List of cloned animals in the Jurassic Park series(Redirected from List of cloned animals in Jurassic Park)
This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Jurassic Park is an American science fiction adventure media franchise based on the 1990 best-selling novel of the same name by Michael Crichton, and its sequel, The Lost World (1995). Focused on the catastrophic events following the cloning of dinosaurs through the extraction of DNA from mosquitoes fossilized in amber, the film series also explores the ethics of cloning and genetic engineering, and the morals behind bringing back extinct animals. The first Jurassic Park film was directed by Steven Spielberg and released in 1993. It was followed by two films, The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) and Jurassic Park III (2001), completing the first trilogy. A fourth installment, Jurassic World, was released in 2015, marking the beginning of a new trilogy. The new trilogy starts 22 years after the events of the first, but still relies on the narrative of the original films and novels. Its sequel, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, was released in 2018, and a sixth and final film of the second trilogy is scheduled for release in 2021. The film series has garnered critical acclaim for its innovations in CGI technology and animatronics.
47 species of cloned animals have been portrayed in the novels and films: 39 species of dinosaurs, three species of pterosaurs, three genetically-engineered animals, one species of prehistoric marine reptile, and at least one cloned Homo sapiens. Theropod dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex and Velociraptor have had major roles throughout the series. Other species, including Triceratops, Brachiosaurus, and Spinosaurus have also played significant roles.
|Species||Jurassic Park||The Lost World:
|Jurassic Park III||Jurassic World||Jurassic World:
|Alamosaurus||Skeleton *||*briefly appears as a skeleton in the Jurassic Park visitor center.|
|Metriacanthosaurus||Mentioned *||* Dinosaur's name is seen on an embryo cooler label in the film.|
|Proceratosaurus||Mentioned *||* Dinosaur's name is seen on an embryo cooler label in the film.|
|Edmontosaurus||Skeleton *||*In the second film, the skull can be seen among the pile of bones in the Tyrannosaurus rex nest.|
|Pachycephalosaurus||Appearance||Seen *||* Seen on screen in control center.[p]|
|Stegosaurus||Mentioned *||Appearance||* Dinosaur's name (misspelled as "Stegasaurus") is seen on an embryo cooler label in the film. [r]|
|Indominus rex||Appearance||Mentioned||[ac] [ad][ae][af][ag]|
|Species||Jurassic Park||The Lost World||Notes|
|Coelurus||Appearance *||* Referred to as Coelurosaurus in novel.|
|Microceratus||Appearance *||* Referred to as Microceratops in novel.|
- In the first film, a Brachiosaurus feeding on tree branches was the first dinosaur to be seen by Alan Grant, Ellie Sattler, Ian Malcolm and Donald Gennaro. The scene was described by Empire as the 28th most magical moment in cinema. Two other Brachiosaurus were seen taking a dip in a nearby lake. They were later seen when Alan and Hammond's grandchildren, spent the night in a tree. In Jurassic Park III, they were briefly seen along a river bank when Alan Grant and the Kirby family were travelling down the river in a boat.
- In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, a Brachiosaurus was briefly seen outside the Innovation Center. It was later stranded on Isla Nublar and died as the volcanic eruption destroyed the island. Though Mills' remaining mercenaries were able to salvage it's viable embryo during the final scene. Director J.A. Bayona has said that the Brachiosaurus in the film was the one that was first seen in Jurassic Park. He added, "That scene represents the ending of a dream that started 25 years ago. You are telling the ending of that island and the ending of that dream.
- In the first film, a Dilophosaurus was supposed to be the first dinosaur on the park tour, but was not seen.
- It later killed Dennis Nedry when he was trying to fix his Jeep and got stuck in the mud. In the films, the dinosaurs portrayed as Dilophosaurus are much smaller than in real life, have a fleshy frill around their neck and are venomous. The novel's Dilophosaurus are correctly sized and lack the frill.
- In Jurassic World, a Dilophosaurus appeared as a hologram in the Innovation Center, and was mentioned in a Gyrosphere tour video in which its venom paralyzes comedian Jimmy Fallon. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, it appeared as a diorama at Benjamin Lockwood's estate.
