Tourism" (deteriorating as of 2016) Boekhandel en Drukkerij Varekamp & Co. (Bookstore and Printing Varekamp & Co.),[22] Drukkerij J. Hallermann[39] 1926[22] 3°35′06″N 98°40′50″E / 3.585084°N 98.680455°E / 3.585084; 98.680455
Gereja Bala Keselamatan, "The Salvation Army" Weeshuis Leger des Heils;[36] internment camp[40] Jan 18, 1937[41][36] 3°34′26″N 98°40′50″E / 3.573849°N 98.680566°E / 3.573849; 98.680566
GPIB Immanuel, "Immanuel's Protestant Church" Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk 1921 3°34′51″N 98°40′23″E / 3.580823°N 98.672941°E / 3.580823; 98.672941
HKBP Uskup Agung Batak Protestantschekerk 25 September 1927 (first stone)[42] 3°34′37″N 98°40′16″E / 3.577081°N 98.671204°E / 3.577081; 98.671204
Katedral Medan, "Medan Cathedral" Rooms-Katholieke Kerk, "Roman Catholic Church" January 30, 1928[43] J.M. Groenewegen (expansion in 1928)[43] 3°35′03″N 98°40′53″E / 3.584224°N 98.681374°E / 3.584224; 98.681374
Kesawan 34 (facade modified with pseudo-classical ornament)[15] First half of 20th-century[15] 3°35′17″N 98°40′42″E / 3.587979°N 98.678450°E / 3.587979; 98.678450
Museum Perjuangan TNI Arnhemse Levensverzekeringsmaatschappij, "Arnhem Insurance" 1930 J.M. Groenewegen 3°35′02″N 98°40′27″E / 3.583795°N 98.674080°E / 3.583795; 98.674080
Oranjeschool (demolished, now Kampus I STTH) Oranjeschool[44] 1941[36] J.M. Groenewegen[36] 3°34′36″N 98°40′40″E / 3.576591°N 98.677813°E / 3.576591; 98.677813
Paradiso Swimming Pool Zwembad Medan, Zwembad Djalan Radja, Zwembad van de Medansche Zwemvereeniging[33] 1939[33][45] J.M. Groenewegen[45] 3°34′48″N 98°41′06″E / 3.579899°N 98.685081°E / 3.579899; 98.685081
PD Pasar de Rotonde; Djawatan Penerangan Propinsi Sumatera Utara (1950s) 3°35′27″N 98°41′05″E / 3.590754°N 98.684600°E / 3.590754; 98.684600
Perguruan Kristen Immanuel, "Immanuel Christian School" Prinses Beatrix school[36][46] 1938[36] J.M. Groenewegen[36] 3°34′41″N 98°40′34″E / 3.577938°N 98.676022°E / 3.577938; 98.676022
Perusahaan Listrik Negara, Medan Nederlandsch Indische Gasmaatschappij (NIGM) 3°35′09″N 98°40′34″E / 3.585871°N 98.676060°E / 3.585871; 98.676060
PT Perkebunan Nusantara IV Handelsvereniging 'Amsterdam' (HVA)[47] 1924[47] Hulswit-Fermont-Cuypers [47] 3°34′49″N 98°40′47″E / 3.580365°N 98.679618°E / 3.580365; 98.679618
Restoran Ria (clumsily restored) de Rex 1930s 3°35′08″N 98°40′58″E / 3.585575°N 98.682685°E / 3.585575; 98.682685
Restoran Tiptop 1934[48] 3°35′09″N 98°40′47″E / 3.585942°N 98.679679°E / 3.585942; 98.679679
Rumah Dinas Gubernur Sumatera Utara, "North Sumatra Governor's Residence" Woning van 'eilandgewest' Sumatra (1939);[49] Ambtswoning van de gouverneur van de Oostkust van Sumatra (1948)[49] 1939[49] 3°34′28″N 98°40′10″E / 3.574505°N 98.669544°E / 3.574505; 98.669544
Rumah Sakit Militer Putri Hijau, "Putri Hijau Military Hospital" Kantoor van Deli Planters Vereeniging en Immigranten Bureau 1920s? 3°35′59″N 98°40′22″E / 3.599729°N 98.672663°E / 3.599729; 98.672663
Rumah Sakit Santa Elisabeth, "St. Elisabeth's Hospital" Sint-Elisabeth Ziekenhuis 1929[47]-1930 J.M. Groenewegen[47] 3°34′31″N 98°40′36″E / 3.575231°N 98.676731°E / 3.575231; 98.676731
Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Dr. Pirngadi (Dr. Pirngadi Regional General Hospital) Gemeente Ziekenhuis, "Municipal Hospital"; Syuritsu Byusono Ince[50] August 11, 1928[50] 3°35′51″N 98°41′17″E / 3.597448°N 98.688127°E / 3.597448; 98.688127
Sutomo School Su Tung School 蘇東中學 1926[36] anonymous 3°35′30″N 98°41′13″E / 3.591731°N 98.687068°E / 3.591731; 98.687068
