List of castles in Iran

Throughout history, especially in prehistoric and early history, castles have played an important role in the fortification of Iran. They were usually maintained by officials on important routes or cities, and most of them were in unmarked heights with steep slopes or cliffs. Such places have always served as a natural defenses against enemies and offer a panoramic view of the surrounding lands, so cities and surrounding lands can be defended. Most of Iran's castles had spring or Wells, except for those that were previously surrounded by water.[1]

Bam Castle can be traced back to Achaemenid Empire, and designated as the World Heritage Site.

Important castlesEdit

Name Location Picture Notes
Arg-e Bam Bam There is no precise archaeological dating of the buildings of the Citadel of Bam. But through historic sources and ancient texts, the first human settlement in the area can be traced back to the fort built by the Achaemenians around 579–323 BC. Some of the citadel's features such as its establishment on a platform combining a natural hilltop and a manmade terrace have been compared by archaeologists to the Achaemenian model of Persepolis. During the Parthian rule, the fort was expanded and became Arg-e-Bam, the Citadel of Bam.[2]
Alamut Castle Alamut The Alamut castle was built by the Justanid ruler Wahsudan b. Marzuban, a follower of Zaydi Shi'ism, around 865 AD.[3] During a hunting trip, he witnessed a soaring eagle perch down high on a rock.[4]:29 Realizing the tactical advantage of this location, he chose the site for the construction of a fortress, which was called "Aluh āmū[kh]t" likely meaning "Eagle's Teaching" or "Nest of Punishment".[4]:29[5][6][7] Alamut remained under Justanid control until the arrival of the Isma'ili chief da’i (missionary) Hasan-i Sabbah to the castle in 1090 AD, marking the start of the Alamut period in Nizari Isma'ili history.
Babak Fort Kaleybar The castle, built on 2300–2600 meter heights, surrounded by 400 to 600 meter gorges, is accessed via a long series of broken steps that lead to the top of a hill. Thereafter, the easiest route is a long dirt track. No signs lead to the Castle. At the end of the dirt track, the route turns left. The first sign of the ruins appears on the left, leaving two peaks to cross. The first peak has views of the Castle. After ascending a second peak, with additional ruins, the trail passes sheer cliffs on the right with no railings.
Falak-ol-Aflak Khoramabad Falak-ol-Aflak castle is amongst the most important structures built during the Sassanid era. It has been known by a number of names since it was built over 1800 years ago. Recorded names have referred to it as Shapur-Khast or Sabr-Khast fortress, Dezbaz, Khoramabad castle, and ultimately the Falak-ol-Aflak Castle. Under the Pahlavi dynasty, after being used as a prison until 1968, it was transformed into a museum complex.[8]
Iraj Castle Asgarabad-e Abbasi The structure consists of an empty area approximately 175 hectares (430 acres), surrounded by a wall 15–22 metres (49–72 ft) in width and up to 25 metres (82 ft) in height. It featured 148 densely spaced towers and four monumental gates. The massive walls contained a wealth of embedded structures: a row of around 828 rooms (circa 12 square metres (130 sq ft) in size) and hundreds of monumental arches, evoking royal Sasanian architecture. The structure was further protected by a ditch around the wall. A population of 2,000-6,000 could have been accommodated in the walls.[9][10][11]
Izad-Khast Castle Izadkhvast The history of the castle complex dates back to the pre-Islamic era of Iran. Izad-Khast is a Sassanid castle, built during the Sassanid Empire (224 to 651 AD) which ruled Persia (Iran) and many parts of the surrounding countries.[12] It was then used, added and improved on until Qajars era (1794 to 1925). This has left works inside the castle belonging to different periods from Sassanids to Qajars with different architectural styles.
Rudkhan Castle Fuman County Rudkhan Castle sits at the two peaks of a mountain at elevations of 715 and 670 metres and contains strong fortifications and battlements at a length of 1,550 metres. The castle's 42 towers still stand intact.
Rayen Castle Rayen it's become an attractive touristic destination. During the reign of third Yazdgerd, the Sasanid King, Arabs could not conquer this city due to its high walls.[13]
Qal'eh Dokhtar Firuzabad The 1,800-year-old castle has lost some four meters of its original height over the last century and experts warn if urgent measures are not taken to enforce it, the castle may soon collapse.[14]
Narin Castle Meybod This building has been built as an old fortress with 3 different floors, each for a different class of society. Although all outer gates have been destroyed the inner castle still exists. You can still see some of the outer walls.
Sar Yazd Fortress Sar Yazd The fortress was constructed during the Sassanid era, sometime between the 3rd and 7th centuries AD and is made of adobe. Its defences are two concentric walls, the outer wall being six meters in height and the inner being nine meters tall. In addition to the walls a moat was also constructed. The structure contains 480 rooms.[15]
Shush Castle Susa The castle was heavily damaged by Iraqi bombs during the recent Iran–Iraq War, but has since been completely restored by the Iranian government.