- In the first film, Alan Grant and John Hammond's grandchildren, Lex and Tim Murphy, encountered a herd of Gallimimus, one of which was killed by the Tyrannosaurus during the stampede. In the second film, they were seen in the large herd of dinosaurs running from the dinosaur hunters. In Jurassic World, they were seen during the Gyrosphere ride. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, some Gallimimus were seen fleeing from the volcanic eruption. They were later seen escaping into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- Parasaurolophus are briefly seen in each film. In Jurassic Park, they were seen when the Brachiosaurus were taking a dip in the lake. In The Lost World: Jurassic Park, a Parasaurolophus was captured by the dinosaur hunters but it was eventually freed. In Jurassic Park III, they were seen along with Corythosaurus when the Velociraptors chased the characters into a clearing. In Jurassic World, they were seen during the Gyrosphere ride. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, some Parasaurolophus fled from the volcanic eruption and were captured by the mercenaries. They later escaped into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- In the first film, a Triceratops was found sick and was cared for by Ellie Sattler and Dr. Harding. Triceratops did not make any notable appearances after the first film, despite its popularity. In The Lost World: Jurassic Park, a Triceratops was captured by InGen-hired hunters, but it was eventually released and demolished the hunters' tents. In Jurassic World, Triceratops were seen in the petting zoo and during the Gyrosphere ride. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, several Triceratops were seen fleeing from the volcanic eruption. An adult Triceratops and its young were later seen in a cage at Benjamin Lockwood's estate. They eventually escaped into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- Tyrannosaurus is one of the most famous dinosaurs in the Jurassic Park series and its portrayal is quite scientifically accurate, such as in the second film, where a male and female are shown parenting an offspring. In the third film, a Tyrannosaurus is killed by a Spinosaurus in battle. The T. rex animatronic used for the first film was 40 feet (12 m) long, 20 feet (6.1 m) tall, and weighed 17,500 pounds (7,900 kg).
- In The Lost World: Jurassic Park, the female Tyrannosaurus is portrayed as brown, while the male is green. In Jurassic World, the Tyrannosaurus from the first film fought with the Indominus rex and cornered it at the edge of the park's lagoon, with the help of Blue the Velociraptor, where the Mosasaurus dragged it underwater. Director Colin Trevorrow said, "We took the original design and obviously, technology has changed. So, it's going to move a little bit differently, but it'll move differently because it's older. And we're giving her some scars and we're tightening her skin. So, she has that feeling of, like, an older Burt Lancaster."
- In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the park's Tyrannosaurus and the Mosasaurus attacked a team of mercenaries after they collected a fragment of bome from the remains of the Indominus rex to retrieve its DNA. It was later captured along with many other dinosaurs and taken to the U.S. mainland to be auctioned off to wealthy dealers. It eventually devoured Eli Mills alongside a Carnotaurus and escaped into the mainland with the other dinosaurs. It was later seen roaring at a lion in a zoo as the lion roars back at it.
- In all of the Jurassic Park films, Velociraptor was one of the most commonly seen dinosaurs on the islands. They were portrayed to be the most intelligent and one of the most vicious of all the dinosaurs throughout the film series. "Velociraptor" are often shown hunting in packs. In all of the films, the characters often referred to the Velociraptor simply as "raptors". The films also depict Velociraptor as significantly larger than its actual size (2 feet (0.61 m) tall and 6 feet (1.8 m) long). In the beginning of the first film, Alan Grant discovered a fossil that he estimated to be about 6 feet (1.8 m) tall and 16 feet (4.9 m) long, and the raptors in the park were roughly that size. The dinosaurs portrayed in the novels and films as "Velociraptor", are almost identical to the real life Deinonychus. It is speculated that this incorrect portrayal came about because of mislabelling of Deinonychus as a subspecies of Velociraptor in the 1988 American book, Predatory Dinosaurs of the World, whose author, Gregory Paul, is credited as an inspiration by Crichton at the end of his first novel. After the 1997 release of The Lost World: Jurassic Park, paleontologists made discoveries concluding that Velociraptor had feathers or feather-like structures. Quill-like structures were added to Velociraptor for Jurassic Park III, at the suggestion of paleontologist Jack Horner, who served as technical adviser for the films.
