List of birds of Mozambique
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mozambique. The avifauna of Mozambique include a total of 740 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and thirteen are rare or accidental. Twenty species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Mozambique.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mozambique
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Mozambique as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
The ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa. It is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.
The penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- Jackass penguin, Spheniscus demersus
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Mozambique.
The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 8 species which have been recorded in Mozambique.
- Wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans
- Tristan albatross, Diomedea dabbenena
- Black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophris
- Shy albatross, Thalassarche cauta
- Salvin's albatross, Thalassarche salvini
- Indian yellow-nosed albatross, Thalassarche carteri
- Sooty albatross, Phoebetria fusca (A)
- Light-mantled albatross, Phoebetria palpebrata (A)
Shearwaters and petrelsEdit
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
- Antarctic giant petrel, Macronectes giganteus
- Hall's giant petrel, Macronectes halli
- Cape petrel, Daption capense
- Great-winged petrel, Pterodroma macroptera
- Atlantic petrel, Pterodroma incerta (A)
- Soft-plumaged petrel, Pterodroma mollis
- Broad-billed prion, Pachyptila vittata
- Antarctic prion, Pachyptila desolata
- Bulwer's petrel, Bulweria bulwerii (A)
- Jouanin's petrel, Bulweria fallax
- Grey petrel, Procellaria cinerea
- White-chinned petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis
- Great shearwater, Ardenna gravis
- Wedge-tailed shearwater, Ardenna pacificus
- Sooty shearwater, Ardenna griseus
- Tropical shearwater, Puffinus bailloni (A)
Austral storm petrelsEdit
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
Northern storm petrelsEdit
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
Boobies and gannetsEdit
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
- African darter, Anhinga rufa
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
Bitterns, herons and egretsEdit
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
- Grey heron, Ardea cinerea
- Black-headed heron, Ardea melanocephala
- Goliath heron, Ardea goliath
- Purple heron, Ardea purpurea
- Great egret, Ardea alba
- Intermediate egret, Ardea intermedia
- Slaty egret, Egretta vinaceigula
- Black heron, Egretta ardesiaca
- Western reef heron, Egretta gularis
- Little egret, Egretta garzetta
- Squacco heron, Ardeola ralloides
- Madagascar pond-heron, Ardeola idae (A)
- Rufous-bellied heron, Ardeola rufiventris
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Striated heron, Butorides striata
- Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- White-backed night heron, Gorsachius leuconotus
- Dwarf bittern, Ixobrychus sturmii
- Great bittern, Botaurus stellaris
The hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is drab-brown all over.
- Hamerkop, Scopus umbretta
Ibises and spoonbillsEdit
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 8 species which occur in Mozambique.
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Ducks, geese and swansEdit
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
- Fulvous whistling duck, Dendrocygna bicolor
- White-faced whistling duck, Dendrocygna viduata
- White-backed duck, Thalassornis leuconotus
- Egyptian goose, Alopochen aegyptiacus
- Spur-winged goose, Plectropterus gambensis
- Knob-billed duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos
- African pygmy-goose, Nettapus auritus
- African black duck, Anas sparsa
- Cape teal, Anas capensis
- Yellow-billed duck, Anas undulata
- Red-billed duck, Anas erythrorhyncha
- Hottentot teal, Spatula hottentota
- Cape shoveler, Spatula smithii
- Northern shoveler, Spatula clypeata
- Southern pochard, Netta erythrophthalma
- Maccoa duck, Oxyura maccoa
The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eaglesEdit
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
- African cuckoo-hawk, Aviceda cuculoides
- European honey-buzzard, Pernis apivorus
- Bat hawk, Macheiramphus alcinus
- Black-winged kite, Elanus caeruleus
- Black kite, Milvus migrans