List of castles in IranEdit

This is a list of castles in Iran.

AEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Aamaj Castle قلعه آماج Bastak County Sasanian Empire
Abdanan Castle [fa] قلعه آبدانان Posht Qaleh Sasanian Empire
Agha Khan Liravi-ye castle [fa] قلعه آقا خان لیراوی Deylam County Qajar dynasty
Alamut Castle قلعه الموت Masoudabad, Qazvin Before the Medes
Ali Ahmad Domab castle [fa] قلعه علی احمد دماب Domab, Isfahan Qajar dynasty
Ardeshir castle [fa] قلعه اردشیر Kerman Sasanian Empire
Arg of Alma Dushen [fa] ارگ آلمادوشن Bojnord County Parthian Empire
Arg of Karim Khan ارگ کریم‌خان Shiraz Zand dynasty
Arg of Tabas [fa] ارگ طبس Tabas
Arg of Tabriz ارگ تبریز Tabriz Ilkhanate
Arg e Bam ارگ بم Bam, Iran Achaemenid Empire
Ashpaz Khaneh Zahhak castle [fa] قلعه آشپزخانه ضحاک Fasa County Parthian Empire
Azhdeha Peykar castle [fa] قلعه اژدهاپیکر Lar, Iran Sasanian Empire
Atashgah castle قلعه آتشگاه Kashmar Sasanian Empire

BEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Babak Fort قلعه بابک Kaleybar Sasanian Empire
Bakhtak Leylan castle [fa] قلعه بختک لیلان Leylan
Bampur castle [fa] قلعه بمپور Bampur Sasanian Empire
Baqerabad Castle [fa] قلعه باقرآباد Bafq County Qajar dynasty
Bar Bar castle [fa] قلعه بربر Onar, Ardabil 9th century
Bardestan castle [fa] قلعه بردستان Bardestan Qajar dynasty
Behestan castle [fa] قلعه بهستان Mahneshan County Sasanian Empire
Belqeys castle [fa] قلعه بلقیس Esfarayen Sasanian Empire
Bidesgan castle [fa] قلعه بیدسکان Bidesgan Qajar dynasty
Bidvaz castle [fa] قلعه بیدواز Bidvaz Parthian Empire
Birjand castle قلعه بیرجند Birjand Safavid dynasty
Borazjan castle [fa] دژ برازجان Borazjan Qajar dynasty

CEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Chaleshtar castle [fa] قلعه چالشتر Chaleshtar Qajar dynasty
Chanef castle [fa] قلعه چانف Nik Shahr County Qajar dynasty
Chehel Dar Castle [fa] قلعه چهل در Savadkuh County 13th century
Chehriq قلعه چهریق Chahriq-e Olya Before the Medes
Chogha Zanbil چغازنبیل Susa Elam

DEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Davudabad castle [fa] قلعه داوودآباد Anar County Safavid dynasty
Dezak castle [fa] قلعه دزک Dezak Qajar dynasty
Dimdim Castle قلعه دیمدیم West Azerbaijan Province
Div castle [fa] قلعه دیو Meshginshahr Urartu
Dokhtar castle (Ferdows) [fa] قلعه دختر Ferdows Nizari Ismaili state
Dokhtar castle (Kerman) [fa] قلعه دختر Kerman
Dokhtar castle (Khooshab) [fa] قلعه دختر Khooshab
Dokhtar castle (Mianeh) [fa] قلعه دختر Mianeh County
Dokhtar castle (Qez Qaleh) [fa] قلعه دختر Mianeh County 1st millennium BC
Dokhtar castle (Qom) [fa] قلعه دختر Qom County Sasanian Empire
Dokhtar castle (Saveh) [fa] قلعه دختر Saveh
Dokhtar II castle [fa] قلعه دختر دوم Kerman Over two thousand years

EEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Espakeh castle [fa] قلعه اسپکه Espakeh
Ernan castle [fa] قلعه ارنان Ernan, Yazd Qajar dynasty

FEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Falak-ol-Aflak فلک‌الافلاک Khorramabad Sasanian Empire
Fathabad castle [fa] قلعه فتح‌آباد Ekhtiarabad
Fin Castle [fa] قلعه فین Bandar Abbas County
Firuzkuh castle [fa] قلعه فیروزکوه Firuzkuh 13th century
Forud castle [fa] قلعه فرود Kalat Parthian Empire
Fort of Our Lady of the Conception قلعه هرمز Hormuz Island Safavid dynasty
Furg Citadel قلعه فورگ Furg, Darmian Afsharid dynasty

GEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Gabri castle [fa] قلعه گبری Ray Sasanian Empire
Gachi castle [fa] قلعه گچی Arsanjan County
Gahur Castle قلعه گهور Eshtehard
Gari Kouh Tower برج گری کوه Kuhij
Gerdkooh Hills تپه گردکوه جمنان Qaem Shahr Parthian Empire
Gerdkuh گردکوه Damghan
Ghal'eh Paeen-Shahr قلعه پایین شهر Birjand 12th century
Goli castle [fa] قلعه گلی Mohammadabad, Qomrud Parthian Empire
Gouged castle [fa] قلعه گوگد Guged Zand dynasty
Gouged Stronghold ارگ گوگد Guged

HEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Heriduk castle [fa] قلعه هریدوک Nik Shahr County Qajar dynasty
Hezar Darb Castle [fa] قلعه هزار درب Abdanan Sasanian Empire
Hezareh Castle [fa] قلعه هزاره Minab Qajar dynasty
Hoseynabad Castle [fa] قلعه حسین‌آباد Taft County Zand dynasty
Howgend castle [fa] قلعه هوگند Howgend Qajar dynasty
Hulagu Khan castle [fa] قلعه هولاکوخان Osku County Sasanian Empire

IEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Iraj Castle قلعه ایرج Pishva County Sasanian Empire
Irandegan castle قلعه ایرندگان Deh Qaleh Qajar dynasty
Izad-Khast Castle دژ ایزدخواست Izadkhast Sasanian Empire

JEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Jalal al-Din castle [fa] قلعه جلال‌الدین Jajarm County
Jalali Castle قلعه جلالی Kashan Seljuq dynasty
Jamshidi Castle [fa] قلعه جمشیدی Nimvar Sasanian Empire
Junqan castle [fa] قلعه جونقان Junqan Qajar dynasty
Jushin castle [fa] قلعه جوشین Varzaqan County Sasanian Empire

KEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Kalat Ahram castle [fa] قلعه کلات اهرم Ahram Qajar dynasty
Kangelo Castle قلعه کنگلو Kangelo Sasanian Empire
Ker Shahi castle [fa] قلعه کرشاهی Abuzeydabad Qajar dynasty
Keshit castle [fa] قلعه کشیت Keshit, Kerman Seljuq dynasty
Kheshti castle [fa] قلعه خشتی Nushabad Seljuq dynasty
Khavidak castle [fa] قلعه خویدک Khavidak Sasanian Empire
Khormoj castle [fa] قلعه خورموج Khormoj Qajar dynasty
Khosrowabad Castle قلعه خسروآباد Khosrowabad Qajar dynasty
Kharanaq Castle [fa] قلعه خرانق Kharanaq
Khvor castle [fa] قلعه خور Khvor Safavid dynasty
Kohneh castle (Shaab Jereh) [fa] قلعه کهنه Shaab Jereh Safavid dynasty
Kohneh Qaleh (Meshginshahr) [fa] کهنه‌قلعه Meshginshahr Sasanian Empire
Kohneh Qaleh (Zafaraniyeh) [fa] کهنه‌قلعه Zafaraniyeh Qajar dynasty
Kohneh Zendeh Jan Castle [fa] قلعه كهنه زنده جان Kashmar 1st millennium
Kondor Castle [fa] قلعه کندر Kondor
Kordasht castle [fa] قلعه کردشت Kordasht Qajar dynasty

LEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Lambsar Castle دژ لمسر Qazvin Sasanian Empire

MEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Malek Bahman Castle [fa] قلعه ملک بهمن Shahandasht Paduspanids
Mansur Kuh castle [fa] قلعه منصور کوه Damghan County Nizari Ismaili state
Manujan castle [fa] قلعه منوجان Manujan County
Marko Castle [fa] قلعه مارکو Ramsar County
Meimoon Ghal'eh میمون قلعه Qazvin Sasanian Empire
Mir Ghulam Hashemi Castle [fa] قلعه میرغلام هاشمی Darreh Shahr County Pahlavi dynasty
Moghuyeh Castle [fa] قلعه مغویه Bandar Lengeh County Qajar dynasty
Mount Khajeh کوه خواجه Zabol Sasanian Empire
Mozaffarabad castle [fa] قلعه مظفرآباد Qomrud Qajar dynasty

NEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Nahavand Castle قلعه نهاوند Nahavand Sasanian Empire
Naryn castle (Meybod) نارین‌قلعه Meybod Sasanian Empire
Naryn castle (Nain) نارین قلعه Nain, Iran Parthian Empire
Nasori castle [fa] قلعه نصوری Bandar Siraf Qajar dynasty
Nehbandan Citadel قلعه نهبندان Nehbandan Parthian Empire
Nik Shahr castle [fa] قلعه نیکشهر Nik Shahr Parthian Empire
Noushijan نوشیجان Malayer Medes

PEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Pa Deh castle [fa] قلعه پاده Pa Deh, Semnan
Palace of Ardashir کاخ اردشیر بابکان Firuzabad, Fars Sasanian Empire
Pashtab castle [fa] قلعه پشتاب Ahar County Before the Medes
Pulad Castle [fa] قلعه پولاد Nur County Seljuq dynasty

QEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Qahqah castle [fa] قلعه قهقه Ravar County Sasanian Empire
Qahqaheh Castle قلعه قهقهه Meshginshahr Before the Medes
Qal'eh Dokhtar قلعه دختر Firuzabad, Fars Sasanian Empire
Qaleh Bozi قلعه بزی Mobarakeh County Sasanian Empire
Qanj Ali Khan Afshar [fa] قلعه غنجعلیخان افشار Baft County Safavid dynasty
Qermez castle [fa] قلعه قرمز Cheshmeh Shur Qajar dynasty
Qeshm Castle [fa] قلعه قشم Qeshm Island Safavid dynasty
Qomchoqay Castle [fa] قلعه قمچقای Qomchoqay 3rd millennium BC
Qomrud castle [fa] قلعه قمرود Qomrud Safavid dynasty
Qurtan Castle [fa] قلعه قورتان Qurtan Sasanian Empire

REdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Rahmanniyeh castle [fa] قلعه رحمانیه Rahmanniyeh
Rashkan Castle دژ رشکان Ray, Iran Parthian Empire
Rayen Castle ارگ راین Rayen Sasanian Empire
Reshkuiyeh Castle [fa] قلعه رشکوئیه Taft County Qajar dynasty
Rey Castle باروی ری Ray, Iran Medes
Rig castle قلعه ریگ Kashmar Seljuq dynasty
Rostam castle قلعه رستم Hamun County Safavid dynasty
Rudkhan Castle قلعه رودخان Fuman County Sasanian Empire
Rumyan castle [fa] قلعه رومیان Nasirabad

SEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Samabad castle [fa] قلعه سام‌آباد Qomrud Qajar dynasty
Sang castle [fa] قلعه سنگ Sirjan County Sasanian Empire
Sar Yazd Fortress قلعه سریزد Sar Yazd Sasanian Empire
Saru Castles قلعه سارو Semnan Kayanian dynasty
Sefid (Nadushan) [fa] قلعه سفید Meybod County Afsharid dynasty
Seh Kohye castle [fa] قلعه سه کوهه Zabol County Qajar dynasty
Selasal castle [fa] قلعه سلاسل Shushtar Achaemenid Empire
Semiran castle [fa] قلعه سمیران Bahramabad, Qazvin Sasanian Empire
Shahdiz قلعه شاهدژ Nehbandan County Seljuq dynasty
Shafiabad castle [fa] قلعه شفیع‌آباد Shafiabad Qajar dynasty
Shavvaz castle قلعه شواز Shavvaz, Yazd Sasanian Empire
Sheikh Makan Fort قلعه شیخ مکان Sheykh Makan Sasanian Empire
Shir Qaleh [fa] شير قلعة Mehdishahr County Parthian Empire
Shush Castle قلعه شوش Susa Qajar dynasty
Sib and Suran castle قلعه سیب سوران Sib and Suran County Qajar dynasty
Siba Castle قلعه سیبه Bastak County Sasanian Empire
Soltaniyeh castle [fa] قلعه سلطانیه Soltaniyeh 1st millennium BC

TEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Tarq castle [fa] قلعه طرق Tarq, Isfahan Parthian Empire
Tawseelah Castle قلعه توصیله Kukherd Sasanian Empire
Tepe Sialk تپه سیلک Kashan Proto-Elamite
Tis castle [fa] قلعه تیس Tis Safavid dynasty
Tus Citadel قلعه توس Tafresh County Sasanian Empire

VEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Valy Castle [fa] قلعه والی Ilam Qajar dynasty

YEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture
Yazdegerd Castle (Zardeh) [fa] قلعه یزدگرد Zardeh Parthian Empire

ZEdit

Name Persian name Location Founder and Era Picture Notes
Zahhak Castle قلعه ضحاک Arablu, East Azerbaijan Parthian Empire
Zar Bolagh [fa] قلعه زاربلاغ Aliabad, Qom Medes
Zard castle [fa] قلعه زرد Damghan County
Zendan castle [fa] قلعه زندان Deyr County Sasanian Empire
Ziaratgah castle [fa] قلعه زیارتگاه Ziaratgah Qajar dynasty
Zibad castle [fa] قلعه زیبد Zibad
Ziwiyeh تپه قلعه زیویه Ziviyeh 10th century

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "TOP 12 MOST INCREDIBLE CASTLES IN IRAN". Surf Iran. surfiran.com. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  2. ^ "Bam and Arg-e-Bam, Iran". Auroville Earth Institute, UNESCO.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2007-09-20). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139465786.
  4. ^ a b Virani, Shafique N. (2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195311730.
  5. ^ Petrushevskiĭ, Ilʹi͡a Pavlovich (1985). Islam in Iran. SUNY Press. p. 363, Note 40. ISBN 0887060706: The numerical value of the word (الموت) is 483, which is the date of the castle's capture by Hassan-i Sabbah (483 AH = 1090/91 AD).
  6. ^ Hourcade, B. (December 15, 1985). "ALAMŪT". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved February 10, 2013. According to legend, an eagle indicated the site to a Daylamite ruler; hence the name, from aloh (eagle) and āmū(ḵ)t (taught).
  7. ^ Bosworth, C. E. (January 1989). "Review of Books". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. 121 (1): 153–154. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00168108.
  8. ^ "قلعه فلک الافلاک نگین خرم آباد". Young Journalists Club. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  9. ^ Nemati, Mohammadreza; Mousavinia, Mehdi; Sauer, Eberhard; Cereti, Carlo G. (5 March 2019). "Largest Ancient Fortress of South-West Asia and the Western World? Recent Fieldwork at Sasanian Qaleh Iraj at Pishva, Iran". Iran: 1–31. doi:10.1080/05786967.2019.1586449. ISSN 0578-6967.
  10. ^ "Iran's Iraj castle yields new finds". Press TV. 20 October 2008.
  11. ^ "قلعه ایرج پیشوا، بزرگترین قلعه خشتی جهان در آستانه تخریب". IRNA. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  12. ^ "Izad Khast Castle – Abadeh". travital.com. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  13. ^ "Tours to Iran with Iran Tour Package". Iran Tour Package. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  14. ^ Huff, Dietrich (2006). "QALʿA-YE DOḴTAR". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  15. ^ "Saryazd Castle: One of the Greatest, Most Beautiful Castles in Iran - Society/Culture news". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 2019-08-18.