- In Jurassic World, Owen Grady was the trainer of a pack of four Velociraptor, which he named Blue, Charlie, Delta and Echo. Despite their bond, they temporarily fell under the control of Indominus rex, and attacked a military unit. One of them was killed in the process but the survivors rekindled their bond with Owen and attacked the Indominus rex. Of the three Velociraptor, only Blue survived the battle, who then escaped. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, Blue was captured by the mercenaries as Henry Wu intended to use her DNA to create Indoraptors that could be trained and commanded like her. She was later freed by Zia Rodriguez and helped Owen kill the Indoraptor. Blue escaped into the mainland with the other dinosaurs shortly after.
- In the novels, Procompsognathus are featured instead of Compsognathus. In the second film, a swarm of Compsognathus attacked a young girl and later killed Dieter Stark. They also made a brief appearance in the third film. In the fifth film, some Compsognathus were seen fleeing from the volcanic eruption. They later escaped into the mainland with the other dinosaurs.
- In the second film, a pair of Mamenchisaurus were seen in the large herd of dinosaurs running from the dinosaur hunters.
- In the second film, a group of poachers captured numerous dinosaurs, including a Pachycephalosaurus. When the animals were freed from containment, a Pachycephalosaurus charged at the poachers. In the fourth film, a Pachycephalosaurus briefly appeared on a screen inside the control room.
- At the very end of The Lost World: Jurassic Park, a flock of Pteranodon were seen flying above a herd of Stegosaurus. Their most notable appearance was in Jurassic Park III, where they attacked Alan Grant and the other characters inside the aviary. In Jurassic World, they and the Dimorphodon were inadvertently freed from the aviary by the Indominus rex and wreaked havoc on the tourists. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, several Pteranodon were seen flying on Isla Nublar. A flock was seen flying around the Eiffel Tower replica at the Paris Las Vegas hotel and casino in Las Vegas in a post-credits scene.
- In the second film, a group of Stegosaurus attacked Sarah Harding when they saw her taking pictures of a baby Stegosaurus as they believed she was trying to harm it. The Stegosaurus were also a victim of the dinosaur hunters, but were eventually released along with all of the other captured dinosaurs. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, several Stegosaurus fled from the volcanic eruption and one was captured by the mercenaries. It later escaped into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- In Jurassic Park III, an Ankylosaurus was briefly seen along a river bank when Alan Grant and the Kirby family were travelling down the river on a boat. In Jurassic World, four Ankylosaurus were chased by the Indominus rex when they were encountered by Zach and Gray Mitchell during the Gyrosphere ride, with one getting killed. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, several Ankylosaurus fled from the volcanic eruption and one was captured by the mercenaries. It was later auctioned off to a wealthy dealer.
- In Jurassic Park III, a Ceratosaurus approached Alan Grant and the Kirby family while they were digging for the satellite phone in the dung of the Spinosaurus, but left due to the smell of the Spinosaurus.
- In Jurassic Park III, Corythosaurus were seen along with Parasaurolophus when the Velociraptors chased the characters into a clearing.
- In Jurassic Park III, a Spinosaurus attacked Cooper, Udesky and Nash, but the latter two fled and reunited with the others. The group tried to escape aboard the plane as the Spinosaurus chased Cooper onto the runway. The plane collided with it and crash into a tree in the surrounding forest. It then proceeded to attack the group, destroying the plane and killing Nash. The survivors fled from it but encountered a Tyrannosaurus rex. The Spinosaurus returned and the group escaped while the two dinosaurs fought. The Spinosaurus overpowered the Tyrannosaurus and snapped its neck.
- The Spinosaurus attacked again when Alan Grant and Eric Kirby reunited with Billy Brennan, and Amanda and Paul Kirby. It lost interest when they ran into an observatory. It attacked them once more when they were making their way downriver in a boat. It swam up to the boat and capsized it, rupturing its fuel tank. Paul distracted it by climbing onto a construction crane while Grant accidentally ignited the leaked fuel by firing a flare gun. Frightened by the fire, the Spinosaurus quickly fled the area.