- Yellow-billed kite, Milvus aegyptius
- African fish eagle, Haliaeetus vocifer
- Palm-nut vulture, Gypohierax angolensis
- Hooded vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus
- Lammergeier, Gypaetus barbatus
- Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus
- White-backed vulture, Gyps africanus
- Cape griffon, Gyps coprotheres
- Lappet-faced vulture, Torgos tracheliotos
- White-headed vulture, Trigonoceps occipitalis
- Black-breasted snake-eagle, Circaetus pectoralis
- Brown snake-eagle, Circaetus cinereus
- Fasciated snake-eagle, Circaetus fasciolatus
- Banded snake-eagle, Circaetus cinerascens
- Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus
- Western marsh-harrier, Circus aeruginosus
- African marsh-harrier, Circus ranivorus
- Pallid harrier, Circus macrourus
- Montagu's harrier, Circus pygargus
- African harrier-hawk, Polyboroides typus
- Lizard buzzard, Kaupifalco monogrammicus
- Dark chanting-goshawk, Melierax metabates
- Gabar goshawk, Micronisus gabar
- African goshawk, Accipiter tachiro
- Shikra, Accipiter badius
- Little sparrowhawk, Accipiter minullus
- Ovampo sparrowhawk, Accipiter ovampensis
- Rufous-chested sparrowhawk, Accipiter rufiventris
- Black goshawk, Accipiter melanoleucus
- Eurasian buzzard, Buteo buteo
- Augur buzzard, Buteo augur
- Jackal buzzard, Buteo rufofuscus
- Lesser spotted eagle, Clanga pomarina
- Tawny eagle, Aquila rapax
- Verreaux's eagle, Aquila verreauxii
- African hawk-eagle, Aquila spilogaster
- Wahlberg's eagle, Hieraaetus wahlbergi
- Booted eagle, Hieraaetus pennatus
- Ayres's hawk-eagle, Hieraaetus ayresii
- Martial eagle, Polemaetus bellicosus
- Long-crested eagle, Lophaetus occipitalis
- Crowned hawk-eagle, Stephanoaetus coronatus
The secretarybird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by its long crane-like legs.
- Secretarybird, Sagittarius serpentarius
Caracaras and falconsEdit
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
- Lesser kestrel, Falco naumanni
- Rock kestrel, Falco rupicolus
- Greater kestrel, Falco rupicoloides
- Dickinson's kestrel, Falco dickinsoni
- Red-necked falcon, Falco chicquera
- Amur falcon, Falco amurensis
- Eleonora's falcon, Falco eleonorae (A)
- Sooty falcon, Falco concolor
- Eurasian hobby, Falco subbuteo
- African hobby, Falco cuvierii
- Lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus
- Taita falcon, Falco fasciinucha
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Pheasants and partridgesEdit
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.
- Coqui francolin, Peliperdix coqui
- Crested francolin, Dendroperdix sephaena
- Shelley's francolin, Scleroptila shelleyi
- Natal spurfowl, Pternistis natalensis
- Hildebrandt's francolin, Pternistis hildebrandti
- Red-necked spurfowl, Pternistis afer
- Swainson's spurfowl, Pternistis swainsonii
- Common quail, Coturnix coturnix
- Harlequin quail, Coturnix delegorguei
- Blue quail, Excalfactoria adansonii
Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".
Rails, crakes, gallinules and cootsEdit
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 13 species which occur in Mozambique.
- African rail, Rallus caerulescens
- African crake, Crex egregia
- Corn crake, Crex crex
- Black crake, Amaurornis flavirostris
- Little crake, Porzana parva
- Baillon's crake, Porzana pusilla
- Spotted crake, Porzana porzana
- Striped crake, Aenigmatolimnas marginalis
- African swamphen, Porphyrio madagascariensis
- Allen's gallinule, Porphyrio alleni
- Common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
- Lesser moorhen, Gallinula angulata
- Red-knobbed coot, Fulica cristata
Sungrebe and finfootsEdit
Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- African finfoot, Podica senegalensis
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays.
The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young.
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Painted-snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured.
- Greater painted-snipe, Rostratula benghalensis
The crab-plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black-and-white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.
- Crab-plover, Dromas ardeola
- Eurasian oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus
Avocets and stiltsEdit
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Pratincoles and coursersEdit
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Mozambique.
Plovers and lapwingsEdit
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Mozambique.
