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List of bodies of water by salinity

This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.05%, at or below which water is considered fresh.

Water salinity often varies by location and season, particularly with hypersaline lakes in arid areas, so the salinity figures in the table below should be interpreted as an approximate indicator.

Salinity, g/kg () Name Type Region or countries Refs
433 Gaet'ale Pond Salt lake Ethiopia [1][2]
338 Don Juan Pond Salt lake Antarctica [3]
400 Lake Retba Salt lake Senegal [citation needed]
350 Lake Vanda Salt lake Antarctica [citation needed]
350 Garabogazköl Lagoon Turkmenistan [4]
348 Lake Assal Salt lake Djibouti [5]
337 Dead Sea Salt lake Israel, Jordan, West Bank [6]
317 Great Salt Lake, North Arm Salt lake United States [7]
300 Lake Baskunchak Salt lake Astrakhan Oblast, Russia [8]
85–280 Lake Urmia Salt lake Iran [9]
180 Little Manitou Lake Salt lake Canada [10]
142 Great Salt Lake, South Arm Salt lake United States [7]
120 Lake Abert Salt lake Great Basin, Oregon, United States [11]
88 Mono Lake Salt lake United States [12] (as of 2015)
66 Hamelin Pool Lagoon Australia [13]
44 Salton Sea Salt lake United States [14]
38 Mediterranean Sea Mediterranean sea Southern Europe, Levant, North Africa [15]
36–41 Red Sea Mediterranean sea Egypt, Sudan, Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa [16]
30–40 Lake Natron Salt lake Tanzania [17]
34–36 World Ocean Ocean Worldwide [18]
28–32 Beaufort Sea Marginal Sea North of Alaska and Canada [19]
0.13–31.73 Chilika Lake Lagoon India [20]
13–23 Black Sea Mediterranean sea Eastern Europe, Turkey [21]
23 Lake Van Salt lake Turkey [22]
12.5 Caspian Sea Inland sea Central Asia [23]
11.4 Sarygamysh Lake Salt lake Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan [24]
10 Baltic Sea Marginal Sea Northern Europe [25][n 1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Perez, Eduardo; Chebude, Yonas (April 2017). "Chemical Analysis of Gaet'ale, a Hypersaline Pond in Danakil Depression (Ethiopia): New Record for the Most Saline Water Body on Earth". Aquatic Geochemistry. 23 (2): 109–117. doi:10.1007/s10498-017-9312-z.
  2. ^ "Guinness World Records".
  3. ^ Hammer, U.T. (1986). Saline Lake Ecosystems of the World. Springer. p. 109. ISBN 9789061935353. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  4. ^ Aladin, Nicolai; Plotnikov, Igor (28 June 2004). Lake Basin Management Initiative - The Caspian Sea (PDF) (Report). p. 6. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  5. ^ Woodward, Susan L. "Saline Lakes". Biomes of the World. Radford, Virginia: Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  6. ^ Goetz, P.W. (ed.) The New Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed.). Vol. 3, p. 937. Chicago, 1986
  7. ^ a b White, James S.; Null, Sarah E.; Tarboton, David (2004). "More than Meets the Eye: Managing Salinity in Great Salt Lake, Utah" (PDF). LakeLine (Fall 2004): 25–29. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Bogdinsko-Baskunchaksky - Russian Nature Reserve".
  9. ^ "Lake Urmia". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  10. ^ Little Manitou Lake. The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  11. ^ Solute Balance at Abert and Summer Lakes, South-Central Oregon
  12. ^ Willever, Katherine Lynn (2016). "Biogeochemistry of a Saline, Alkaline, Terminal Lake Ecosystem in Transition; Walker Lake, Nevada". UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones (2817): 15. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  13. ^ Suosaari, Erica; Reid, Pamela; Playford, Phillip; et al. (2016). "New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia". Scientific Reports. 6 (20557): 20557. Bibcode:2016NatSR...620557S. doi:10.1038/srep20557. PMC 4738353. PMID 26838605.
  14. ^ "The Salton Sea". The Salton Sea Authority. October 1997.
  15. ^ "Ocean salinity". Science Learning Hub. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  16. ^ A. Anati, David (March 1999). "The salinity of hypersaline brines: Concepts and misconceptions". International Journal of Salt Lake Research. 8: 55–70. doi:10.1023/A:1009059827435.
  17. ^ The Biology and Culture of Tilapias: Proceedings of the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, p.38
  18. ^ "Ocean salinity".
  19. ^ "Beaufort Sea". Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian).
  20. ^ Indian Journal of Marine Sciences - Variation of Water Quality of Chilika Lake, Orissa
  21. ^ Black Sea - Encyclopedia of Ukraine
  22. ^ Yama, Tomonaga (22 March 2017). "Porewater salinity reveals past lake-level changes in Lake Van, the Earth's largest soda lake". Scientific Reports. 7 (7): 313. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7..313T. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00371-w. PMC 5428207. PMID 28331216.
  23. ^ Lake Basin Management Initiative - The Caspian Sea (2004)
  24. ^ Orlovsky, Leah; Matsrafi, Offir; Orlovsky, Nikolai; Kouznetsov, Michael (2014). "Sarykamysh Lake: Collector of Drainage Water – The Past, the Present, and the Future". The Turkmen Lake Altyn Asyr and Water Resources in Turkmenistan. The Turkmen Lake Altyn Asyr and Water Resources in Turkmenistan. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. 28. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 107–140. doi:10.1007/698_2012_191. ISBN 978-3-642-38606-0.
  25. ^ Long Term Temperature & Salinity Records from the Baltic Sea Transition Zone

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Some bays have considerably lower salinity.

BibliographyEdit