- Spinosaurus was featured in a prominent role in Jurassic Park because paleontologist Jack Horner, the scientific advisor of the films, decided to replace Tyrannosaurus after its appearance in the previous films. In real life, Spinosaurus was much larger than a Tyrannosaurus rex. So it was portrayed to be 50 feet (15 m) long, 16 feet (4.9 m) tall at the hips and weigh 12 tonnes (12,000 kg). In Jurassic World, a skeleton of a Spinosaurus is present outside the Innovation Center.
- In, Jurassic Park III, Suchomimus was mentioned by Billy Brennan when he and Alan Grant were trying to identify the predator (a Spinosaurus) that had attacked them and the others.
- In the first novel, Apatosaurus is the very first group of dinosaurs seen on the island. It is replaced by Brachiosaurus in the first film and by Mamenchisaurus in the second. In Jurassic World, Apatosaurus were seen in the petting zoo and during the Gyrosphere ride. Several individuals were later killed by the Indominus rex. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, several Apatosaurus fled from the volcanic eruption and two were captured by the mercenaries. They later escaped into the mainland with the many dinosaurs.
- Mentioned by Claire when she is talking to Owen in Jurassic World.
- In Jurassic World, Dimorphodon and Pteranodon were inadvertently freed from the aviary by the Indominus rex and wreaked havoc on the tourists.
- Indominus rex is a genetically engineered dinosaur and the main antagonist in Jurassic World. The film revealed that the base framework of its genome consisted of Tyrannosaurus rex DNA. According to the film's promotional website, its adult length of 50 feet (15 m), tough osteoderms and horns over the eyes were achieved by mixing the genes of Giganotosaurus, and the abelisaurids Carnotaurus, Majungasaurus and Rugops. The film revealed that its genome also included the DNA of Velociraptor, pit vipers, tree frogs, and cuttlefish, which gave it the high intelligence of Velociraptor and the ability to communicate with them, the infrared-sensing ability of pit vipers, the multi-spectral camouflage of certain tree frogs, and the colour-changing abilities of cuttlefish.
- An infographic released by Universal Pictures revealed that its long grasping arms were the result of Therizinosaurus DNA. The infographic also mentioned its opposable thumbs but did not reveal their source.
- The name Indominus rex is derived from the Latin words indomitus meaning "fierce" or "untameable" and rex meaning "king". Paleontologist Jack Horner, the scientific advisor of the films, said that the long grasping forelimbs of the Indominus rex were inspired by Therizinosaurus. “I started the process with a dinosaur called Therizinosaurus that has big grasping arms. That was the most important thing — the grasping arms and its color. It’s white,” said Horner. He went on to say “Indominus rex is made as a transgenic animal, meaning we’ve taken genes out of one animal and put it in this one.”
- The Indominus rex cannibalized its younger sibling as her isolated upbringing and lack of socialization with other dinosaurs caused her to develop psychotic tendencies. In Jurassic World, Simon Masrani tasked Owen with inspecting its paddock for vulnerabilities. It later fooled Claire and Owen into thinking it had escaped by cloaking its thermal signature and leaving claw marks on the walls of the paddock, prompting Owen and two others to enter the paddock. The Indominus rex ambushed them while they inspected the paddock. In the subsequent confusion, it killed the other two men and escaped by breaking the closing paddock gate. It then began heading south towards the visitor area. Masrani sent a containment unit to subdue it with non-lethal weapons but it killed most of the unit. It began hunting and killing other dinosaurs for sport after the encounter, wreaking havoc along the way. Shortly after, Masrani and two troopers outfitted a helicopter with a heavy machine gun to kill the Indominus. It escaped the gunfire by breaking into the park's aviary, releasing a flock of Pteranodon and Dimorphodon, some of which collided with the helicopter, causing it to crash. Later that night, Vic Hoskins dispatched the four Velociraptors under Owen's training, to track and kill it. Once they located it, it began to communicate with them and made them attack the accompanying military unit. One of the raptors got killed in the process but the survivors eventually rekindled their bond with Owen and attacked the Indominus. It killed two of the raptors and attacked Owen, Zach and Gray. They were saved when Claire released and lured the park's Tyrannosaurus rex into a battle with it. The Indominus rex gained the upper hand until the surviving raptor, Blue, joined the battle. It was quickly overpowered and cornered at the edge of the park's lagoon, where the Mosasaurus dragged it underwater.