- Long-toed lapwing, Vanellus crassirostris
- Blacksmith plover, Vanellus armatus
- White-headed lapwing, Vanellus albiceps
- Senegal lapwing, Vanellus lugubris
- Black-winged lapwing, Vanellus melanopterus
- Crowned lapwing, Vanellus coronatus
- Wattled lapwing, Vanellus senegallus
- Black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola
- Common ringed plover, Charadrius hiaticula
- Kittlitz's plover, Charadrius pecuarius
- Three-banded plover, Charadrius tricollaris
- White-fronted plover, Charadrius marginatus
- Chestnut-banded plover, Charadrius pallidus
- Lesser sandplover, Charadrius mongolus
- Greater sandplover, Charadrius leschenaultii
- Caspian plover, Charadrius asiaticus
Sandpipers and alliesEdit
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 24 species which occur in Mozambique.
- African snipe, Gallinago nigripennis
- Great snipe, Gallinago media
- Common snipe, Gallinago gallinago
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata
- Spotted redshank, Tringa erythropus
- Common redshank, Tringa totanus (A)
- Marsh sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis
- Common greenshank, Tringa nebularia
- Green sandpiper, Tringa ochropus
- Wood sandpiper, Tringa glareola
- Terek sandpiper, Xenus cinereus
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus
- Sanderling, Calidris alba
- Red-necked stint, Calidris ruficollis (A)
- Little stint, Calidris minuta
- Pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos (A)
- Sharp-tailed sandpiper, Calidris acuminata
- Long-toed stint, Calidris subminuta (A)
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina
- Broad-billed sandpiper, Calidris falcinellus
- Ruff, Calidris pugnax
- Red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius
Skuas and jaegersEdit
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Mozambique.
Gulls, terns, and skimmersEdit
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls, terns, and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
- White-eyed gull, Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus
- Sooty gull, Ichthyaetus hemprichii
- Kelp gull, Larus dominicanus
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus
- Grey-headed gull, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus
- Black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus
- Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan (A)
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini
- Gull-billed tern, Gelochelidon nilotica
- Caspian tern, Hydroprogne caspia
- Lesser crested tern, Thalasseus bengalensis
- Sandwich tern, Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Royal tern, Thalasseus maximus
- Great crested tern, Thalasseus bergii
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii
- Black-naped tern, Sterna sumatrana
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea
- Antarctic tern, Sterna vittata
- Little tern, Sternula albifrons
- Bridled tern, Onychoprion anaethetus (A)
- Sooty tern, Onychoprion fuscatus
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger (A)
- Whiskered tern, Chlidonias hybrida
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus
- Lesser noddy, Anous tenuirostris
- Brown noddy, Anous stolidus (A)
- African skimmer, Rynchops flavirostris
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- Double-banded sandgrouse, Pterocles bicinctus
Pigeons and dovesEdit
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia
- Speckled pigeon, Columba guinea
- Rameron pigeon, Columba arquatrix
- Delegorgue's pigeon, Columba delegorguei
- Lemon dove, Columba larvata
- Dusky turtle dove, Streptopelia lugens
- African mourning dove, Streptopelia decipiens
- Red-eyed dove, Streptopelia semitorquata
- Ring-necked dove, Streptopelia capicola
- Laughing dove, Spilopelia senegalensis
- Emerald-spotted wood dove, Turtur chalcospilos
- Blue-spotted wood dove, Turtur afer
- Tambourine dove, Turtur tympanistria
- Namaqua dove, Oena capensis
- African green pigeon, Treron calva
Old World parrotsEdit
- Lilian's lovebird, Agapornis lilianae
African and New World parrotsEdit
The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away-birds make up the bird family Musophagidae. They are medium-sized arboreal birds. The turacos and plantain eaters are brightly coloured, usually in blue, green or purple. The go-away birds are mostly grey and white. There are 23 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Mozambique.
Cuckoos and anisEdit
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. The Old World cuckoos are brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Mozambique.