SMPN 1 Medan, "Medan junior high school 1" (demolished) Gouvernements Muloschool Medan Early 1920s[36] anonymous 3°34′53″N 98°40′28″E / 3.581334°N 98.674462°E / 3.581334; 98.674462
Stasiun Kereta Api Medan, "Medan Railway Station" Station, Medan Station 1937[51] 3°35′27″N 98°40′47″E / 3.590879°N 98.679741°E / 3.590879; 98.679741
Taman Sri Deli Derikanpark 1931-1932[14] 3°34′35″N 98°41′12″E / 3.576293°N 98.686667°E / 3.576293; 98.686667


Despite the abundance of Dutch colonial architecture heritage in Medan, colonial buildings are being demolished at an alarming speed. Non-governmental organizations claimed that almost 90 percent of the 42 protected buildings had either been demolished or modified, despite the provincial ruling No. 6/1988 which bans the modification of these buildings. 73 buildings had not yet been protected, one example is the Mega Eltra buildings, constructed in 1912 but has since been demolished.[4] Other heritage buildings that have been demolished are the Kerapatan building on Jl. Brig. Jen. Katamso, a bank building on Jl. Pemuda and the Public Works office on Jl. Listrik.[4] The lack of city planning by the city's officials and the minimal awareness of history in Medan has caused many Medan colonial buildings to be demolished.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Janssen 2015.
  2. ^ Dick 2002, pp. 95,103.
  3. ^ "History". N.V. Deli Maatschappij. Archived from the original on 13 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c The Jakarta Post, 2002.
  5. ^ a b c Widodo, p. 2.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Loderichs 1997, p. 16.
  7. ^ Loderichs 1997, p. 109.
  8. ^ a b Loderichs 1997, pp. 16, 105.
  9. ^ a b c Widodo, p. 1.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Leushuis 2011, p. 55.
  11. ^ a b c d e Leushuis 2011, p. 56.
  12. ^ a b c d e Loderichs 1997, p. 17.
  13. ^ a b c Leushuis 2011, p. 70.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Loderichs 1997, p. 123.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Leushuis 2011, p. 59.
  16. ^ a b c Leushuis 2011, p. 58.
  17. ^ "Rumah Sakit Deli Maatschappaij; Ikon Sejarah Kesehatan dan Aspek Legalitas". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  18. ^ Leushuis 2011, p. 61.
  19. ^ a b Leushuis 2011, p. 64.
  20. ^ a b Gemeentemuseum Helmond, 1990, pp. 20-1.
  21. ^ Gunawan Tjahjono 1998, p. 120.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Loderichs 1997, p. 32.
  23. ^ a b c d e Leushuis 2011, p. 57.
  24. ^ a b c d AT, M & MR 2012.
  25. ^ Thamrin 2013.
  26. ^ a b Leushuis 2011, p. 62.
  27. ^ Boon, Ch. M.
  28. ^ inetid. ": - de Oranje School in Medan - :". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  29. ^
  30. ^ a b Leushuis 2011, p. 65.
  31. ^ a b c Loderichs 1997, p. 28.
  32. ^ Loderichs 1997, p. 126.
  33. ^ a b c d Loderichs 1997, p. 122.
  34. ^
  35. ^ Loderichs 1997, p. 117.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Loderichs 1997, p. 25.
  37. ^ Loderichs 1997, p. 89.
  38. ^ Loderichs 1997, p. 119.
  39. ^ "Gedung Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Provinsi Sumatera Utara". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  40. ^ Loderichs 1997, p. 58.
  41. ^ "MEDAN Understanding Heritage". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  42. ^ "MEDAN Understanding Heritage". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  43. ^ a b "Gereja Katedral Santa Maria Tak Bernoda Asal". Retrieved 18 April 2017.
  44. ^ Oranjeschool
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Cited worksEdit

External linksEdit