- In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, a team of mercenaries collected a fragment of bone from the remains of the Indominus rex to retrieve its DNA. Henry Wu eventually combined its DNA with Velociraptor DNA, among others, to create the Indoraptor.
- In Jurassic World, a Mosasaurus inhabited a lagoon and had its own show, the "Mosasaurus Feeding Show", in which it was fed great white sharks. At the end of the film, it dragged the Indominus rex into the lagoon after it was cornered at its edge by the Tyrannosaurus and Blue the Velociraptor. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, it and the Tyrannosaurus a team of mercenaries after they collected a fragment of bome from the remains of the Indominus rex to retrieve its DNA. The lagoon gate was left open as the surviving mercenaries barely escaped, allowing the Mosasaurus to escape into the ocean. It was later seen attacking some surfers.
- The Mosasaurus was criticized for appearing to some to be twice the size of the largest known species. Paleontologist Jack Horner, the scientific advisor of the films, said "the size of this one is a little out of proportion, but we don't know the ultimate size of any extinct animal."
- Stegoceratops is a genetically engineered dinosaur made by combining the genetic material of Stegosaurus, Triceratops, an unidentified snake, and an unknown type of beetle. Despite being part Triceratops, its frill and horns resemble those of Nasutoceratops. Near the end of Jurassic World, when Ingen personnel were packing the sensitive material in Henry Wu's laboratory, an image of it was seen on a computer screen. An early draft of the film had a scene where Owen Grady and Claire Dearing came across the Stegoceratops but director Colin Trevorrow removed it as he felt that the film should have only one "hybrid" (genetically engineered) dinosaur. He said "The idea that there was more than one made it feel less like the one synthetic among all the other organics, and suddenly it seemed entirely wrong to have it in the movie. I suddenly hated the idea but the toy still exists as a kind of remnant because Hasbro toys are locked a year out."
- In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, an Allosaurus was killed by debris from the volcanic eruption. Another Allosaurus later escaped into the mainland with other dinosaurs.
- In Jurassic Park III, Baryonyx was mentioned by Billy Brenann when he and Alan Grant were trying to identify the predator (a Spinosaurus) that had attacked them and the others. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, a Baryonyx attacked Claire and Franklin on Isla Nublar, and was then captured by the mercenaries. It was later auctioned off to a wealthy dealer.
- At the beginning of The Lost World, a pair of Carnotaurus attacked Richard Levine and killed his guide Diego. They were portrayed with the ability to change the colour of their skin like a chameleon. The pair was seen again when the characters were at the abandoned gas station. The promotional website of Jurassic World states that the genome of the Indominus rex also included the genetic material of a Carnotaurus. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, a Carnotaurus fought with a Sinoceratops, before attacking Owen, Claire and Franklin. They were saved when it was subdued by the Tyrannosaurus. It later tried to take the corpse of Eli Mills from the mouth of the Tyrannosaurus, and escaped into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- Seen as a diorama at Benjamin Lockwood's estate.
- Seen as a diorama at Benjamin Lockwood's estate.
- Seen as a diorama at Benjamin Lockwood's estate.
- Seen as a diorama at Benjamin Lockwood's estate.
- Near the end of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, Maisie Lockwood was revealed to be a clone of Benjamin Lockwood's deceased daughter and the reason John Hammond, who opposed human cloning, ended his partnership with Lockwood.