- Pied cuckoo, Clamator jacobinus
- Levaillant's cuckoo, Clamator levaillantii
- Great spotted cuckoo, Clamator glandarius
- Thick-billed cuckoo, Pachycoccyx audeberti
- Red-chested cuckoo, Cuculus solitarius
- Black cuckoo, Cuculus clamosus
- Common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus
- African cuckoo, Cuculus gularis
- Lesser cuckoo, Cuculus poliocephalus
- Madagascar cuckoo, Cuculus rochii
- Barred long-tailed cuckoo, Cercococcyx montanus
- Klaas's cuckoo, Chrysococcyx klaas
- African emerald cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus
- Dideric cuckoo, Chrysococcyx caprius
- Green malkoha, Ceuthmochares australis
- Black coucal, Centropus grillii
- Burchell's coucal, Centropus burchellii
- Senegal coucal, Centropus senegalensis
- White-browed coucal, Centropus superciliosus
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
- African scops owl, Otus senegalensis
- Southern white-faced owl, Ptilopsis granti
- Cape eagle-owl, Bubo capensis
- Spotted eagle-owl, Bubo africanus
- Verreaux's eagle-owl, Bubo lacteus
- Pel's fishing-owl, Scotopelia peli
- African wood-owl, Strix woodfordii
- Pearl-spotted owlet, Glaucidium perlatum
- African barred owlet, Glaucidium capense
- Marsh owl, Asio capensis
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 7 species which have been recorded in Mozambique.
- Eurasian nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus
- Rufous-cheeked nightjar, Caprimulgus rufigena
- Fiery-necked nightjar, Caprimulgus pectoralis
- Swamp nightjar, Caprimulgus natalensis
- Freckled nightjar, Caprimulgus tristigma
- Square-tailed nightjar, Caprimulgus fossii
- Pennant-winged nightjar, Caprimulgus vexillarius
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
- Scarce swift, Schoutedenapus myoptilus
- Mottled spinetail, Telacanthura ussheri
- Bat-like spinetail, Neafrapus boehmi
- African palm-swift, Cypsiurus parvus
- Mottled swift, Tachymarptis aequatorialis
- Common swift, Apus apus
- African swift, Apus barbatus
- Little swift, Apus affinis
- Horus swift, Apus horus
- White-rumped swift, Apus caffer
The mousebirds are slender greyish or brown birds with soft, hairlike body feathers and very long thin tails. They are arboreal and scurry through the leaves like rodents in search of berries, fruit and buds. They are acrobatic and can feed upside down. All species have strong claws and reversible outer toes. They also have crests and stubby bills. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Trogons and quetzalsEdit
The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Mozambique.
- Half-collared kingfisher, Alcedo semitorquata
- Malachite kingfisher, Corythornis cristatus
- African pygmy kingfisher, Ispidina picta
- Grey-headed kingfisher, Halcyon leucocephala
- Woodland kingfisher, Halcyon senegalensis
- Mangrove kingfisher, Halcyon senegaloides
- Brown-hooded kingfisher, Halcyon albiventris
- Striped kingfisher, Halcyon chelicuti
- Giant kingfisher, Megaceryle maximus
- Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Mozambique.
- White-fronted bee-eater, Merops bullockoides
- Little bee-eater, Merops pusillus
- Swallow-tailed bee-eater, Merops hirundineus
- Boehm's bee-eater, Merops boehmi
- Blue-cheeked bee-eater, Merops persicus
- Madagascar bee-eater, Merops superciliosus
- European bee-eater, Merops apiaster
- Southern carmine bee-eater, Merops nubicoides
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Mozambique.
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- Eurasian hoopoe, Upupa epops
The woodhoopoes are related to the kingfishers, rollers and hoopoes. They most resemble the hoopoes with their long curved bills, used to probe for insects, and short rounded wings. However, they differ in that they have metallic plumage, often blue, green or purple, and lack an erectile crest. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured.
- Southern red-billed hornbill, Tockus rufirostris
- Southern yellow-billed hornbill, Tockus leucomelas
- Crowned hornbill, Lophoceros alboterminatus
- African grey hornbill, Lophoceros nasutus
- Pale-billed hornbill, Lophoceros pallidirostris
- Trumpeter hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator
- Silvery-cheeked hornbill, Bycanistes brevis
- Southern ground-hornbill, Bucorvus leadbeateri
The African barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured.
