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List of cities in the European Union by Muslim population

Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in Europe, primarily due to immigration.[1][2]

Muslim population in England (2011)
  20% and more

Since the 1960s, immigrants from Muslim countries started to appear in numbers in Western Europe, especially in Germany, France and Belgium. Although large Muslim communities existed on the continent long before this, especially in the Balkans, this was the first major wave of immigration of Muslims to northwestern Europe.[3]

Muslims in Europe are not a homogeneous group. They are of various national, ethnic and racial identities. The top countries of origin of Muslims in Western Europe are Pakistan, Turkey and the Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia).[4] Muslims also vary in terms of their religious commitment: some adhere very strictly to the tenets of Islam while others have largely assimilated into secular European culture.

In Western Europe, Muslims generally live in major urban areas, often concentrated in poor neighborhoods of large cities.[5]

According to the Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%).[6] The total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2010 was about 19 million (3.8%).[6] The French capital of Paris and its metropolitan area has the largest number (up to 1.7 million according to The Economist)[7] of Muslims out of any city in the European Union. London also has a substantial community of Muslim origin, numbering about 1 million within the limits of Greater London and exceeding this figure when the entire metropolitan area is taken into account.

If the current rate of migration of Muslims to Europe and the Muslim fertility rate remains constant, by 2030, people of Muslim faith or origin are predicted to form about 10% of the French population[6] and 8% of the European population.[6]

The table below lists large cities of the European Union with significant Muslim populations, some estimating the percentage of Muslims by using the percentage of Asians in those Cities.

City Member state  % Muslim (est.)
Amsterdam  Netherlands 14%,[8]
Antwerp  Belgium 6.9%[9]
Berlin  Germany 9.0%[10]
Birmingham  UK 14.3%,[7] 15%,[4][5][11][12]
Bradford  UK 15%,[11] [12]
Brussels  Belgium 15%,[4][5][11] 17%,[7][13]
Cologne  Germany 12%[14][15][16]
Copenhagen  Denmark 10%[4][5][11]
Frankfurt  Germany 11.8%[17]
Leicester  UK 18.6%[12]
London  UK 8.3%,[18] 8.5%,[7] 10%,[4][5][11] 12.4%[12]
Malmö  Sweden 18%[4][11]
Manchester  UK 15.8%[12]
Marseille  France 20%,[7][11] 25%[19]
Offenbach  Germany 14% [20]
Paris  France 10%,[4] 15%[5][11] (10-15% in metro area)[7][21]
Rotterdam  Netherlands 13.3%[7]
Roubaix  France 20%[22]
Vienna  Austria 8%[7]

Losing religion in muslim populations and muslim atheismEdit

A 2007 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) report argued that some Muslim population projections are overestimated, as they assume that all descendants of Muslims will become Muslims even in cases of mixed parenthood. Equally, Darren E. Sherkat questioned in Foreign Affairs whether some of the Muslim growth projections are accurate as they do not take into account the increasing number of non-religious Muslims. Quantitative research is lacking, but he believes the European trend mirrors the American: data from the General Social Survey in the United States show that 32 percent of those raised Muslim no longer embrace Islam in adulthood, and 18 percent hold no religious identification. 

Studies show also that about half of the 4.2 million persons from Muslim background in Germany no longer embrace Islam in adulthood.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Nachmani, Amikam (2010). Europe and its Muslim minorities: aspects of conflict, attempts at accord. Brighton: Sussex Academic. p. 35. ISBN 9781845194000. 
  2. ^ Cherribi, Sam (2010). In the house of war: Dutch Islam observed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780199734115. 
  3. ^ Barrett, Darcy M. (2008). Concepts of Identity and the Islamitization of Europe: The Components of Growth and Radicalization of the Global Salafi Islamic Movement in Europe and Its Implications for the West. ProQuest. p. 60. ISBN 9780549970705. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Nydell, Margaret K. Understanding Arabs: a contemporary guide to Arab society. Boston, MA: Intercultural Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780983955801. In 2011 they constituted 25 percent of Rotterdam andMarseilles; 20% of Malmo; 15 percent of Amsterdam, Brussels and Birmingham; 90% of Sarajevo; and 10 percent of London, Paris, Copenhagen, and Vienna.
    Muslims in Western Europe originate from both Arab and non-Arab countries. Those in the United Kingdom are primarily from South Asia, in France from North and West Africa, in Germany from Turkey, in Belgium from Morocco, and in the Netherlands from Morocco and Turkey.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Farmer, Brian R. (2010). Radical Islam in the West: ideology and challenge. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 8. ISBN 9780786459537. Muslims living in the West are also concentrated in urban area. Muslims are currently estimated to compose almost one-fifth of the population of Marseilles, and 15 percent of Paris, Brussels, and Birmingham. Muslims are currently make up approximately 10 percent of the populations in London and Copenhagen. 
  6. ^ a b c d Pew Forum, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-18. , "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-22. , "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "When islam claims to be the victim". The Economist. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2013. see the chart [1] 
  8. ^ "Bureau voor Onderzoek en Statistiek: 'Geloven in Amsterdam'" [Bureau of Research and Statistics: Faith in Amsterdam] (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  9. ^ "Moslims in Brussel 2010–2030"., 13 February 2012, retrieved 3 November 2013. 
  10. ^ "Islam in Berlin". Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian (2009). God is back how the global revival of faith is changing the world. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781101032411. Muslims are highly concentrated—they make up 24 percent of the population in Amsterdam; 20 percent in Malmo and Marseille; 15 percent in Paris, Brussels, Bradford, and Birmingham; and 10 percent or more in London and Copenhagen. 
  12. ^ a b c d e "2011 Census: Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". United Kingdom Census 2011. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  13. ^ Hanif, Asma (8 January 2008). "Religion in Europe: Muslims in the EU capital – identity vs integration". Religioscope. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Der Spiegel: "Dialog mit Außerirdischen", 25 March 2008, retrieved 20 April 2013
  15. ^ Die Welt: "Moschee für Mülheim", 1 February 2012, retrieved 20 April 2013
  16. ^ Berliner Zeitung: "Kulturkampf in Köln", 31 May 2007, retrieved 20 April 2013
  17. ^ Schröpfer, Waltraud (2007) Frankfurter Statistische Berichte "Muslime in Frankfurt am Main - Ergebnisse einer Schätzung", p. 206, April 2007, retrieved 27 March 2014
  18. ^ "Census 2001 profiles: London". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  19. ^ Erlanger, Steven (27 December 2009). "French Mosque’s Symbolism Varies With Beholder". 
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Being Muslim in France" (PDF). Brookings Institution. p. 22. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  22. ^ "A French Town Bridges the Gap Between Muslims and Non-Muslims". New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 

External linksEdit