- Indoraptor is a genetically engineered dinosaur and one of the primary antagonists in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. It was portrayed to be 23 feet (7.0 m) long, stand 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, and weigh about 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg). The name "Indoraptor" is derived from the Latin words indomitus meaning "untameable" and raptor meaning "thief". The design and mood of the Indoraptor was heavily inspired by Frankenstein's monster. Director J.A. Bayona said "We wanted to give the dinosaur the mood of a rejected creature. I thought about the terrifying sadness of Frankenstein." According to Industrial Light and Magic’s production visual effects supervisor, David Vickery, Bayona wanted the Indoraptor to look “malnourished and slightly unhinged”. He also wanted it to be very dark so that its bright eyes and white teeth stood out in darkness. It was given long arms to make it scary and seem almost human. “For Steven Spielberg, that was the most scary bit of the Indoraptor – how long the arms are. They almost feel like human arms,” said Bayona. He added that its “shakes” were inspired by the shakes sometimes seen in people with mental disorders.
- The way the Indoraptor was introduced in a cell at the end of a long corridor reminded Bayona of the Gothic feel of Frankenstein. The final battle was set on the roof of Lockwood’s mansion as he felt that it was a reference to classic Gothic horror films. He said “The lighting and playing with the idea of the glass cracking has this Gothic element that I really like.”
- The Indoraptor was created by Henry Wu using Indominus rex and Velociraptor DNA. In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, it was unveiled in the auction and bid on despite Wu's warnings that it was too dangerous. After the auction was disrupted by Owen and a Stygimoloch, Ken Wheatley seemingly sedated it with two tranquilizer darts and entered its cage to take one of its teeth as a trophy, leaving the door open. The Indoraptor feigned sedation, and smirked just before it stood up and attacked him. As it slowly ate him, Gunnar Eversol sneaked past it to get to an elevator. It eventually escaped its cage and proceeded to attack him and three others. He closed the elevator doors but the Indoraptor opened them by smashing the external controls with its tail. It then hunted and killed numerous people throughout Lockwood's estate. Shortly after, it encountered Owen, Claire and Maisie, and began hunting them. It separated the three in the process and chased after Maisie, who escaped by climbing onto a dumbwaiter lift leading to her room. The Indoraptor then climbed onto the roof and entered her room through a balcony. It tried to grab her from her bed but she was saved when Owen fired a few shots at it. Blue arrived moments later and attacked it while Owen and Maisie escaped through the balcony. The Indoraptor followed them and got separated from Blue after falling through a window. It quickly recovered and cornered them on the edge of a glass roof. They were saved when it almost fell through the roof due to a distraction by Claire. It hauled itself back up and prepared to attack Owen but Blue arrived and resumed her attack. Both fell through the glass in the ensuing fight and the Indoraptor was impaled to death on a Agujaceratops skull on display below. Blue survived the fall and victoriously jumped off the body of the Indoraptor.
- Executive producer and co-screenwriter Colin Trevorrow said “I’m looking forward to, in the third film, getting a little back into the paleontological, wild animal, true dinosaur nature of all of it.” He also said that the Indoraptor is the last "hybrid" (genetically engineered) dinosaur of the Jurassic World trilogy.
- Seen as a diorama at Benjamin Lockwood's estate.
- In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, a Sinoceratops licked Owen when he was sedated and fought with a Carnotaurus. It was later seen escaping into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, Owen and Claire escaped a cell by freeing a Stygimoloch. Owen later guided it to the auction and disrupted it. It eventually escaped into the mainland with many other dinosaurs.
- In the first novel, Apatosaurus appear instead of Brachiosaurus, and in one chapter Tim incorrectly commented to himself, in response to a statement that a Brachiosaurus was three times larger than an Apatosaurus.
- In the films, the dinosaurs portrayed as Dilophosaurus are much smaller than in real life, have a fleshy frill around their neck and are venomous. The novel's Dilophosaurus are correctly sized and lack the frill.
- The dinosaurs portrayed in the novels and films as "Velociraptor", are almost identical to the real life Deinonychus. It is speculated that this incorrect portrayal came about because of mislabelling of Deinonychus as a subspecies of Velociraptor in the 1988 American book, Predatory Dinosaurs of the World, whose author, Gregory Paul, is credited as an inspiration by Crichton at the end of his first novel.