- White-eared barbet, Stactolaema leucotis
- Whyte's barbet, Stactolaema whytii
- Green barbet, Stactolaema olivacea
- Green tinkerbird, Pogoniulus simplex (A)
- Yellow-rumped tinkerbird, Pogoniulus bilineatus
- Yellow-fronted tinkerbird, Pogoniulus chrysoconus
- Red-fronted tinkerbird, Pogoniulus pusillus
- Pied barbet, Tricholaema leucomelas
- Black-collared barbet, Lybius torquatus
- Brown-breasted barbet, Lybius melanopterus
- Crested barbet, Trachyphonus vaillantii
Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey-hunters to bees' nests and, after the hunters have harvested the honey, feeds on the remaining contents of the hive. There are 17 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Mozambique.
Woodpeckers and alliesEdit
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
- Rufous-necked wryneck, Jynx ruficollis
- Bennett's woodpecker, Campethera bennettii
- Reichenow's woodpecker, Campethera scriptoricauda
- Golden-tailed woodpecker, Campethera abingoni
- Green-backed woodpecker, Campethera cailliautii
- Cardinal woodpecker, Chloropicus fuscescens
- Stierling's woodpecker, Chloropicus stierlingi
- Olive woodpecker, Chloropicus griseocephalus
- Bearded woodpecker, Chloropicus namaquus
African and green broadbillsEdit
The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests.
- African broadbill, Smithornis capensis
Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards and are stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates. There are 32 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- African pitta, Pitta angolensis
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Mozambique.
Swallows and martinsEdit
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Mozambique.
- Sand martin, Riparia riparia
- Brown-throated martin, Riparia paludicola
- Banded martin, Riparia cincta
- Mascarene martin, Phedina borbonica
- Grey-rumped swallow, Pseudhirundo griseopyga
- Rock martin, Ptyonoprogne fuligula
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- White-throated swallow, Hirundo albigularis
- Wire-tailed swallow, Hirundo smithii
- Blue swallow, Hirundo atrocaerulea
- Pearl-breasted swallow, Hirundo dimidiata
- Greater striped swallow, Cecropis cucullata
- Lesser striped swallow, Cecropis abyssinica
- Rufous-chested swallow, Cecropis semirufa
- Mosque swallow, Cecropis senegalensis
- Common house martin, Delichon urbicum
- Blue sawwing, Psalidoprocne pristoptera
Wagtails and pipitsEdit
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Mozambique.
- African pied wagtail, Motacilla aguimp
- Cape wagtail, Motacilla capensis
- Yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava
- Mountain wagtail, Motacilla clara
- Yellow-throated longclaw, Macronyx croceus
- Orange-throated longclaw, Macronyx capensis
- Rosy-throated longclaw, Macronyx ameliae
- Striped pipit, Anthus lineiventris
- Woodland pipit, Anthus nyassae
- Plain-backed pipit, Anthus leucophrys
- Buffy pipit, Anthus vaalensis
- African pipit, Anthus cinnamomeus
- Long-billed pipit, Anthus similis
- Short-tailed pipit, Anthus brachyurus
- Bush pipit, Anthus caffer
- Tree pipit, Anthus trivialis
The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured.
Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.
- Common bulbul, Pycnonotus barbatus
- Little greenbul, Eurillas virens
- Sombre greenbul, Andropadus importunus
- Black-browed greenbul, Arizelocichla fusciceps
- Stripe-cheeked bulbul, Arizelocichla milanjensis
- Yellow-bellied greenbul, Chlorocichla flaviventris
- Cabanis's greenbul, Phyllastrephus cabanisi
- Fischer's greenbul, Phyllastrephus fischeri
- Terrestrial brownbul, Phyllastrephus terrestris
- Northern brownbul, Phyllastrephus strepitans
- Grey-olive greenbul, Phyllastrephus cerviniventris
- Yellow-streaked bulbul, Phyllastrephus flavostriatus
- Lowland tiny greenbul, Phyllastrephus debilis
- Eastern nicator, Nicator gularis
Thrushes and alliesEdit
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
Cisticolas and alliesEdit
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub.
- Red-faced cisticola, Cisticola erythrops
- Singing cisticola, Cisticola cantans
- Rock-loving cisticola, Cisticola aberrans
- Rattling cisticola, Cisticola chiniana
- Wailing cisticola, Cisticola lais
- Luapula cisticola, Cisticola luapula
- Rufous-winged cisticola, Cisticola galactotes
- Tinkling cisticola, Cisticola tinniens
- Croaking cisticola, Cisticola natalensis
- Piping cisticola, Cisticola fulvicapillus
- Siffling cisticola, Cisticola brachypterus
- Zitting cisticola, Cisticola juncidis
- Desert cisticola, Cisticola aridulus
- Cloud cisticola, Cisticola textrix
- Pale-crowned cisticola, Cisticola cinnamomeus
- Wing-snapping cisticola, Cisticola ayresii
- Tawny-flanked prinia, Prinia subflava
- Red-winged prinia, Prinia erythroptera
- Roberts's warbler, Oreophilais robertsi
- Bar-throated apalis, Apalis thoracica
- Namuli apalis, Apalis lynesi
- White-winged apalis, Apalis chariessa
- Yellow-breasted apalis, Apalis flavida
- Rudd's apalis, Apalis ruddi
- Black-headed apalis, Apalis melanocephala
- Chirinda apalis, Apalis chirindensis
- Green-backed camaroptera, Camaroptera brachyura
- Stierling's wren-warbler, Calamonastes stierlingi
- Red-capped forest warbler, Artisornis metopias
- Long-billed forest warbler, Artisornis moreaui
- Yellow-bellied eremomela, Eremomela icteropygialis
- Greencap eremomela, Eremomela scotops
- Burnt-neck eremomela, Eremomela usticollis
- Sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
- Eurasian reed warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus
- African reed warbler, Acrocephalus baeticatus
- Marsh warbler, Acrocephalus palustris
- Great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus
- Basra reed warbler, Acrocephalus griseldis
- Lesser swamp warbler, Acrocephalus gracilirostris
- Olive-tree warbler, Hippolais olivetorum
- Icterine warbler, Hippolais icterina
- African yellow warbler, Iduna natalensis
Sylviid warblers, parrotbills, and alliesEdit
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.
Old World flycatchersEdit
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There are 29 species which have been recorded in Mozambique.
- Cape rock thrush, Monticola rupestris
- Sentinel rock thrush, Monticola explorator
- Miombo rock thrush, Monticola angolensis
- Pale flycatcher, Melaenornis pallidus
- Southern black flycatcher, Melaenornis pammelaina
- Fiscal flycatcher, Sigelus silens
- Spotted flycatcher, Muscicapa striata
- African dusky flycatcher, Muscicapa adusta
- Ashy flycatcher, Muscicapa caerulescens
- Grey tit-flycatcher, Myioparus plumbeus
- White-starred robin, Pogonocichla stellata
- Swynnerton's robin, Swynnertonia swynnertoni
- East coast akalat, Sheppardia gunningi
- Thrush nightingale, Luscinia luscinia
- Olive-flanked robin-chat, Cossypha anomala
- Cape robin-chat, Cossypha caffra
- White-throated robin-chat, Cossypha humeralis
- White-browed robin-chat, Cossypha heuglini
- Red-capped robin-chat, Cossypha natalensis
- Collared palm-thrush, Cichladusa arquata
- Bearded scrub-robin, Cercotrichas quadrivirgata
- Miombo scrub-robin, Cercotrichas barbata
- Brown scrub-robin, Cercotrichas signata
- Red-backed scrub-robin, Cercotrichas leucophrys
- African stonechat, Saxicola torquatus
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe
- Capped wheatear, Oenanthe pileata
- Familiar chat, Cercomela familiaris
- White-headed black-chat, Myrmecocichla arnotti
- Mocking cliff-chat, Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris
- Boulder chat, Pinarornis plumosus
- Cholo alethe, Chamaetylas choloensis
- White-chested alethe, Chamaetylas fuelleborni
The wattle-eyes, also called puffback flycatchers, are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Mozambique.