- In the first novel, Apatosaurus is the very first group of dinosaurs seen on the island. It is replaced by Brachiosaurus in the first film and by Mamenchisaurus in the second.
- In the first novel, a herd of Hadrosaurus stampeded when attacked by the Tyrannosaurus.
- In the novels, Procompsognathus are featured instead of Compsognathus.
- Switek, Brian (March 25, 2009). "See Tyrannosaurus Take a Bite out of Alamosaurus". Smithsonian. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "50 Most Magical Movie Moments". Empire. November 28, 2003. p. 122.
- Cotter, Padraig (July 3, 2018). "Fallen Kingdom Features the Death of the Original Jurassic Park Brachiosaurus". Screen Rant. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Couch, Aaron (June 23, 2018). "'Jurassic World' Director on the Shot Making Audiences Tear Up". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Anderton, Ethan (June 15, 2015). "'Jurassic World' Easter Eggs: Did You Catch These 'Jurassic Park' References?". /Film. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- Donnelly, Matt (June 11, 2015). "5 Times 'Jurassic World' Shouts Out to Original 'Jurassic Park'". TheWrap. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- De Semlyen, Nick (October 11, 2014). "Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park: A Viewer's Guide". Empire. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- Corliss, Richard (April 26, 1993). "Behind the Magic of Jurassic Park". Time. Retrieved July 27, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
- Shay, Don; Duncan, Jody (1993). The Making of Jurassic Park: An Adventure 65 million Years in the Making. Boxtree Limited. pp. 95–105. ISBN 1-85283-774-8.
- Sciretta, Peter (April 29, 2015). "Original T. rex returns in 'Jurassic World,' This Film "Is Her Unforgiven"". /Film. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- "Jurassic Park 3: Production Notes". Cinema.com. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- Gray, Ali (June 13, 2013). "Jurassic Park: 10 flaws you never noticed". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- MacDonald, Lindsay (December 23, 2015). "These Quotes from Your PCA 2016 'Favorite Movie' Contenders Are Heartbreaking and Hilarious". People's Choice Awards. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- "Indominus rex". Jurassic World. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
- Kendrick, Ben (June 13, 2015). "'Jurassic World': Indominus Rex Abilities & Origin Explained". Screen Rant. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- "See the Indominus Rex roar in Jurassic World now..." Tumblr. November 25, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- Lewis, Charlton Thomas; Short, Charles (1879). "indomitus". A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Lewis, Charlton Thomas; Short, Charles (1879). "rex". A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Errico, Marcus (June 21, 2015). "Inside 'Jurassic World': Here's the Freaky Real Dinosaur Indominus Rex Is Based On". Yahoo Movies. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- Ohlheiser, Abby (November 29, 2014). "A Smithsonian paleontologist fact-checked the 'Jurassic World' trailer. His take? 'Meh.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Kutner, Max (December 2, 2014). "The Scientist Behind "Jurassic World", Jack Horner, Breaks Down the Movie's Thrilling Trailer". Smithsonian. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- de Semlyen, Phil (October 28, 2015). "Empire Spoiler Podcast: Ten Secrets Of Jurassic World". Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Abrams, Bryan (June 22, 2018). "Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom's Production Designer Takes on the Indoraptor". Motion Picture Association of America. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Alexander, Bryan (June 22, 2018). "Indoraptor kills it as the villainous new dinosaur of 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom'". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Lewman, David (2018). Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Dinosaur Survival Guide. Random House. p. 71. ISBN 0-525-58083-2.
- Lewis, Charlton Thomas; Short, Charles (1879). "raptor". A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Eisenberg, Erik (June 21, 2018). "The Classic Horror Monster That Helped Inspire The Indoraptor In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom". Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- Desowitz, Bill (June 25, 2018). "'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom': How J. A. Bayona and the VFX Team Channeled Classic Horror Movies". IndieWire. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- Evangelista, Chris (May 7, 2018). "'Jurassic World 3' Won't Feature Hybrid Dinosaurs". SlashFilm. Retrieved August 18, 2018.