- Livingstone's flycatcher, Erythrocercus livingstonei
The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching.
- Dapple-throat, Arcanator orostruthus
Chickadees and titmiceEdit
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are 59 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Mozambique.
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.
- African spotted creeper, Salpornis salvadori
The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- African penduline-tit, Anthoscopus caroli
Sunbirds and spiderhuntersEdit
The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed.
- Plain-backed sunbird, Anthreptes reichenowi
- Anchieta's sunbird, Anthreptes anchietae
- Western violet-backed sunbird, Anthreptes longuemarei
- Uluguru violet-backed sunbird, Anthreptes neglectus
- Collared sunbird, Hedydipna collaris
- Eastern olive-sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea
- Western olive-sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura
- Mouse-coloured sunbird, Cyanomitra veroxii
- Amethyst sunbird, Chalcomitra amethystina
- Scarlet-chested sunbird, Chalcomitra senegalensis
- Bronze sunbird, Nectarinia kilimensis
- Malachite sunbird, Nectarinia famosa
- Eastern Miombo sunbird, Cinnyris manoensis
- Neergaard's sunbird, Cinnyris neergaardi
- Greater double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris afer
- Forest double-collared sunbird, Cinnyris fuelleborni
- Mariqua sunbird, Cinnyris mariquensis
- Shelley's sunbird, Cinnyris shelleyi
- Purple-banded sunbird, Cinnyris bifasciatus
- White-breasted sunbird, Cinnyris talatala
- Variable sunbird, Cinnyris venustus
- Copper sunbird, Cinnyris cupreus
The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. There are 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
The sugarbirds resemble large sunbirds in general appearance and habits, but are possibly more closely related to the Australian honeyeaters. They have brownish plumage, the long downcurved bill of passerine nectar feeders and long tail feathers. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Mozambique.
- Gurney's sugarbird, Promerops gurneyi
Old World oriolesEdit
The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Mozambique.
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.
Bushshrikes and alliesEdit
Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Mozambique.
- Brubru, Nilaus afer
- Black-backed puffback, Dryoscopus cubla
- Marsh tchagra, Tchagra minuta
- Black-crowned tchagra, Tchagra senegala
- Brown-crowned tchagra, Tchagra australis
- Southern tchagra, Tchagra tchagra
- Tropical boubou, Laniarius major
- Southern boubou, Laniarius ferrugineus
- Bokmakierie, Telophorus zeylonus
- Sulphur-breasted bushshrike, Telophorus sulfureopectus
- Olive bushshrike, Telophorus olivaceus
- Black-fronted bushshrike, Telophorus nigrifrons
- Four-colored bushshrike, Telophorus viridis
- Gray-headed bushshrike, Malaconotus blanchoti
Vangas, helmetshrikes, and alliesEdit
The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name.
The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 2 species which occur in Mozambique.
Crows, jays, ravens and magpiesEdit
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Mozambique.
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
- Wattled starling, Creatophora cinerea
- Cape glossy-starling, Lamprotornis nitens
- Greater blue-eared glossy-starling, Lamprotornis chalybaeus
- Lesser blue-eared glossy-starling, Lamprotornis chloropterus
- Meves's glossy-starling, Lamprotornis mevesii
- Burchell's glossy-starling, Lamprotornis australis
- Black-bellied starling, Notopholia corrusca
- Violet-backed starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
- Red-winged starling, Onychognathus morio
- Red-billed oxpecker, Buphagus erythrorhynchus
- Yellow-billed oxpecker, Buphagus africanus
Weavers and alliesEdit
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season.
- Red-billed buffalo-weaver, Bubalornis niger
- White-browed sparrow-weaver, Plocepasser mahali
- Bertram's weaver, Ploceus bertrandi
- Lesser masked-weaver, Ploceus intermedius
- Spectacled weaver, Ploceus ocularis
- African golden-weaver, Ploceus subaureus
- Holub's golden-weaver, Ploceus xanthops
- Southern brown-throated weaver, Ploceus xanthopterus
- Southern masked weaver, Ploceus velatus
- Village weaver, Ploceus cucullatus
- Forest weaver, Ploceus bicolor
- Olive-headed weaver, Ploceus olivaceiceps
- Red-headed weaver, Anaplectes rubriceps
- Cardinal quelea, Quelea cardinalis
- Red-headed quelea, Quelea erythrops
- Red-billed quelea, Quelea quelea
- Yellow-crowned bishop, Euplectes afer
- Black-winged bishop, Euplectes hordeaceus
- Red bishop, Euplectes orix
- Zanzibar bishop, Euplectes nigroventris
- Yellow bishop, Euplectes capensis
- Fan-tailed widowbird, Euplectes axillaris
- Yellow-shouldered widowbird, Euplectes macroura
- White-winged widowbird, Euplectes albonotatus
- Red-collared widowbird, Euplectes ardens
- Grosbeak weaver, Amblyospiza albifrons
- Parasitic weaver, Anomalospiza imberbis
Waxbills and alliesEdit
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.
- Orange-winged pytilia, Pytilia afra
- Green-winged pytilia, Pytilia melba
- Green-backed twinspot, Mandingoa nitidula
- Red-faced crimson-wing, Cryptospiza reichenovii
- Lesser seedcracker, Pyrenestes minor
- Peters's twinspot, Hypargos niveoguttatus
- Pink-throated twinspot, Hypargos margaritatus
- Red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala
- African firefinch, Lagonosticta rubricata
- Jameson's firefinch, Lagonosticta rhodopareia
- Blue-breasted cordonbleu, Uraeginthus angolensis
- Red-cheeked cordonbleu, Uraeginthus bengalus
- Violet-eared waxbill, Uraeginthus granatina
- Yellow-bellied waxbill, Coccopygia quartinia
- Swee waxbill, Coccopygia melanotis
- Black-tailed waxbill, Estrilda perreini
- Common waxbill, Estrilda astrild
- Zebra waxbill, Sporaeginthus subflavus
- Quailfinch, Ortygospiza atricollis
- African quailfinch, Ortygospiza atricollis fuscocrissa
- Locust finch, Paludipasser locustella
- Bronze mannikin, Spermestes cucullatus
- Black-and-white mannikin, Spermestes bicolor
- Magpie mannikin, Spermestes fringilloides
- Cut-throat, Amadina fasciata
The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finches. There are 20 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Mozambique.
Old World buntingsEdit
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
Finches, Euphonias, and alliesEdit
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
- Cape canary, Serinus canicollis
- Southern citril, Crithagra hyposticutus
- Lemon-breasted seedeater, Crithagra citrinipectus
- Yellow-fronted canary, Crithagra mozambicus
- Brimstone canary, Crithagra sulphuratus
- Reichard's seedeater, Crithagra reichardi
- Streaky-headed seedeater, Crithagra gularis
- Black-eared seedeater, Crithagra mennelli
Old World sparrowsEdit
Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
- Allport, Gary (2017-09-01). "First record of Bulwer's Petrel Bulweria bulwerii for Mozambique". The Bulletin of the African Bird Club. 24: 221–224.
- Allport, Gary (2016-03-01). "First documented record of Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis for Mozambique". The Bulletin of the African Bird Club. 91: 91–94.
- Allport, Gary (2018-03-12). "First record of Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos for Mozambique". The Bulletin of the African Bird Club. 25: 73–74.
- "Home". doi:10.25226/bboc.v138i4.2018.a3. Cite journal requires
- Allport, Gary (June 2018). "Notable recent records of terns, gulls and skuas in southern Mozambique including the first country records of Black Tern Chlidonias niger". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 138 (2): 101–116. doi:10.25226/bboc.v138i2.2018.a5. ISSN 0007-1595.
- Birds of Mozambique - World Institute for Conservation and Environment